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Full text of "The Connecticut magazine"

QENEALOGY COLLECTIOK 



■^ 



, ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01738 8965 



LrENEALOGY 
974.6 
f.7698A 
1901-1902 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/connecticutmagazv7hart 



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Vol. VII. March=April, 1901, 



No. I. ^^ 



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XHE 

GOMNECTICUT 
MAGAZINE 




» 



ILLUSTRATED 
ARTICLES 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOP- 
MENT OF CONNECTICUT 
INSURANCE 

LITERARY LAWN 

BENEDICT ARNOLD 

BIOGRAPHIES OF THE 
GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 

PRESIDENT McKINLEY'S 

TRIBUTE TO 
JOHN ADDISON PORTER 

NORRIS G. OSBORN'S SKETCH 
OF JOHN ADDISON PORTER 




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AM ILLUSTRATED Bl-AONTHLY PublisKod 
in the INTEREST oE the People oEthe State 
oE CONNECTlCU'i: A Popular Historiial An^a/ino 



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$2.00 a Year. HARTFORD, CONN. 35 cts. the Copy. 



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STATEMENT 



Trd^velers 

Insur&.nce Company 

OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

Chartered I863. (Stock.) Life. Accident and Employers 

Liability Insurance. 



JAMES G. BATTERSON. President. 

PAID-UP CAPITAL 

$1,000,000 



JANUARY I. 190I. 
Tot2vl Assets, {^''t^I'htmciSj^S^'') $30,861,030.06 

Total Liabilities (Including Reserves) , . 26,3I7,903>25 
Excess Security to Policy-holders, . . 4,543,126.81 

Surplus, ♦♦♦♦;♦. 3,543,126.81 

Paid to Policy-holders since 1864, . 42,643,384.92 

Paid to Policy-holders in 1900, . . 2,908,464.03 

Loaned to Policy-holders on Policies (Life) 1,586,652.20 

Life Insurance in Force, . . . 109,019,851.00 

GAINS FOR THE YEAR 1900. 

In Assets, $3,167,819.96 

In Insurance in Force (Life Department Only), 8,685,297.06 

Increase in Reserves (Both Departments), {z\% basis) 2,484,392.52 
Premiums Collected, .... 6,890,888.55 



I 



I 



Sylvester C. Dunhdk.m, Vice-President 

John E. Morris, Secretary J. B. Lewis, M. D., Medical Director and Adjuster 

Edward V. Preston, Superintendent of Agencies Hiram J. Messenger, Actuary 



FRED R. LOYDON, Stjvte Agent. Hartford, Conn. 



R. S, Peck &" Co., Printers and Engravers, Hartford, Conn. 



prospectus 
Connecticut Magazine 

FOR I90J-'>^ 

6S6547 



The publishers of THE Connecticut Magazine have secured many writers 
of merit for the year 1901, who will contribute a variety of valuable, illustrated 
articles such as we believe will make it surpass any other volume hitherto 
published. 

A partial list of subjects will be found on next page. Each number will 
also contain at least one Town Article as has been the custom since the magazine 
was first pubHshed. 

In addition the department matter will be given greater prominence, as our 
readers can determine from the following DEPARTMENT PROSPECTUS. 

STATE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 

Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 
As there is no ofl&cial organ that gives news from the different patriotic societies in this State, The Con- 
necticut Magazine has decided to make this a special feature of its work in the future. Minutes of meetings 
and all items of interest will be published. 

HISTORICAL NOTES. 

Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 
The magazine will publish in each issue — beginning with the Jan -Feb. number— the doings of the various 
Historical Societies of the State, which will include, among other things, minutes of meetings, notable acces- 
sions, etc. The four State Societies, namely, the Connecticut Historical Society, the New Haven Colony 
Historical Society, The New I^ondon County Historical Society, and the Fairfield County Historical Society. 
will be represented. This should prove of great value and interest to historians. 



FLORICULTURE AND NATURE STUDIES. 

Conducted by the Rev. Magee Pratt. 

The magazine will continue the article on Floriculture— both in the house and garden— and its Nature 
studies, and will aim to interpret the halt-hidden secrets of forest and field to those who love to understand the 
beauties and mysteries of the world about them. 

Few writers in this sphere of work possess the practical knowledge of the editor of this Department : his 
work is always excellent, and the illustrations will add to the attractiveness of the subject matter. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Conducted by Edwin Stanley Welles. 

It is proposed to enlarge the scope of the Genealogical Department and thus enhance its value and interest. 

An important new feature will be the publishing in every issue of town and church records relating to 
early Connecticut history. These records, carefully copied, will be of great assistance to the genealogical 
student. 

Mr. Welles also proposes to do more than print the genealogical queries and leave it for subscribers to 
answer them as they can. Comments will be appended, and where the inquires have reference to early 
Hartford records, investigations of such records will be made free of charge. 

It is earnestly desired that all subscribers will freely use this department and co-operate with the 
editor in making it of permanent value and worthy of a first-class magazine. 



BOOK NOTES AND REVIEWS. 

Conducted by the Rev. Magee Pratt. 
Greater prominence will be given to this Department. The magazine will aim to give to its readers an 
introduction to all that is best in current thought, which it will try to present in an attractive form to its readers. 



HOME DEPARTMENT. 

The department of the Home will be continued and the aim will be to present the ethics and .othetics o( 
good home life. The magazine will aim to give a description of the ideal home. 





Hon. Joseph R. Hawley. 



Elizabeth Alden Curtis. 






C. H. Smith, Ivlv. D. 




R. Eston Phyfe. 






George S. Godard. 



The Rev. Magee Pratt. 



The Connecticut Magazine. 

O all those who live in Connecticut — whether they 
are dwellers among the ancient hills of her eastern 
and western borders, or whether their homes lie in 
the fertile lands of the central valley — all that per- 
tains to her past history, her present prosperity, or 
her future hopes are alike dear. But it is not these 
alone that love the old State. The sons and daughters that have 
gone out from her narrow borders to take their part in the 
great work of building up a nation, hold in their hearts tender 
memories of the land of their childhood. It is for all her loving 
children, whether far or near, that The Connecticut Magazine 
is designed. 






p. H. Woodward. 



Mabel Ward Cameron, 



Prof. W. H. C. Pynchon. 






Charles Hopkins Clark. 



Florence Peltier Perry. 



Hon, William E- Simonds. 






Kdwin Stanley Welles. 



Rev. Samuel Hart, M. A., D. D. 



The Connecticut Magazine is eminently a Connecticut publica- 
tion, for Connecticut people. It does not seek to discuss matters 
relating to other States or countries. Its mission is to devote its 
energies to the exposition of its own State's interests. While we 
are ready to look on and admire the work of our neighbors — our 
sister States — we feel that our own State needs and is waiting for 
every one of its sons and daughters to lend all their inspiration 
and labor to the furtherance of its destiny, so that it may become 
one of the fairest spots in the world in which to live. 

There is enough of the past history of the State and its present 
greatness to supply material for our pages for many years to come. 
We cordially invite all dwellers in the steady old Commonwealth, 
and those who have gone beyond her borders, to unite with us and 
aid us in making the State's only magazine a power in the land. 




Prof. N. H. Allen. 






H. Phelps Arms. 



Marv K. Talcott. 



Frederick Calvin Norton. 



I T)ie annual report of the condition of 
[the Connecticut Magazine Company on 
iJuly 1, has been filed w!tn the city 
clerk. The capital of the co.-npany is 
$5,000; the directors Frank C. Sunner, 
w Joseph G. Woodward, Albert C. Bates, 
LEdward B. Eaton and H. Phelps Arms. 



PROSPECTUS 



ARTICLES AND WRITERS 



FOR THE 



Connecticut Magazine 

FOR \90\-<>^ 



REV. SAMUEL HART, M. A.. D. D., Vice-Dean 
BerkeJy Divinity Scliool; President Connecticut 
Historical Society. 

" Trinity College." 

•' Yale College in Saybrook." 

CHARLES HOPKINS CLARK, Editor The Hartford 
Courant: 

" A Half Century of Connecticut Politics." 
(Mauy illustrations of olcl-iime ballots will be used.) 

FREDERIC CALVIN NORTON: 

" Biographies of the Governors of Connecticut." 
(With liaif-pai^e portraits of each ) 

C. H. SMITH. LL. D., Larned Professor of Ameri- 
can History, Yale College : 

" Yale College." (Illustrated.) 

PROF. N. H. ALLEN, Organist and Composer : 
" Old Time Music and Musicians." (Illustrated.) 

GEORGE S. GODARD, Librarian Connecticut State 
Library : 

'* The State Library and Some of its Treasures." 
(Illustrated.) 

FLORENCE PELTIER PERRY: 

"Women Poets of Connecticut." (Illustrated.) 

HON. WILLIAM E. SIMONDS : 

" Famous Connecticut Inventors." 

C. A. Q. NORTON : 

*' Lights and Lamps of Early New England." 
(Illuftrated.; A description of one the most valuable col- 
lections of old lamps in the world. 

CHARLOTTE MOLYNEUX HOLLOWAY, Editor 
New London Telegraph : 

" Diamond Cut Diamond." A Story. 

REV. FREDERICK E. SNOW : 

" Rev. Henry Whitfield and the Old Stone House." 

WILLIAM NEWNHAM CARLTON, Librarian of 

Trinity College : 
" Early Connecticut Newspapers ; Their Character 
and Contents." 



CAPT. JOHN M. PARKER : 
" Early Transportation on the Connecticut Rivei 
(Illustrated.) 

HON. L. E. MUNSON : 

" Benedict Arnold." (Illustrated.) 

F. G. MARKHAM: 

• 'Country Life in Connecticut Sixty-five Years Age 

(Illustrated.) 
" Colonial Money." 

E. H. JENKINS. Ph. D., Director Agricuitui 

Experiment Station : 
•• Tobacco Growing in Connecticut." (Illustratec 
H. C. WEAVER : 

" New London as a Ship- Building Center." 

R. ESTON PHYFE, Professor of History, Hartfo 
High School : 

" Roger Sherman." (Illustrated,) 

MRS. FRANKLIN G. WHITMORE, D. A. R: 
" Miniature Painting in the Colonial Period." 

THE REV. MAGEE PRATT : 

" Ancient Connecticut Churches." (Illustratec 

FREDERICK JOHN KINGSBURY : 
" An Ericsson Propeller on the Farmington Canal 
(illustrated.) 

ELIZABETH ALDEN CURTIS : 

Poetry. 
REV. LEWIS W. HICKS : 
" The Town of Wethersfleld, Conn." (Illustratec 

H. PHELPS ARMS, Editor of The Connectic 
Magazine : 

'• Connecticut Artists and their Work." Illustrate 

GENEVIEVE HALE WHITLOCK : 

" Sharps Hill Cemetery." (Illustrated.) 
H. ARTHUR POWELL : 

Poetry. 
REV. E. F. ATWOOD : 

•' Tlie Evolution of the Cooking Stove," 



In addition to the above list the following persons will also contribute articles to the Magazini 
Senator Joseph R. Hawley ; The Rev. Dr. Edwin Pond Parker ; Prof. W. H. C, Pynchon ; Hon. Joseph 
Barbour ; Albert C. Bates, Librarian Conn. Historical Society ; Hon. William A. King ; P. H. Woodwar< 
Wm. Harrison Taylor ; Jabez H. Hay den ; Hon. Francis H. Parker ; W. G. Church ; J. Moss Ives ; Charl 
Franklin Olin ; Henry H. Barrol. Commander, U. S. Navy; Annie Elliot Trumbull ; Lucy B. Sayles ; Emi 
Parmely Collins ; Norris G. Osborn, Editor Nev/ Haven Register ; Mary K. Talcott ; George C. Atwel 
Jessy Trumbull McClellan ; Faith Wadsworth Collins ; Mabel Ward Cameron, and Agnes G. Blanchard. 



$2.00 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE NEXT 

SINGLE COPIES 35 CENTS. 
SEE PUBLISHERS' NOTES. 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE, 



YEAR. 



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Hartford, Conj 



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SSBSSSSSSSSBSS3BSSSS3S3S3S3SESSSBSSSSSSSBSSSSSSSS5SS 



THE GJ 

Connecticut Magazine i 



AN ILLUSTRATED BI-MONTHLY. 

Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, Literature, 

Picturesque Features, Science, Art and Industries. 



MARCH-APRIL, t90J. 



Vol. VII. CONTENTS. No. J. 



John Addison Porter. (Frontispieck.; 

Origin and Development of Connecticut Insurance. 

Illustrated. Frederick Augustus Beits. \\ 

The Song Sparrow. Poem. Herbert Randall. 44 
Literary Lawn. Illustrated by the Warner Photograph Companv. 

Florence Peltier Perry. 45 

Benedict Arnold. Illustrated. Hon. L. PI. Munson. 49 
Biographies of the Governors of Connecticut, 

Illustrated. (First Paper.) Frederic Calvin Norton. f»0 

Fair Maids of Long Ago. Mabel Ward Cameron. 74 

President McKinley's Tribute. 7»; 

John Addison Porter. Norris G. Osborne. 77 

A Tragedy of Nature. Poem. H. Arthur Powell. 80 

Connecticut's Governors and Speakers of the House, 1897- J 899- 1 90 1. SI 

The Real Nick Goodall, in ** Eben Holden.'' Emily Parmely Collins, 82 

Connecticut. Poem. H. N. 84 
Departments : 

Fi.ORicui.TURi:. Rev. Magee Pratt. 85 

Patriotic SociE^fiES. Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 03 

GENKAI.OGIA. Conducted by Edwin Stanley Welles. l>y [J{ 

HiSTORiCAi. Notes. Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 105 fj 

Editoriai, Notes. 1 
PuBi^isHERS' Notes. 

Insurance Companies. 10 



m 



107 In 

108 ^ 



H. Phelps Arms, Editor. H. C. Buck. Business Manager. 

Edward B. Eaton, Advertising Manager. 



All communications shoud be addressed to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, Conn. 
Remittances should be by check, express order, P. O. money order, or registered letter. Money 
by mail at sender's risk. "We promptly acknowledge by postal card all subscriptions received 
by mail. When change of address is desired give both old and new address. Do not subscribe 
of a person unknown to you. Our authorized Agents have full credentials. 



$2.00 a Year. THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE. 35 Cents a Copy. ^ 

NE CO. [n 



Published at 7 Central Row, Hartford, Conn., by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 



COPYRIGHT 1900, BY THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZIN 

"SHSHsasasHSHsasHSHErasssHsasasasHSHSHsaBHSHSHsasasHSHsHS 

Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 



NEW BOOK just issued deals in a 
fascinating manner with European 
Countries and Customs, "OBSERVATIONS" 
is its title, and its author, Ratcliffe 
Hicks. The book has received the highest testimo- 
nials from the reading public. ^^^^^^^^^ 




V%^/W%'%'%^/%^/%/%'%/%'%/V% 



145 West 58th Street, 

New York, Jan. 27, 1900. 

"Observations" is one of the most de- 
lightfully interesting books a man ever placed 
between thumb and fingers. So interested 
did I become in its contents that I sat up 
nntil the "small hours" enjoying the treat, 
or, in other words, remained unsatisfied until 
I had finished the book. 

Edward Quintard, M.D. 



St. Patrick's Church. 
St. Paul, Minn., Feb, 19, 1901. 

I was more than delighted with the book 
" Observations." What struck me, apart from 
its interesting details, was its sobriety of judg- 
ment and what I may call it trueness. I am 
familiar with all the Latin and Teutonic 
languages, so I can appreciate the work. I 
loaned it to others who have traveled exten- 
sively in Europe, and they likewise were 
struck with the justness of your views. I 
read the work all through at one sitting. 

James C. Byrne, 
Ex-Pres. St. Thomas' College. 



Connecticut Agricultural College. 

Storrs, Conn., Feb. 12, 1900. 
I found it so entertaining that I had to 
finish it at a single sitting. 

Geo. W. Fi,tnt, President. 



37 W. 58th St., New York, City. 
It is a most interesting and instructive 
work. It is a classic in simplicity. 

F. F. HOYT, M.D. 



Brown University, 
Providence, March 12, 1900. 
I have read with much interest the book 
of "Observations." I like especially the 
concrete statements, the comparisons of the 
work and social conditions of different peoples 
and the philosophical and fair-minded tone. 
John H. Appleton, Professor. 



Please accept the thanks of the Chamber 

for the present, and my personal thanks for a 

delightful evening spent in reading it. I could 

not put it down until I had finish it. 

Edward M. Green, 

Sec. of American Chamber of Commerce. 



For Sale in Connecticut at the followingf Stores^ 
BELKNAP & WARFIELD, Hartford. THE ED. P. JUDD CO., New Haven. 

HAYES & BETTS, Bridgeport. AUGUST SCHMELZER, Meriden. 

NO YES & DAVIS, Norwich. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



A BOOK for People Interested in 
the History of Connecticut. J> ^ ^ 

COLONIAL 

DAYS AND WAYS 



ASy GATHERED FROM FAMILY PAPERS BY 

HELEN EVERTSON SMITH, 

Of Sharon, Conn. "^TSSJ" 

A unique feature in this attractive book ... is that 
it tells the story of the olden days in episodes from the lives 
of real individuals who took a more or less active part . . . 
The personal atmosphere gives to these pictures of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth century a life and vivid- 
ness and reality that are very strifcing.^^ — Commercial 
Advertiser, N. Y. 

** Miss Smith has an unusual storehouse to draw upon, 
and she has done so with discretion and tact, being neither 
garrulous or self consciously reticent. With singular suc- 
cess she has . . . used her old family records to , . . illus- 
trate a series of narratives of the manner of life in Colonial 
Times.^^ — Spring^ eld Republican. \ 

With a Frontispiece by Harry Fenn and 

Decorations by T. Guernsey Moore. 

8vo, rich binding, 376 pages. Price, $2.50, 



THE CENTURY CO., 

New York. 



THE LAND OF 
SUNSHINE. . . 

THE MAGAZINE 
OF CALIFORNIA 
AND THE WEST 



The onlv magazine really " worth while " published 
on the Pacific coast. Full to the brim every month 
with accurate historical articles, vivid descriptions of 
places and scenery, interesting short stories, events, 
book reviews, and penetrating discussion of men and 
affairs in general. 

A magazine of locality, since its attention is central- 
ized upon Catifornia and the West, yet no educated 
man or woman can fail to find its pages full of 
profit and entertainment. 

Its rich and varied illustration is alone worth many 
times the price of the magazine. 

Published Monthly at 
LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
by ... . 

THE LAND OF SUNSHINE 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Subscription, |i.oo per year. 

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A Central New England and Western Flyer. 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE twTnX a^Ve^er: 

the New York Central Railroads to o^ive a round-trip ticket over these roads from Hartfor 
any point on the (;eutral New England Railroad, to Buffalo and return, to all persons seci 
eighteen (18) yearly subscriptions to the Couneccicut Magazine at $2.00 each. Earn a 
trip in your spare moments. All information to assist in obtaining subscriptions, with pro 
tus and sample copy will be furnished by addressing The Connecticut Magazine, 7 Ce 
Row, Hartford, Conn. 



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No part of Connecticut is so picturesque as that traversed by the Central New England 
Western Railroad. If you have never seen the rugged scenery of Western Connecticut o 
great Poughkeepsie Bridge, you should arrange for transportation over this road. The grar 
of the scenery in this part of the state is famous throughout the country. Thousands of p( 
make tVieir summer homes in Western Connecticut. 

IF YOU DO NOT CARE TO TRY FOR FREE TRIP you can obtain all informatio 
garding rates and train accommodations on the Central New England by addressing V 
MARTIN, General Passenger Agent, Central New England and Western Railroad, Hart; 

Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 




JOHN ADDISON PORTKR. 



The Connecticut Magazine. 



Vol. 7. 



March-April, 1901 



No. I 




THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONNECTICUT 

INSURANCE. 



BY FREDERICK AUGUSTUS BETTS. 



1& 




HE insurance business in the 
State of Connecticut, reach- 
ing back a little more than 
a century, has proved a suc- 
cessful enterprise. This is 
demonstrated by the tenacity 
with which it is pursued. 
Regarded usually as an un- 
substantial investment, underwriting in 
this State has been marked with more than 
the average success that has attended these 
investments in the United States. 

Companies have come and gone, but the 
business today was never more prosper- 
ous. The constancy with which under- 
writing has been followed in Connecti- 
cut proves that it is paying. But the 
more than usual success rewarding their 

3 



great enterprises would not have been jx)s- 
sible but for the good fortune of the 
companies in securing men of keen in- 
sight, good business ability, and thorough- 
going honesty as managers. It is indis- 
putably true that these qualifications have 
been the prime factors in promoting the 
success of underA^i'iting in Connecticut. 

About one huntlred and thirty separate 
insititutions engaged in underwriting 
have been chartered by the General As- 
sembly since the business lii'st started. 
There are a few scattered mutual lire 
companies, but outside of these, the busi- 
ness of insurance in Connecticut is now 
almost confined to the city of Hartford. 
The investors in that city have sustained 
many severe losses ; but it has served to 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



give the experience so much needed in un- 
derwriting, and this intelligence has paved 
the way to success in ventures that fol- 
lowed. Scrupulous integrity in dealing 
with the public has promoted assurance 
in these companies, and, in turn, in- 
creased their business. Merit alone has 
been the moving spirit in the promotion 
of the managers to their present high po- 
sitions in the direction of these great in- 
stitutions. 

In 1901 the life insurance companies had 
assets of |171,865,432.39 and insurance in 
force of 11,091,589,065. The assets of the fire 
companies were |43, 915,497. 68 and the in- 
surance in force $2,954,797,176. This is in- 
deed a wonderful growth from the very 
small beginnings of a little more than a 
century ago. 

FROM SMALL BEGINNINGS. 

When the insurance business started 
in Connecticut, over one hundred years 
ago, the ventures were humble. The 
country "was poor. It was just after the 
Revolution. Fortunes had been [swept 
away and the people had little money to 
invest in insurance companies. There 
were but small exportations and this 
country sent specie to buy goods abroad, 
consequently there was little money. 

In those early days there was little man- 
ufacturing in the State, the chief indus- 
try being the tilling of the soil. The 
chief exports of goods were to the 
West Indies. Two banks were at last 
established: the Hartford Bank and the 
Union Bank of New London. This was 
in 1792. The aid which these banks gave 
led to the establishing of other banks. 
THE FIRST INSURANCE COMPANY. 

This banking business, which was start- 
ed in a small way, was the precursor of the 
insurance business. After the banks were 
established it became apparent that there 
was need of insurance. The new bank es- 
tablished in Hartford was soon followed 
by the organization of the first insurance 
company in the State. This company was 
organized and carried on for years by the 
same men. 

From some statistics of the first com- 
pany and other valuable data, we are in- 
debted to P. Henry Woodward. In his 



m 
O 

w o 






P 25 




'\X' 



a 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



5 



book, "Insurance in Connecticut,'' he 
has given some very interesting informa- 
tion. It is probably the best work ever 
vn"itten in reference to the insurance in- 
terests of Connecticut. 

An office was opened by Sanford & 
Wadsworth, early in 1794, for the pur- 
pose of insuring houses, furniture, mer- 
chandise, etc. The house of Mr. Imlay 
was insured in Policy No. 2, and this was 
the beginning of insurance in Connecti- 
cut. The house was insured for one year. 
This policy is now historical. It was in- 
deed a notable event when this agree- 
ment was executed ; for it was the fore- 
runner of that which was to become an 
immense business in the State. 

The policy referred to was executed by 
Sanford & Wadsworth, "for the Hart- 
ford Fire Insurance Company. ' ' But there 
was at that time no such chartered in- 
stitution. On July 27, 1795, Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, John Caldwell, Sanford & 
Wadsworth, Elias Shipman, and John 
Morgan formed a copartnership "for the 
purpose of underwriting on vessels, stock, 
merchandise, etc., by the firm of The 
Hartford and New Haven Insurance Com- 
pany. ' ' This is undoubtedly the partner- 
ship of the year before enlarged by the 
addition of Elias Shipmanof New Haven, 
who was made agent at that city. John 
Caldwell was appointed agent for Hart- 
ford. Later Mr. Shipman withdrew, estab- 
lished The New Haven Insurance Company 
in 1797, which continued in business until 
1833. These men undoubtedly made up 
the partnership of 1794, known as The 
Hartford Fire Insurance Company. When 
Elias Shipman was admitted in July, 
1795, the name was changed to The 
Hartford and New Haven Insurance 
Company, the word "fire" being design- 
edly omitted as excluding marine risks. 
With the dissolution of the partnership 
of Sanford & Wadsworth in 1798, the 
Hartford and New Haven Insurance Com- 
pany passed away. 

There was a great deal of red tape nec- 
essary in the early years of the business. 
Policies bore from ten to fifteen signa- 
tures and it was difficult to always get 
those signatures. The distribution of 
premiums, after a prosperous voyage, re- 



quired an interview with each subscriber. 
It was suggested that much of this labor 
could be saved by a pooling of issues, and 
in October, 1803, a charter was procured 
for the Hartford Insurance Company. Its 
business was wholly marine, and in the 
early policies it was called The Hartford 
Marine Insurance Company. The capital 
was 180,000 with the privilege to increase 
to $150,000. John Caldwell was elected 
president and Norman Knox secretary. 
Its office was on Pearl street, Hartford. 
In May, 1825, the stockholders were in- 
corporated as The Protection Insurance 
Company. John Caldwell remained pres- 
ident until the company was merged in 
its successor. In addition to the Hart- 
ford and New Haven companies, the Nor- 
wich Marine and the Middletown Insur- 
ance Companies were chartered in 1803, 
and the Union of New London in 1805. 
By the several acts of incorporation the 
business of fire was confined wholly to 
to marine insurance. 

A NORWICH COMPANY. 

In May, 1795, the association was incor- 
porated under the name of The Mutual 
Assurance Company of the City of Nor- 
wich, on the basis of the "deed of settle- 
ment." The company issued policies 
only from the home office and through 
its agency in New London. At the an- 
nual meeting in 1814, the auditors re- 
ported that not only was the guaranty cap- 
ital of 2,000 pounds fully paid up, but a^ter 
ai)propriating |1,054.27 to pay return 
premiums, a balance of $450.93 still re- 
mained in the treasury, subject to the 
order of the directors. The company is 
still in existence. In general the busi- 
ness has been prosperous. Policy No. 1 
is still in force on the house of the late 
Benjamin Huntington. The secretary has 
always been the executive officer. For 
many years he received an annual salary 
of |()0 and it nmv does not exceed $2(XX 
Zachariah Huntington was chosen sec- 
retary in 1794 and Asa Backus, the present 
incumbent, in 187(>. 

The Norwich Marine Insurance Com- 
pany was chartered in 1803. In 181S its 
name was changed to The Norwich 
Fire Insurance Company. In 18(>4 the 



6 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE, 



capital was |300,000. Its losses in the 
Chicago fire of October, 1871, so largely ex- 
ceeded its assets that no attempt was made 
to continue its existence. 
HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE CO. 
The Hartford Fire Insurance Com- 



The bank stock was at a premium and the 
sum of $16,640 was placed to the credit of 
the company, the excess over $15,000 hav- 
ing been borrowed. The company now 
holds five hundred and fifty-six shares of 
the bank stock, representing a cost of $63, 




N. TEKRY, 
President 1810-35. 

pany was incorporated in 
1810. Since the Chicago 
fire of 1871, it has'ranked 
as the oldest stock insur- 
ance company in the State 
of Connecticut. The cap- 
ital was placed at $150,000 
with the privilege' of en- 
largement to $250,000. 

The subscribers met on 
the 27th of June at the 
inn of Amos Ransom and 
organized. General Na- 
thaniel Terry was chosen 
president and Walter 





H. HUNTINGTON, 

President 1849-64. 




E. TERRY, 
President 1835-^9. 

962.75 — considerably less 
than one-fifth of the divi- 
dends received from it. 

Policy No. 1 of the 
Hartford covered a build- 
er's risk of $4,000 for 
three months at twelve 
and one-half cents. With- 
in a-few weeks from birth 
the company was taking 
single risks thirty-three 
per cent, in excess of its 
entire cash assets. 

In 1821 it entered up- 
on a much more vigorous 




T. C. ALLYN, 

President 1864-67. 

Mitchell secretary. The sum of $15,000 
was received for stock and this was in- 
vested in the stock of the Hartford Bank. 



W. MITCHELL, 

First Secretary. 

policy and appointed several additional 
agents. 
The Chicago fire of 1871 destroyed prop- 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



^«%1 'f*.- 




ft HI- 



erty valued at |loO, 
000,000, and while 
the embers were 
still hot it was 
known at the home 
office that the loss- 
es of the Hartford 
would reach nearly 
12,000,000. To an ap- 
peal for help the 
Hartford Bank re- 
plied that it would 
aid to the full ex- 
tent of its resour- 
ces. The Connecti- 
cut Mutual Life also 
loaned the company 
half a million. The 
Hartford settled 
every loss in full, 
paying out |1,968, 
225. The capital was 
reduced to |500,000 
by fresh subscrip- 
tions. 

Out of the profits 
a stock dividend of 
twenty -five per 
cent was declared in 



HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY'S BUILDING. 

1877, raising 
the capital to j 
$1,250,000. At 
that point it 
has still re- 
mained. O n 
the first of 
January, 1901, 
the gross as- 
sets of this 
company were 
$10,920,374 93, 
and the n(»t 
surplus,$3,548, 
179.81. 

Na t h a n i e 1 
Terry was 
president un- 
til 1835, when 
E. Terry was 
elected presi- 
dent and serv- 

MAIN OFFICE HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE CmiPANY. 




CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




Royce is the secretary, Thomas Turn- 
bull and Charles E. Chase, assistant sec- 
retaries. 

THE ^TNA INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The ^tna Insurance Company was in- 
corporated in May, 1819, with a capital 
of $150,000 with the privilege of increas- 
ing it to $500,000. The manner the com- 
pany was formed is told as follows : 

Walter Mitchell, first secretary of the 



GEO. L. CHASE, President. 

ed until 1849. H. Huntington was then 
elected and held the office until 1864, 
when T. O. Allyn 
became the president 
and continued in that 
position until 1867, when 
George L. Chase was 
elected and has served 
ever since. During the 
past thirty-three years 
Mr. Chase has worked 
early and late, and the 
reputation of the Hart- 
ford Fire today in the 
United States is largely 
due to his efforts. P. C. 





THOS. TURNBULL, 
Assistant Secretary Hartford Fire, 




CHAS. E. CHAKE, 
Assistant Secretary Hartto 



P. C. ROYCE, 
Secretary Hartford Fire. 

Hartford Fire, lived in 
Wethersfield, and in the 
early days every resident 
desiring a policy had to 
seek him, and at hours 
to suit his convenience. 
He had a way of closing 
his office at three or four 
o'clock in the afternoon, 
and on Saturday much 
earlier. According to cur- 
rent tradition, merchants 
often inconvenienced by the daily habits 
of Mr. Mitchell, resolved to flank his po- 
sition by forming a new company, and 
hence originated the conception of the 
^tna. 

Subscribers were required to pay for their 
stock within thirty days after the first 
meeting of the corporation five per cent. , 
within sixty days five per cent, more, 
and the remaining ninety per cent, either 
in mortgages on real estate or endorsed 
promissory notes, approved by the pres- 
ident and directors, and payable thirty 
days after demand. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



9 



In the great New 
Tork fire of 1845, 
which swept $6,000, 
OOO of property from 
the business center 
of the Metropolis, the 
Aetna lost $115,000. 
When the news 
reached Hartford, 
Mr. Brace called to- 
gether the directors 
and told them that 
the calamity wonld 
probably exhaust the 
entire resources of 
the company. Going 
to the fire -proof safe 
he took out and laid 




THOS. K. BEACE, 

President 1819-1857. 




on the table the 
stocks and bonds rep- 
resenting its invest- 
ments. Little was 
said, each member 
waiting for some one 
else to take the ini- 
tiative. At length 
the silence was brok- 
en by the question : 

"Mr. Brace, what 
will you do?" 

"Do?" replied he, 
"Go to New York 
and pay the losses if 
it takes every dollar 
there," pointing to 
the package, "and 



LUCIUS J. HENDEE, President 1866-88. 




JOTHAM aOODNOW. Prosidont 18{^-iVi. 



lO 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




THE iETNA FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY'S BUILDING. 

my own fortune besides." 

"Good, good," responded the others. 
"We will stand by you with our fortunes 
also. ' ' 

Such an increase of premium receipts 
followed that in twelve months the Aetna 
was as strong in cash as before. 

Thomas K. Brace was its president, 
1819-1857; Edwin G. Ripley, 1857-1862; 
Thomas A. Alexander, 1862-1866; Lucius 
J. Hendee, 1866-1888; and Jotham Good- 
now, 1888-1892. 

By the Chicago fire of 1871, the Aetna 
lost 13,782,000. To meet the impairment 
the capital was reduced one-half and im- 
Tnediately refilled by cash payments of 
$1,500,000. Thirteen months afterward 
the Boston fire absorbed |1, 635, 067 more, 
and the inroad was made good by a fur- 
ther contribution of $1,000,000 from the 
shareholders, making $2,500,000 furnished 
by ■ them in a year to maintain the tech- 
nical solvency of the company. 

On January 1, 1901, the assets were $13, 
286,405.64, and net surplus, $5,157,615.07. 




WHERE THE ^TNA STARTED BUSINESS. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



II 





E. O. WEEKS, Vice President. 



W. H. KING, Secretary. 



In 1892 William B. 
Claxk was elected pres- 
ident and the company 
has continued under 
his able management 
with that progressive 
spirit, which, from the 
start, characterized it. 
The other officers are 
E.O. Weeks, vice-pres- 
ident ; H. H. King, 
secretary, and A. O. 
Adams and Henry E. 
Rees, assistant secre-. 
taries. 




THE CONNECTICUT 
FIRE INS. CO. 

This institution was 
organized in June, 
1S50, with a capital bf 
1200,000, of which ten 
per cent, was paid in 
cash and ninety per 
cent, in stock notes. 
Benjamin W. Greene 
was elected president 
ancl John B. Eldredge 
was appointed secre- 
tary. In October, ISO,'). 
Mr. Greene resigned 



WM. B. CLAEK, President .Etna Fire. 





A. C. ADAMS, Assistant Secretary iEtna Fire. HENRY E. REES, Assistant Sivrotary .V.tna Kiiv. 



12 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



and Mr. Eldredge was elected president. presidency, October 11, 1880, to [take the 

After the Chicago fire the Connecticut general management for the United States 

reorganized with a fully paid capital of of The Lion Fire and Scottish Union and 




BENJAMIN W. GREENE, 

President 1850-65. 



JOHN B. ELDRIDGE, 

President 1865-73. 



MARTIN BENNETT, 

President 1873-80. 



$500,000. A year later the Boston con- National Insurance Companies. Mr 
flagration called for $132,580, but within Brewster also resigned the same day. On 
a few weeks the premium income more the 16th of October J. D Browne was 




THE CONNECTICUT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY S BL'lLDlNa. 

than repaid the loss. elected president. 

After twenty years of continuous and Since the date of reorganization in 1871, 

faithful service Mr. Bennett resigned the the history of the Connecticut is the record 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



13 




VAULT OF CONNECTICUT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 



of uninterrupted progress, which, though 
bare of dramatic incidents, is of a kind 
to bring contentment to patrons and solid 
satisfaction to shareholders. 
The capital stock is now |1, 000, 000. The 



The home office of the company was 
completed in 1885, and is located on Pros- 
pect street. 

Charles R. Burt, the secretary, has been 
connected with the company as an agent 




JOHN D. BROWNE, 

President. 



CHAS. R. BURT, 
Secretary. 



L. W. CLARK. 

Assistant Senvtary. 



company has been ably managed by Mr. 
Browne, and Jan. 1, 1901, had assets of 
$3,869,451.75, net surplus, $1,068,839.71. 



XH-evious to 1865, which year ho became 
clerk, and was elected secretary iu 1873. 
L. Walter Clark is assistant secretary. 



14 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




EXCHANGE CORNER, HARTFORD, SHOWING OFFICE FORMERLY OCCUPIED BY THE 
CONNECTICUT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 



V-ioo. 



{^HU^. ^/j:/^/. 






^/Wi^ut^ yW^^^^ ^/fcrvrtUi^^ 



IiZ^c,^. 






^r~igL£A<v*A 










r 



BStDSH orrtJE -PElJflZ IHWiAS; 



of Haul Co., through J^AQ. /O-A^p^ Agent ai J^U^^y^ '^-^iifiU 

i.f. heini in- fuU of oM^ rMwMs j^wl (k>nanM /(tr loss or damage u,mUr Volicij 
Xo/o.iS'Tj Usiied at the ^^^Jj^ka^cjx^m 'y^Xx^ Aieivcy of iiw, soul Compuaij, 



'(^-tti I; 

T -H Fo^ VvW 



7M«42 Triptieate ttee^tpUp 



RECEIPT FOR LOSS— FIRST PAYMENT AFTER CHICAGO FIRE 
MADE BY-THE PHCENIX INSURANCE COMPANY. 



THE PHCENIX (FIRE) 

ms. CO. 

In 1853 the iate Henry 
Kellogg, bookkeeper of The 
Connecticut Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, select- 
ed the corporators of The 
Phoenix (Fire) Insurance 
Company of Hartford, drew 
the charter and saw it safely 
through the Legislature. 
The capital was placed at 
not less than |100,000 with 
the privilege of increase to 
any sum not exceeding 
$300,000. Stock to the 
amount of |100,000 was sub- 
scribed at once. Before the 
adjournment of the first 
stockholders' meeting it was 
voted to increase the capital 
to 1200,000. 

In a room in the old 
Union Hall building 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



15 



that stood on the present 
site of the Connecticut Mu- 
tual' s handsome structure, 
the Phoenix was organized. 
After several removals, be- 
cause of its rapidly growing 
business, it was found nec- 
essary to erect an office- 
building ; and in November, 
1873, the company moved 
into its new, ample quarters 
at 64 Pearl street. 

In 1871 the Phoenix had 
accumulated over |1, 900,000 
of solid assets which ena- 
bled it to pay in full its 
losses'at the disastrous Ohi- 




NATHANIEL H. MORGAN, 

President 1854-55. 



claim. Governor Jewell, not 
less prompt to act than 
quick to see, lost no time 
in making known the pur- 
pose of the company. 
Mounted on a dry-goods 
box, with a smile in itself 
a benediction, he announced 
that the Phoenix would pay 
all losses in full and offered 
to draw his check on the 
spot for any claim ap- 
proved by H. M. Magill, 
general agent of the western 
department. Shortly Policy 
No. 10,752 for |10,000 was 
presented by Isaac C. Day, 




SIMEON L. LOOMIS, 
President 1855-63. 

cago fire. At the request of 
President Kellogg, Marshall 
Jewell, a large stockholder 
and director, happening to 
be in Detroit at the time, 
hurried to Chicago to look 
after the interests of the 
company. On the morning 
of October 13th, Governor 
Jewell stood on the banks 
of the Chicago river, over- 
looking three thousand 
flame-swept acres from 
which a mighty city had 
vanished. Aware that the 
Phoenix had both the means 
and the will to meet every 





GEO. H. BURDICK, 

Secretary 1888-96. 



HENRY KELLOGG, 
President 1863-91. 

when, as director, Mr. Jew- 
ell drew on the company for 
the full amount, loss inter- 
est for two months, the 
term allowed for payment. 

Though the remarks of 
Governor Jewell contained 
no suggestion of oratorical 
display, no other speech 
ever delivered in the Lake 
City compressed into a few 
words so much cheer and 
helpfulness, or changed so 
quickly and effectively the 
temper of the people. The 
draft bears the date of Octo- 
ber 13, 1871. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



Iminediately The Trilmne dropped from 
its window a placard, announcing that the 
Phoenix of Hartford had begun to pay its 
losses in full. As the news spread from 
one to another, the multitude cheered 
and cried and laughed by turns. From 
overburdened hearts the vapors began to 
roll away — as even then clouds of smoke 
were drifting from the scene — and [as if 
her baptismal name had 
been selected in anticipation 
of the event. Both company 
and city rose from the 
ashes stronger than before. 

Nathaniel H. Morgan was 
president of the Phoenix \ 
from 1854 to 1855; Simeon 





THE SECURITY INS. CO. 
The Security Insurance Company of 
New Haven, was chartered in 1841 as the 
Mutual Security, but two years later 
the mutual feature was abandoned. The 
capital was |50,000 and increased at dif- 
ferent times until 1875 when it was $200, 
000. This company fortunately escaped 
the Chicago and Boston fires. 

From 1841 to 1872 the com- 
pany did mainly a marine 
business. After that time it 
reduced its marine business 
and increased the fire busi- 
ness. 

The presidents have been : 
Joseph H. Clarke, Theron 



D. W. C. SKILTON, 
President. 



J. H. MITCHELL, 

Vice-President. 

L. Loomis, 1855-1863, and 
Henry Kellogg 1863-1891. 
William B. Clark succeeded 
Mr. Kellogg as secretary in 
1863. In 1867 Mr. Clark 
went to the ^tna and was 
succeeded as secretary by D. 
W. C. Skilton. Mr. Skilton 
was elected vice-president 





JOHN B. KNOX, 

Assistant Secretary, 



and acting-president in 1888. He has 
had much to do with the success of the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters of 
which he was president for three years. 

The Phoenix on Jan. 1, 1901, had 
assets amounting to 15,583,491.25 and net 
surplus of $1,242,549.93, and has paid in 
losses over $46,000,000. J. H. Mitchell is 
vice-president, Edward Milligan, secre- 
tary, and John B. Knox, assistant secre- 
tary. 



EDWAKD MILLIGAN, 

Secretary. 

Towner, Justus Harrison, 
William Lewis, Willis Bris- 
tol, John S. Griflfing, and 
Charles Peterson. The pres- 
ent president is Charles S. 
Leete, and the present sec- 
retary and manager is Her- 
bert Mason, who has so suc- 
cessfully managed this com- 
pany from 1871, that it has assets, Jan. 
1, 1901, to theamountof $968,985.81, and 
surplus of $162,566.39. The capital stock 
is $300,000. 
THE MERCHANTS' AND THE NA- 
TIONAL FIRE INSURANCE CO. 
The Merchants' Fire Insurance Com- 
pany was chartered in 1857 with a capi- 
tal of $200,000 to $500,000 as suited the 
management. Such was the eagerness 
of the public to take a hand in the venture 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



that 5,516 shares, $551,600, 
were at once applied for, and 
two days later the corporation 
sealed the subscriptions to 
$300,000. Mark Howard was 
elected president and E.Thom- 
as Lobdell, secretary. 

In October, 1871, came the 
Chicago fire with losses of 
$1,075,643, or over five times 
the amount of its capital, and 
nearly a half million in excess 
of its entire assets. And thus 
a company of stainless record 
and brilliant promise was 
forced out of existence. 

An act had been passed in 
1869 incorporating The Na- 
tional Fire Insurance Compa- 
ny and it was now decided to 
continue the business of the 
Merchants' through an en- 
tirely new company organized 
under this charter. At the 
first meeting of the stockhold- 
ers it was voted to increase 
the capital from $200,000 to 
$500,000. Mark Howard was 
elected president and James 
Nichols, secretary. 





BUILDING AND MAIN OFFICE OF TllK TIUKNIX I^Sl•KA^^K lOAllANY 



i8 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




During the 
first eleven 
months of bu- 
siness the Na- 
t i o n a 1 i n- 
creased its 
assets to |623, 
000. Then f ol- 

^^^^^h&^'!^ lowed the 

^^^^^^SHf^V Boston fire 

^^^^^^^^k^ ft-' '< k wi^^ losses of 
^IH» ^^ 1161,000. To 
^■^^^■jJ^B^ meet the 
^^^|^H|^^^ eme r g e n c y 

the capital 
was reduced 
to 1350,000 and at once restored to the 
former figures. From that day on, its 
success and growth have been uninter- 
rupted. In January, 1888, the National 
reinsured the Washington Fire and Ma- 
rine Insurance Company of Boston on all 
their business in the United States, ex- 
cept in Connecticut, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Mary- 



MARK HOWARD, 

President 1871-87. 



land. In 1887 Mr. Nichols was elected 
president. 

The company has a fine office-building 
on Pearl street. 

By the persistent effort of its president 
and able assistants it has increased its bus- 
iness, and Jan. 1, 1901, it had assets of 
14,851,789.34, net surplus $1,533,879.71. 
B. R. Stillman is secretary and R. A. 
Smith assistant secretary. The capital of 
the company is $1,000,000. 

THE CHICAGO FIRE. 
The great fire in the city of Chicago 
bore heavily upon the Connecticut insur- 
ance companies. Excepting alone those 
of Chicago, on no companies, in propor- 
tion to numbers, did the great disaster 
bear more heavily than upon those of our 
own State. Of the eleven Connecticut 
companies involved in Chicago, viz : the 
Aetna, Hartford, Phoenix, City, Charter 
Oak, Connecticut, Merchants', North 
American, Putnam, Norwich, and Fair- 
field County, only four, the first three and 
last one named, survived with the ability 







Riiiiiini 







iii; N AIIONAL FIRE INS(;i;AN(Jl': COMPANY S BCIJ.DlNa. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



19 




MAIN OFFICE NATIONAL FIEE INSURANCE COMPANY. 



to pay losses in full. The aggregate Chi- 
cago loss to these companies was a lit- 
tle over eleven millions. The honorable 
and business-like manner in which those 
companies met the exactions of this 
■emergency secured to each an enviable po- 
sition in the insurance field that cannot 



fail to commend them to the confidence of 
the insuring public. 

THE BOSTON FIRE. 

Eight companies, the Aetna, Connecti- 
cut, Fairfield County, Hartford, Merideu, 
National, Orient, and Phoenix, were in- 




JAMES NICHOLS, 
President. 



B. E. STILL]\rAN. 
Secretary. 



H. A. SMITH. 

Af*!<istant Sooretary, 



20 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



volved in the great Boston fire in amounts 
ranging from $30,000 to |1, 623, 600 and ag- 
gregating 13,222,326. This loan was sub- 
sequently reduced by salvages to |2,990, 
275. Although all of the companies were 
seriously affected by this reverse, none 
were crippled to an extent requiring a sus- 
pension of business. The promptness 



that had suffered so recently in Chicago^ 
to meet this second severe strain, justly 
excited a reasonable State pride in the 
resources of those old and well-tried Con- 
necticut institutions. 

OTHER COMPANIES. 
The Hartford County Mutual was in- 




f^ f^ 



0^ 0^. 




MIDDLESEX MUTUAL ASSUKANOE COMPANY'S BUILDING, MIDDLETOWN. 



with which all the Connecticut compan- 
ies involved announced their readiness 
to pay losses in full and amply protect 
their policy-holders, at whatever sacri- 
fice, had no small effect in restoring 
confidence and preventing a panic in the 
insurance world ; while this manifesta- 
tion of the ability of those companies, 



corporated in May, 1831, for the purpose 
of insuring houses and other buildings 
in the county of Hartford. David Grant 
was elected president and Elisha Phelps 
secretary. In 1842 the losses mounted up 
to 13,269.14, and at the close of the fiscal 
year the directors were confronted with a 
small deficit. Not till 1853 ^was the com- 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



21 



pauy permitted to insure buildings within 
the city of Hartford. The company takes 
only the safer class of risks, as dwellings 
and farm-buildings and their contents. 
The presidents have been : David Grant, 
1831-1838; Daniel St. John, 1838-1844; 
Charles Shepard, 1846-1867 ; D. D. Ewing, 
1867-1873; Julius Oatlin, 1873-1874; 
Walter H. Havens, 1874-1876; James B. 
Shultas, 1876-1880; William E. Leyden, 
1880. The secretaries were : Elisha 
Phelps, one month in 1831 ; Charles Shep- 
ard, 1831-1844; R. A. Ewing, 1844-1853; 
D.D. Ewing, 1853-1867 ; William A.Ewing, 
1867. The present officers are : William E. 
Sugden, president and treasurer ; James 
Ij. Howard, vice-president, and William 
A. Irving, secretary. On January 1, 1901, 
the company's assets were |710,000, and 
they had a surplus of |627,437.36. 

THE MIDDLESEX MUTUL ASSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY. 

Not the oldest, but the largest of the mu- 
tual insurance companies of the State, 
in business and assets, is The Middlesex 
Mutual Assurance Company of Middle - 
town. The presidents have been as fol- 




O. VINCENT COFFIN, 
President. 



lows : Richard Hubbard, 1836-1839 ; Sam- 
uel Cooper, 1839-1854 ; William S. Camp, 
1856-1866; William D. Willard, \ms- 
1867; William R. Galpin, 1867-1879; 
Elijah Ackley, 1879-1883; John N. 
Camp, temporary ; O. Vincent Coffin, 1884. 
The secretaries have been: John L. 
Smith, 1836-1838; William Woodward, 
1838-1849; Stephen Taylor, 1849-1856; 
William Woodward, 1856-1866; John W. 
Hoyt, 1866-1867; H. F. Boardman, 1867- 
1882 ; C. W. Harris, 1882. 

The company insures dwellings, prin- 
cipally, and the business is confined to 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. Under 
the administration of the president, ex- 
Governor Coffin, the business has in- 
creased, and in January 1, 1901, the sur- 
plus of the company was 1645,821.96. 

The New London County Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company was organized July 1, 
1840, and has won a secure position. 

Nearly forty mutual fire insurance com- 
panies from time to time have been char- 
tered by the General Assembly. Janu- 
ary 1, 1900, there were seventeen in ex- 
istence and they were incorporated as 
follows : 

Mutual Assurance of Norwich, 1795; 
Windham County Mutual, 1826 ; Tolland 
County Mutual, 1828; Hartford County 
Mutual, 1831 ; Litchfield Mutual, 1833 : 
Middlesex Mutual Assurance, 1836 ; New 
London County Mutual, 1840; Danbury 
Mutual, 1850 ; Farmers' Mutual, 1853 : 
Farmington Valley Mutual, 1854 ; Madi- 
son Mutual, 1855 ; Greenwich Mutual, 
1855 ; Harwinton Mutual, 1856 ; Washing- 
ton Mutual, 1862; State INIutnal, 1S67 : 
Rockville Mutual, 1868; and Patron's 
Mutual 1888. 

In 1901, the fire insurance in force of 
seven stock companies was ^2,860,913,302, 
and of twelve mutiial companies, $93,883. 
874. The assets of stock companies wore 
142,010,289.50, and of the mutual com- 
panies |1, 905, 208. 18. 

SCOTTISH UNION AND NATIOiSAL, 
AND LION FIRE INS. CO. 

In 1880 The Scottish Union and Nation- 
al Insurance Company of Edinburgh, ami 
the Lion Fire of London, opened Ameri- 
can headquarters in Hartford under the 



22 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE, 




JAMES H. BEEWSTER, 

United States Manager. 

management of the late Martin Bennett. 
The companies have done a large busi- 
ness in this country and have special char- 
ters granted by the Connecticut Legislat- 
ure, under which they have the right to 
operate at any time w^hen the manage- 
ment may desire. 



James H. Brewster, the United States 
manager of these companies, has secured 
commodious quarters in the new building 
of The Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, and will occupy them this sum- 
mer. 

THE ^TNA INDEMNITY COMPANY. 

The ^tna Indemnity Company was char- 
tered in 1897 to do a fidelity, surety, and 
plate-glass business, with a capital of 
1250,000. R. A. Griff ing, president, and 
E. S. Pegram, secretary. 

The principal business of the company 
has been the furnishing of bonds. 

On Jan. 1, 1901, F. T. Maxwell was elect- 
ed president ; Senator Maxwell resides in 
Rockville, and is a well-known business 
man representing the twenty-third Sena- 
torial district in the present Legislature. 

Mr. Pegram has been the secretary since 
the company organization. 

THE NATIONAL ASSURANCE COM- 
PANY OF IRELAND. 

The United States branch of The Na- 
tional Assurance Company of Ireland was 
admitted to do business in this State, 
July, 1899. George E. Kendall is the 
United States manager, with headquarters 
at Hartford. 




MAIN OFFICE SCOTTISH UNION AND NATIONAL AND LION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



23 



THE ORIENT IN- 
SURANCE CO. 
In May, 1867, the 
charter of The Ori- 
ent Insurance Com- 
pany, of Hartford, 
was granted by the 
Legislature of Con- 
necticut. The com- 
pany did not organize 
until Nov. 23, 1871. 
It was the lineal suc- 
cessor of The City 
Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, which was 
blotted out of exist- 
ence in the holocaust 
at Chicago. The cap- 
ital was $2,000,000 
with the privilege of 
doing business on a 
minimum of |500,000 
In paying the losses 
a t Chicago there 
were enormous drafts 
upon the resources of 
Hartford and the corporators thought best 
to begin with half a million dollars and ^to 
increase as the growth of business might 
demand. 

The first officers were : Charles T. Web- 
ster, president; Selden C. Preston, vice- 
president ; and George W. Lester, secre- 
tary. These gentlemen held similar posi- 
tions in the City Fire, whose agency Kyp- 




G. MCILWAINE, JR, 

President. 



tem" the Orient pro- 
ceeded to adopt. 

The first policies 
were written Janu- 
ary 1, 1872, and a fine 
business was assured 
from the outset. The 
Boston fire came ten 
months later, which 
took $164,000 from 
the Orient. It was 
indeed a heavy blow 
to a small company at 
the beginning of its 
career, but the com- 
pany met every obli- 
gation by sight drafts 
— paying all losses 
in full. 

The capital was 
now reduced to S350, 
000. Then in Janua- 
ry, 1875, an extra div- 
idend of $50,000 in 
cash was declared 
and sinmltaneoiisly 
the treasury so as to 
to $400,000. The pro- 
cess was repeated in 1876 and in 1877, 
when, out of earnings, the capital was 
was fully restored to its original figures. 
In 1881 the capital was raised by cash sub- 
scriptions to $1,000,000, and afterward re- 
duced to $500,000, the amount of the cap- 
ital at present. 



turned back into 
raise the capital 




4 



CHAS. B. WHITING, 
Vice-President. 



X 



ja:mks wypku 

Sei-nnary. 




HOWARD W. COOK. 
Assistant Stvivtnry. 



24 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



During the past year 
The Orient Fire Insur- 
ance Company has 
been purchased by The 
London and Lancash- 
ire Fire Insurance '• 
Company of Liverpool, ^,v.' 
England. It was^^/ 



brought about by the::'>-v.'%^^ 
resident manager . m j- •^:i,^: 
this country, Archi- 
bald G. Mcllwaine, 
Jr. The Norwalk Fire 
has been absorbed by 
the same company, 
having been merged 
with the Orient. The 
officers are : A. G. Mc- 
llwaine, Jr. , president. 




J. M. ALLEN, 

President. 



Charles B. Whiting, 
vice-president, James 
Wyper, secretary, and 
Howard W. Cook, as- 
sistant secretary. Jan- 
uary 1901, the assets 
^ '^#;^\^V ^^'^^ 12,317,344.40, and 
r-, T '- V- "'r/^ net surplus $644,041.36. 

'^ THE HARTFORD 
STEAM BOILER IN- 
SPECTION AND 
INSURANCE CO. 

A charter was pro- 
cured in 1866 incor- 
porating The Hartford 
Steam Boiler Inspec- 
tion and Insurance 
Company "for inspect- 





L. B. BRAINERD, Treasurer. 



L. r. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




GEO. E. KENDALL, 
r. S. Manager National Assuianc? Co. of Ireland. 

Ing steam boilers and for insuring 
against loss or damage to property arising 
from explosion or other accident in the use 
of steam boilers." The capital stock was 
to be not less than $200,000, and not more 
than $1,000,000. Enoch C. Roberts was 
•elected president and H. H. Hayden, sec- 
retary. 

At the outset the company was not suc- 
cessful in this new branch of insurance, 
and at one time it looked as if it must 
give up its business. On Sept. 16, 1867, 
J. M. Allen was elected president, and at 
a meeting in 1868 a vote of confidence was 
given to IMr Allen for the improved con- 
dition of the company. 

In the early years of this company its 
progress was slow, but it has adhered to 
the simple theory that explo.sions under 
experienced engineers have been due to 
boiler defects, which can be discovered 
and remedied by frequent inspection. 
Acting on this theorj^ the company has 
been more successful in arresting these 
fearful catastrophies than all the experts 
in the country. 

The company furnishes to the insured 
plans for j-pecifications and setting of 



boilers, not only .^^^aving a large expense 
in the beginning, but as.^uring safety in 
the future 

The true secret of the wonderful growth 
of this company is due to its president. 
The management of few institutions has 
given better evidence of conservatism. 
Mr. Allen has alwaj's insisted on a high 
standard of examinations, which, to a 
large extent, has helped make the company 
so successful. The capital stock is 
§500,000. On Jan. 1, 1901, it had a.^sets 
of $2,701,027.06 and net surplus of $621, 
740.85, and during 1900 it made 284,805 
inspections. 

J. M. Allen is president, William B. 
Franklin, vice-president, Francis B. Allen, 
2d vice-president, J. B. Pierce, .secretary, 
L. B. Brainard, treasurer, and Louis F. 
Middlebrook, assistant secretary. 
THE CONNECTICUT MUTUAL LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Early in 1846 James L. Howard took 
thirty applications for policies in the Mu- 
tual Benefit in two months. Very quick- 



^. 



Vl.|,|iaJLiL!|ti ■ ■■lis 



| ^ ~ ';ir - yi > i'^'vi r >'a ^' iiiy ' g 



fcV -i K^ ' i>-Q^j i> ij» » ^ . g^ 



Is'fflteffii 




F.cr Kirv 



NsriJ.VMK COMPANY S HI 
NEW HAVEN. 



26 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




MAIN AND PEARL STREETS IN THE SIXTIES, 

Showing Site of the Present Handsome Buildings of The Connecticut Mutual Life and Phoenix (Fire) In- 
surance Companies, and the old Home Office of The Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company. 





JAMES GOODWIN, 
President 1848-66 ; 1869-78. 



GUY R. PHELPS, 

Pr-esident 1866-69. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE 



27 




JACOB L. GREENE, 
President. 




JOHX M. TAYLOR, 
Vk-e-President. 



6S6547 



ly the familiar arguments in 
favor of life insurance pene- 
trated the community. A 
charter incorporating The 
Connecticut Mutual Life In- 
surance Company was drawn 
up and passed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly at the May ses- 
sion in 1846. The corporators 
met at the Eagle Hotel, and on 
August 11, 1846, Eliphalet A. 
Bulkeley was chosen presi- 
dent, Guy R. Phelps, secre- 
tary, and David S. Dodge, phy- 
sician. A guaranty fund of 
$50,000 was raised. Isaac 
Toucey, afterward governor. 
United States senator, and 
secretary of ^the Navy, was ap- 
pointed first legal counsellor. 
Major James Goodwin, who 
was president of the com- 
pany for twenty-seven years, 
deserves a great deal of credit 
for the influence he exercised. 
Mr. Goodwin was a tower of 
strength and always had in 
mind that which would build 
up the company, make it 
strong and substantial, and 
conserve the interests of the 
policy-holders. This company 
being one of the oldest in the 
United States, exerted a great 




HOME OFFICE BTTILDINU OF THE CONNECTICUT MITIM. 
LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 



28 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




HERBERT H. WHITE, 

Secretary. 



DANIEL H. WELLS, 

Actuary. 



GEORGE R. SHEPHERD, 

Medical Director. 



influence on all insuance interests by its 
conservative methods. Many who have oc- 
cupied positions of trust with this com- 
pany have identified themselves with 
other insurance companies, carrying into 
them the principles which characterized 
the Mutual Life. 

Major James Goodwin was president 
from 1848 to 1866 and from 1869 to 1878. 

General Phelps was president from 1866 



to 1869. He was born in Simsbury, Conn. , 
and was graduated from the Yale Medical 
School in 1825. During his long connec- 
tion with the Connecticut Mutual his ser- 
vices were of inestimable value to the 
company. Col. Jacob L. Greene was elected 
president in 1878, and has remained at the 
head of this great institution ever since. 
He has continued the conservative and 
sound management. Colonel Greene in 




CONNECTICUT MUTUAL LIFE BUILDING AS IT NOW APPEARS. 
Showing the Magnificent Eight-Story Building Recently Erected Adioining the Old Building. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



29 





E. A. BULKELEY, 
President 18.50-7-2. 



T. O. ENDEKS. 
Secretarv 185H-72. President 1S7-2-T9. 




A CORNER IN THE iTNA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY'S OFFICE. 



30 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




looking ahead and 
TMking a step in ad- 
vance of all other 
companies, placed 
Mil policies issued 
after 1882 on a 
rbree per cent, ba- 
^is. 

Since 1870 the 
company has ocon- 
pied the handsome 
()1!ice-bui Iding 
N\ hich it erected at 
the corner of Main 
and Pearl streets. 
A. new office-build- 
ing, adjoining the 
old one on Pearl 
street, is in process 
of erection, and 
when completed 
will be one of tbe 
finest insurance 
office-buildings in 
New England. 

The company's 
assets Jan. 1, 1901, 
were $64,954,484.73, 
with net surplus of 
17,187,790.02. 



MORGAN G. BULKELEY, 
President ^tna Life Insurance Company, 




J. L. ENGLISH, 

Secretary, 



C. E. GILBERT, 

Assistant Secretary. 



W. C. FAXON, 

Assistant Secretary. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



31 



John M. Taylor is vice-president and 
Herbert H. White is secretary. 

THE ^TNA LIFE INSURANCE CO. 

In 1850 The ^tna Fire Insurance Com- 
pany had its charter amended so as to 
grant insurance upon lives, and thirty 
years after the inception of the original 
plan in 1820, was organized The ^tna In- 
surance Company and Annuity Fund. In 
1853, by another amendment of its char- 
ter. The ^tna Life Insurance Company 
was organized. E. A. Bulkeley was cho- 
sen president and John Seymour, secre- 
tary. It began business up stairs in a small 
room on State street. 

Mr. Bulkeley continued president until 
his death, February 13, 1872. Under his 
management the company continued to 
increase its business, and in 1872 it had 
assets of over $17,000,000 and insurance in 
force of $100,000,000. 



Thomas O. Enders was elected president 
in 1872, and continued president until he. 
resigned in 1879, when Morgan G. Bulk-* 
eley was elected as his successor, and has 
continued as such ever since. 

In 1891 the company opened an acci- 
dent department which has been successful 
from its beginning. President Bulkeley 
has given a great deal of his personal atten- 
tion to the investments of the company. 
This company was a pioneer in western 
loans and no company in the United 
States has been so favored, not only in the 
rate of interest but in the small amount 
of foreclosures. The capital stock is 
$1,750,000. January 1, 1901, the assets 
were $55,901,476.50, and net surplus, 
$3,444,752.89. 

Joel L. English is secretary, and 
Charles E. Gilbert, assistant secretary. 
W. C. Faxon is assistant secretary in 
charge of the accident department. 




THE iETNA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANYS BlILriNG. 



32 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 







H. BULKELEY, 

Auditor. 



H. W. StJOHN, 
Actuary. 



G. W. EUSSELL, M. D. 
Medical Director. 



-* 



THE CONNECTICUT GENERAL LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The Connecticut General Life Insurance 
Company was incorporated, in 1865, and 
began business by taking risks refused by 
other companies, or , 
what is known as 
impaired lives. 
After two years : 
the company aban- 
doned this and only 
wrote first - class /' 

risks. I 

The first presi- ' 
dent w-as John 
M. Niles, who 
w^as elected Ju- 
ly 20, 1865. A 
few weeks later, 
Edward A. Par- 
sons was elected to 
succeed Mr. Niles. 
In May, 1876, 
Thomas W. Russell 
was elected presi- 
dent, and Freder- 
ick V. Hudson, sec- 
retary. Mr. Rus- 
sell, who for thirty- 
five years has been 
an officer of this 
company, has seen 
it continue to pros- 




THOMAS W. KUSSELL, 
President Connecticut General Life. 



per from its beginning in 1865, when it 
had $250,000 insurance in force. Jan.,. 
1901, it had assets amounting to 18,765,^ 
824.33, and net surplus of $349,623.48. 
The other officers are P. H. Woodwad, 
vice-president, R. 
W. Huntington,. 
Jr., "secretary, and 
E. B. Peck, assis- 
tant secretary. 

THE IPHCENIX 

MUTUAL LIFE 

INSURANCE CO. 

The Phoenix Mu- 
tual Life Insur- 
ance Company was 
originally The 
American Temper- 
ance Life Insur- 
ance C o m p a n'y 
which secured a 
charter in 1851. 
The capital was 
$100,000 with pow- 
er to increase to 
$200,000. B. Hud- 
son] |was ^chosen 
president. IS o poli- 
cies were written 
on the lives of any 
persons using in- 
toxicating liquors. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



33 





EGBERT W. HUNTINGTON, JR., 
Secretary Connecticut General Life 



P. H. WOODWARD, 
Vice-Pres. Connecticut Gen. Life. 

Benjamin E. Hale was 
elected president October 
0, 1852, and Edson Fessen- 
den in February, 1853. In 
June, 1875, Aaron O. Good- 
man was elected president. 
The Phoenix went 
through not only years of 
depression after the panic 
of 1873, but in 1889 it looked 
as if the effort made to 
wreck the company by 
getting control of its stock, 
which was offered for sale, 
might be caried out. But 
by the united 
efforts of the 
stockhol d e r s 
and policy- 
holders, by 
appealing to 
the Legislat- 
ure, an act 
was passed 
providing for 
the retire- 
ment of its 
capital. At a 
meeting of the 
policy-holders 
it was voted 
to purchase 
the stock at a 
price to be 
approved by 
the Insurance 




JAMES A. TURNBULL, Actuary, 
Connecticut General Life. 




JONATHAN B. BUNCE. 
President Plicenix Mutual Life. 



EDWA1;D V,. PECK, 
Ass. Sec. Connecticut General Lir<>. 

Commissioner, and to make 
the company a purely mu- 
tual company, which it 
has been since that time. 

The company was, re- 
organized and Jonathan B. 
Bunce was elected presi- 
dent, John M. Holcombe, 
vice-president, and Charles 
H. Lawrence, secretary. 
Since that time the Phoe- 
nix Miitual, by the persis- 
tent aud^energetic methods 
of its officers has been .•suc- 
cessful and now stands] in 
rhe front rank 
of life insur- 
ance compan- 
ies. Its com- 
modious office 
building on 
Pearl street, is 
one of the best 
0(iuii)i>cd in- 
surance builtl- 
iugs in this 
country. 

The as sets 
iHi Jan.l, IWl, 
were |13,25T, 
048.40. The 
net surplus 
was, Jan. 1, 
1001, |o8o.4(>2. 
40. 



34 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




CHAULES H. LAWRENCE, 
Secretary Phoenix Mutual Life 

THE TRAVELERS INSURANCE 
COMPANY. 

The history of general accident business 
begins with the Travelers. It was char- 
tered in 18G3. The capital was to be not 
less than |100,000 and not more than 
$250,000. March 4. 1864, James G. Bat- 
tersou was elected president, G. F. Davis, 
vice-president, and Rodney Dennis, sec- 
retary. The late Colonel James Bolter, 
afterward the president of the Hartford 
National Bank, met Mr. Batterson on the 
first part of March, 1864, in front of the 
post-office, and said : 

"What will you take to insure me for 
$5,000 if I get killed by accident in going 
from here to my house on Buckingham 
street?" 

"Two cents," replied Mr. Batterson. 

' Here is your money, "said Colonel 
Bolter. 

This was the first accident contract made 
in the United States, although a verbal 
one. A few days afterward, the late Ed- 
win S. Tyler of the firm of Hatch & Ty- 
ler, coal dealers, made a regular verbal 
contract for $5,000 insurance in case of 
death by accident during a journey to 



Washington, D. C, and return, for which 
he paid a premium of two dollars. This 
was the second premium received. The 
first written policy by the company was 
issued to Mr. Batterson for $5,000. The 
New York insurance superintendent, in 
his annual report of 1864, says : " To James 
G. Batterson, president of the Travelers 
Insurance Company of Hartford, the 
American public is indebted for the first 
practical introduction and establishment 
on a solid basis of the system of casu- 
alty insurance in this country." 

In 1866 the comjmny established a life 
department. 

In 1872 the company moved into the 
home it now occupies, and which has 
been remodeled so that it accommo- 
dates several hundred employees. This 
historic mansion was built in 1820 by 



itltttunl. 

TIIK 

AMERICAN TEMPERANCE LIFE INS. CO 

Assurance on (he Life of 






Amount 



/ 



Date,. J '^' 
Term of 
Annual Premium 
Extra do^ 



' 


When due '/■ 
Policy 




/_, 






Etgisler / 






P»?c / 




Wn...«- ,<T 


.. 


"- 


, M State »T,, H*ktk.»». 





AN EARLY POLICY. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



35 





JOHN M. HOLCOMBE, 
Vice-President Phoenix Mutual. 



WM. A. MOORE, 

Assistant Secretary Phoenix Mutual. 



ARCHIBALD A. WELCH, 
Actuary Ph(i>nlx MutuaL 




I* 
■I 



Ul,l Hit 



THE PHCENIX MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE 
COMPANY'S BUILDING. 



Heury L. Ellsworth, first 
commissioner of patents. 
Among those who had been 
occupants of this building 
were Oliver Wolcott, secretary 
of the United States Treasury, 
under Washington, and gov- 
ernor of Connecticut ; I^aac 
Toucej^, secretary of the Navy 
and governor of the State ; 
Roswell C. Smith, manu- 
facturer of school-books, and 
Professor Charles Davies. 

S. C. Dunham is vice-pres- 
ident of the company, and 
John E. Morris is secretary. 
The capital is |1 , OOt), 000. The 
assets Jan. 1, 1901, were 
|30,8(>1, 080.0(5, net surplus, 
18,543,120.81. This includes 
the accident depai'tment. 

THE HARTFORD LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 

In 1860 this compiuiy was 
chartered as The Hartfonl Ac- 
cident Company, to issue in- 
surance connected with the 
loss of life or perstmal injury 
rhrough accidents of every 
description, also of issuing or- 
dinary insurance upon lives. 
T. J. Yail was elected pres- 
ident. The capital was|vUX).(XH) 



36 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 




MAIX OFFICE PHGEXIX MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 




IK)ME OFFICE BFILDIXG OF THE TKAVELEKS INSUKANCE COMPANY AS IT APPEARS TODAY. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



37 



In 1867, the name 
of the company was 
fhanged to The 
Hartford Life and 
Accident Ccmpanr. 
and in 1868 to The 
Hartford Life and 
Annnity Company. 
In May, 1870. Ware- 
ham Griswold was 
elected president. In 
1880 the company 
adopted the assess- 
ment plan, and con- 
tinned the same nntil 
Febrnary, 1899, do- 
ing business nnder 
what was called ' ' the 
Safety Fnnd plan." 
Ten dollars per 
$1,000 was required 
to be i^aid by the 
I)olicy-holders ] nntil 
the fund reached 
11,000,000, which 
was held by the Se- 
curity Company of 
Hartford as trustees 
for the policy-hold- 
ers. 

In 1894 the fund reached the limit of 
$1,000,000. In February, 1899, the com- 
pany discontinued issuing policies on the 
assessment plan, and went back to its 
original plan of issuing policies on the 




-JAME.-5 (J. BATTEit-uX, 
President Travelers Insurance Company. 

old line basis. 

For many years the company occupied 
the old Warburton mansion on A.<^lum 
street, but in 1897 erected a handsome f(jxir- 
story office-building for its use on the site 




3. C. DUNHAM, 

Vice-President Travelers 



JOHN F.. :\[.~>RRTS. 
S«?cretary Travelers. 



EDWa ; . ..F.STON. 

Supt. ol Aijt'ucios. Travelers, 



38 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 







Irnlfl-'f 







THE TRAVELERS INSURANCE COMPANY'S BUILDING AS IT FORMERLY APPEARED. 



of its former office. 

E. H. Crosby was pres- 
ident during 1876 - 1882 ; 
Frederick R. Foster, 1882- 
1889 ; H. A. Whitman, 1889- 




vice-president ; Charles H. 
Bacall, secretary ; Raymond 
G. Keeney, assistant secre- 
tary. 

The assets Jan. 1, 1901, 




JAMES L. HOWARD, 
Senior Director Travelers. 



HIRAM J. MESSENGER, 

Ar-tiiary, Traveler.s. 

1893, and R. B. Packer, 
1893-1899, 

The officers at present are : 
Hon. George E. Keeney, 
president ; E. C. Hilliard, 



JOHN B. LEWIS, M. D. 

Surureon and Afljuster, Travelers. 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



39 





GEOKGE ELLIS, 
Actuary Travelers, 1874-97. Secretary, 1897-98. 

were 13,125,586. 
37, and the net 
surplus was 
1380,186.71. 

The Safety '^ . .^^ 

Fuiid with the 
Security Compa- 
ny is 11,098,992. 
20. The capital 
stock has been 
increased to 
$500,000. 

FRATERNAL 

INSURANCE. 

There are only 
three Fraternal 
Societies char- 
tered by this 
State under the supervision of the Insur- 
ance Comissioner, but there are about 
fifty societies doing business from other 
States under the Fraternal Act and some 
of the so-called Fraternal s that have 
failed, being only fraternal in name. 
Although the number of asses.sments are 
increasing in nearly all, no sufficient 
steps have been taken, but by an insig- 
nificant number, to reform their methods 
and escape the inevitable consequen- 
ces of increasing assessnieuts. It is true 
that with those whose new member- 
ship continues to be a large percentage of 
the whole body, the annual increase in 
amount of assessment is very gradual. 
But it is none the less sure ; and when the 
period arrives, which in the very nature of 



OLD HOME OF THE HARTFORD LIFE INSURANCE COMY. 



things it must, that the individual pay- 
ments approximate to the price asked 
for insurance by regular companies which 
guarantee no increase, the new member- 
ship falls off and healthy young lives droj) 
out. Thereafter, the increase in a.«-sess- 
ments becomes rapid, and the society .'^oon 
comes to an end, leaving many moribund 
or unable to protect their families by in- 
surance elsewhere. It is a disgrace that 
the laws of this State should permit the 
promotion of such incompetent .schemes. 
But such is the number, and also the power 
of these .societies and the ignorance of the 
majority of legislators ujion technicr>l mat- 
ters that the m.surance departments have 
not been able to have their protests coii.«iid- 
ered and are re- 
mitted to such 
.supervision as 
the inadequate 
statutes — mostly 
passed at the in- 
.stance of the .so- 
cieties t h e m - 
selves — upon the 
books will per- 
mit. As in the 
case of the en- 
dowment orders, 
no reallv reuie- 
dial legishition 
is possible until 
the situation be- 
comes a public- 
scandal. 

This criticism does not apply to those 
secret orders such as Mastm^, Odd Fel- 
lows, and the like, wherein the insurance 
feature is limited simply to a burial-fund 
or temporary relief, and constitutes but a 
merely subordinate incident to other pur- 
poses. Such are u.sually and properly ex- 
cused from departmental sui)ervision. 
But it does apply, with annually increas- 
ing force, to those .societies who.se real 
purpose is the pursuit of the business of 
insurance under the more or less thinly 
disguised forms of secrecy, lodges, rituals, 
etc. It is also true that in the larger and 
better conducted of these, the extrava- 
gantly titled managements have, in \^x'\- 
vate, been fully alive to the dangers cou- 



40 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



fronting their societies for several years. 
But this, coupled with the fact that no 
sufficient remedies hav3 been applied, 
gives ground for the fsar that they do not 
possess sufficient power to bring about the 
reforms which they confess in their an- 
nual congresses to be necessary. It is 
therefore suggested, in no unfriendly 
spirit, that they undo the vicious legisla- 
tion which they themselves have accom- 
plished, and seek the assistance of legis- 
lators in passing such laws as may tend to 
compel their own membership to accept 
such changes in their system as will tend to 
save their societies before it becomes too 
late. 

All insurance experience proves that 
the rate (or premium) must be increased 
to the cost at the attained age of each mem- 
ber in order to avoid inequity and secure 
solvency. Or, if the rate is to be perma- 





PKESENT HOME OF THE HARTFORD LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 



HON. GEORGE E. KEENEY, 

President Hartford Life Insurance Company. 

nently fixed at the age of en- 
try, a considerable increase 
must be at once made which 
will furnish a large reserve 
to be used in part payment 
of claims. The fraternal so- 
cieties have utterly ignored 
both the mathematical axi- 
oms, and have attempted to 
proceed upon increasing rates 
fixed upon a ratio based upon 
the age of entry instead of at 
the age attained. Therefore, 
those who have been long in 
the society and have become 
advanced in years, still con- 
tinue to hold the advantage 
of their early age at entry, to 
the detriment of all new en- 
trants, who are saddled with 
part of the cost of carrying 
these older risks who thus 
escape paying their own actual 
cost of insurance. It requires 
no prophet to jjredict the in- 
evitable end of such an enter- 
prise ; both mathematics and 
experience demonstrate its 
ultimate failure. This is still 
further aggravated by making 
'p(M w.ortem assessments, which 
act as a premium upon 
lapsing, as any one can discon- 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



41 



tinue without paying for his last month's 
insurance. The remedy is legislation 
which will compel assessments, payable 
in advance, based upon attained age, 
cost of insurance, whenever the so- 
ciety fails to have in hand the tech- 
nical reserve (computed by the in- 
surance department), which will per- 
mit age at entry assessments to be main- 
tained. Although it may be claimed that 
such legislation would be unconstitutional 
as impairing the Obligations of previous 
contracts, it must be remembered that 
all such contracts are given under char- 
ters (which are part of the contract), by 
States which reserve the right to alter or 
amend the same at pleasure. And most of 
the by-laws of these mutual societies, 
which also form a part of the policy con- 
tract, reserved the right of change under 
certain formalities, which the legislatures 
may compel the management to make the 
requisite effort to institute. Besides sev- 
eral tribunals have recently held that in 
mutual associations minor and technical 
rights might be disregarded when equity 
and the carrying out of the major pur- 
poses of the association required a change 
not originally contemplated or reserved. 
The real difficulty of the situation con- 
sists in the impossibility of convincing 
the common membership, who are not 
versed in insurance problems, of the de- 
fects of their system and its impending 
collapse, together with the selfishness of 
the older members, who are generally in 
control, and adverse to any change which 
will compel them to pay their fair share 
of the common burden. As the Legislat- 
ure created these societies, it becomes its 
duty to see to it that they are properly 
conducted. And if constitutional ques- 
tions stand in the way of reforming tho^e 
originating in Connecticut, it can at least 
exclude those which originated in other 
States from doing business in this State, 
unless within prescribed methods. And 
similar retaliatory or reciprocal action in 
other States would immediately operate 
against our own societies to compel their 
reform. 

It is not intended to say anything here, 
to the real detriment of these societies, 
which have many excellent poifits to 



commend ; among which is the careful 
selection and supervision of their risks, a 
small lapsing rate until assessments be- 
come abnormal, great economy of manage- 
ment, and a remarkable ability to get new 
business cheaply. Fraternal insurance is 
indestructible, but the system under 
which most of it is now done is defective 
and doomed. 

INDUSTRIAL INSURANCE. 

One cannot speak of Industrial Insur- 
ance in this country without connecting 
with it the name of John R. Hegeman, 
president of The Metropolitan Life Insur- 
ance Company of New York. One of the 
most interesting addresses ever deliv- 
ered on this subject was made by Mr. 
Hegeman at the National Convention of 
Insurance Commissioners, held in Sep- 
tember, 1898, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
In reference to the origin of Industrial 
Insurance, he said : 

"While we find records of ordinary life 
insurance companies in England in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, 
and a plan of annuities put in operation 
by the States General of Holland in 1671, 
we find the Friendly Societies in Great 
Britain as early as 1634, and we read of 
Burial Fund Clubs in the Netherlands in 
1622. 

"Not to be caught napping by the an- 
tiquarian, and to stand with Solomon on 
his proposition that 'there is no new 
thing under the sun,' we are prepared to 
maintain that the insurance principle — 
the industrial principle — goes back to a 
period some 1700 years before the Chris- 
tian era; that was when The Pharaoh 
Mutual Life Insurance Company was 
formed under the auspices of tlie King of 
Egypt. Those of you from whose memo- 
ries the teachings of early years have not 
been altogether eliminated, will recall 
that in the years of plenty he proi>arod 
for, and thus insured against the years of 
want. And he vindicated the "old line" 
principle by setting aside an adequate re- 
serve. His asssets were invested in the 
granaries of Egy^^t, and in their contents 
of corn ; and when the years of need came 
those assets met, as we have read, not 
only every demand of the Egyptians, but 



42 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



of all the surrounding counlry. Here 
was the great International Company! 
Oh, yes ! the people of modern times are 
clever and brilliant, but along many lines 
they are simply adopters, or adapters (not 
inventors), of things thousands of years 
old." 

The establishment of Industrial Insur- 
ance in this country met with considera- 
ble opposition. A governor of a promi- 
nent New England State, in a speech de- 
livered while seeking re-election, said: 
''This is not legitimate life insurance at 

all Such insurance is against 

public policy and ought not to receive 
public recognition in this State. . . . ' 
It should be discountenanced by every 
one in authority, and I, consistent with 
my duty to the State and with my con- 
science, cannot retain in office a commis- 
sioner who advocates it." And, there- 
upon, , for this offense and for making 
what he termed "favorable mention" 
of six companies (four Ordinaries and two 
Industrials), "I caused," he said, "the 
Commissioner of Insurance to be turned 
out. ' ' Other States were like-minded as 
to the admission of the companies, and 
by still others a frigid welcome was ex- 
tended. 

The opposition has gradually disap- 
peared, and any one carefully studying the 
methods and practices of this branch of 
insurance with the thousands of agents 
carrying the [insurance to the door of the 
poorer classes, cannot but help recognize 
the vast amount of good it has accom- 
plished, allowing any one for five and 
ten cents a week to be insured. The ben- 
efits that have resulted cannot be esti- 
mated unless one has had experience and 
knows the thousands that have been helped 
in this way. 

THE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT. 

The Insurance Department of the State 
was organized in 1866. Benjamin Noyes 
was the first commissioner. This depart- 
ment has been well conducted and a credit 
to the great insurance industry of the 
State of Connecticut. Since that year 
the insurance interests of the State have 
grown rapidly and have won an enviable 
record throughout the United States. 



In 1866 the life companies were : the ^t- 
na Life, American Mutual Life, Charter 
Oak Life, Connecticut Mutual Life, Conti- 
nental Life, and the Phoenix Mutual Life. 
In 1901, the companies are: The ^tna 
Life, Connecticut Mutual, Connecticut 
General, Hartford, Phoenix, and the Trav- 
elers. 

Some comparisons in the business, as 
between 1866 and 1900, are interesting. 
The insurance in force in the life compan- 
ies in 1866 was $196,125,944, and in 1900, 
1506,831,353. Assets of life companies in 
1866, $21,322,367, and in 1900, $156,972, 
729.64. 

ASSESSMENT INSURANCE. 

During the past few years a large number 
of assessment associations have had to close 
their doors, and in our own State alone 
three such associations have been placed in 
the hands of receivers, and policy-holders 
will receive but a comparatively small div- 
idend, to say nothing of being deprived of 
the benefit of life insurance when most of 
them are at that age and in that condition 
when they require it most. At first 
blush it may seem incredible that a 
large number of fairly intelligent peo- 
ple, most of them imbued with proper bus- 
iness ideas, can expect to get something 
for nothing, but upon second considera- 
tion the blame for this condition of affairs 
can properly be laid at the door of unscru- 
pulous agents, who, in a desire to get the 
commissions on the business, delude these 
people into the belief that the law of mor- 
tality will be rendered inoperative and 
enable their own particular company to 
furnish insurance at the same price during 
the continuance of life without making 
sufficient provision for a reserve accumu- 
lation. Some years ago a law was passed 
in some of the States requiring all assess- 
ment companies to stamp across the face of 
the policies or certificates, a statement to 
the effect that they issued assessment 
contracts. Strange as it may ssem the 
assessment associations almost unanimous- 
ly arose in opposition to this and attempted 
in every way to defeat the measure, some 
even going to the extent of withdrawing 
from the State in preference to being com- 
pelled to submit to what they deemed a 



CONNECTICUT INSURANCE. 



43 



most obnoxious measure. Exactly why 
these associations should be afraid to have 
the true character of their business known 
is not at once apparent, and a most unfort- 
unate condition exists when any class of 
insurance companies has so conducted its 
operations that its name is a reproach to 
the institution ; it seems to me that it is 
the duty of the surviving associations to 
so conduct themselves that in t)»e future 
they will be in a position to parade under 
their own colors without being ashamed. 
Legislatures in the past have unfortu- 
nately granted too liberal charters to these 
associations and passed laws too lax for 
their proper government, under the im- 
pression that these institutions were to 
be administered by the people themselves 
in contradistinction to corporations, while 
in reality they should have hedged them 
about with laws which would have pre- 
vented the disgraceful occurrences of re- 
cent years. The number of collapses in 
this class of business and the numerous 
calls for extra assessments on the part of 
others which have failed to make good 
their representations as to the sufficiency 
of their original premiums to take care of 
their contracts, show a weakness in the 
system as heretofore managed and a defect 
in the statutes which permit such misman- 
agement with impunity. The most re- 
grettable feature of the whole affair is that 
the only satisfaction that these people 
have is that they have been the victims of 
designing agents, and in some cases de- 
signing officers, comparatively few of 
these officers, however, realizing the sa- 
cred trust which has been placed in their 
hands for administration. The right to 
extra assessments to meet unforeseen con- 
tingencies and emergencies as an alterna- 
tive against insolvency is a valuable one, 
and strictly guarded, should be made avail- 
able to all such insurance companies by 
statute. But this is a very different mat- 
ter from an assessment clause by con- 
tract to be used at will to show up the re- 
sults of direct and well known misrepre- 
sentation. It was a comparatively easy 
trick to sell large quantities of insurance 
to an uninformed public at low prices 
while the volume of freshly selected lives 
was rolling in, under the representation 



that the price was sufficient and that their 
competitors who demanded the premium 
that mathematical science and experience 
for years had shown to be necessary, were 
robbing the public. Legislators were cap- 
tured by this delusion, and the warnings of 
the insurance departments from time to 
time, disregarded. Their hands are still 
practically tied by the loose assessment 
association and fraternal society laws in 
force. These stand in dire need of radical 
revision, one feature of which should be 
that a management which has been so 
ignorant, careless, or deceptive as to ask 
an insufficient premium should be at once 
deposed when it became apparent that an 
extra assessment was necessary ; and that 
the policy obligations of such associations 
should be valued annually by their home 
insurance department in the same man- 
ner as those of any other life insurance 
company, in order to ascertain whether 
an extra assessment was necessary to be 
imposed, without permitting them to de- 
fer such assessment until too late to avoid 
insolvency. The difficulty is to make leg- 
islators apprehend the dangers of the sit- 
uation before nearly all the existing asso- 
ications and societies of this class become 
hopelessly bankrupt. 

CONCLUSION. 

The insurance interests of Connecticut 
stand second to one State alone in the 
Union— New York State leading. Since 
the beginning of the fire insurance busi- 
in this State many companies have been 
obliged to close their doors on account of 
extreme losses and in some cases through 
bad management. A large number of 
companies were able, where the impair- 
ment was not too much, to reinsure in 
other companies. The greatest loss that 
resulted from collapsed fire companies 
was to stockholders, because in most cases 
the premiums paid by policy-holders were 
only for a short period and their loss was 
whatever the unearned premium would 
amount to. But no one can «1*^j<cribe the 
hardships that have ai'isen from the fail- 
ure of life companies. The policy-holder 
had paid regularly his premiums in these 
defunct companies, and was looking for- 
ward to the future when his family woul^i 



44 



TO THE SONG SPARROW. 



be protected. ; and, in most instances, when 
these companies failed it was impossible 
for the policy-holder on account of age or 
sickness to procure insurance. Nothing 
in my mind should be guarded with more 
jealous care and given more disinterested 
attention than the moneys which are 
eventually to serve as the support of 
widows and orphans when their principal 
bread-winner is no longer able to look af- 
ter them, and which fund is in many 
cases the sole thing existing between them 
and poverty. 

There has been a good deal of crit- 
icism many times by insurance depart- 
ments and policy-holders over the sal- 
aries that have been paid to those who 
manage the affairs of the insurance 
companies. I have always felt that if a 
company were honestly and carefully man- 
aged it was the business of the directors 
to see that their officers and employees 
were fairly compensated, and it is no more 
than right that the policy-holders should 
cpntribute liberally for proper manage- 



ment. The States of the Union, and Eng- 
laad, have recognized the necessity of 
protecting the insured and have organ- 
ized insurance departments, branches of 
the Executive Government, as Connecti- 
cut has done, designed to compel insur- 
ance companies to carry on their business 
and legally and properly perform their 
contracts ; and I believe it is the duty of 
every commissioner to not only see that 
the policy-holders are protected, but also 
to do all in his power to protect the com- 
panies doing business in his State. With 
a few exceptions the companies of this 
State are centered in Hartford where the 
number of persons that devote their time to 
insurance would make a small city. There 
are about two thousand officers and sal- 
aried employees of these companies which 
also employ over thirty- seven thousand 
agents. In addition a large number of 
other States are represented here by agents 
and one can readliy see that the insurance 
business provides employment] for many 
thousand people. 





TO TH^ SONG SPARROW. 



By Herbekt Eandall. 



Sing out your joy, brave little heart ! 

The freshening gales grow wild and 
strong. 
And morning in the naked boughs 

Is dancing to your song. 

Sing out across the land of sleep ! 

The reddening willows swing in time ; 
From darkness ev'ry living thing 

Begins to leap and climb 

Up toward the light. Who fears to|^die? 

Let him but hear your tune — 
"Death is new life." Dear heart, sing on, 

Sing back the summer-noon ! 




LITERARY LAWN. 



BY FLORENCE PELTIER PERRY. 




ITH the passing away of 
Charles Dudley Warner 
there disappears the last of 
the famous coterie that 
dwelt for many years in 
that picturesque spot in 
Hartford, Conn., known as "Literary 
Lawn ' — unless Mr. Clemens returns to 
open his house there that has been closed 
so long. 

"Literary Lawn"— the name in the 
City Directory, is Forest street — is en- 
deared to me by many a delightful re- 
collection, for it was there that I experi- 
enced the keenest pleasures of my girl- 
hood. 



Mr. Warner's grounds join those of his 
brother, George Warner, whose services 
to modern literature are of far more value 
than is generally recognized, his work as 
one of the editors of "The World s Best 
Literature" being in itself n monument to 
his energy and efficiency. 

Mai'k Twain lives just round the cor- 
ner on Farmington avenue, and he used 
to say that C. D. W. 's back yard afforded 
a most satisfactory dumping-place for 
old soup-, vegetable-, and fruir-cans. 

Near by dwelt Harriet Beecher Stowe. 
Strangers calling in that neighborhood 
were often startled, perhaps while seated 
in the drawing-room awaiting host or hos- 



46 



LITERARY LAWN. 



tess, at the sight of a little old 
lady walking in unannounced, 
who would go directly to the 
piano, where, seating herself, 
she would play old-fashioned 
hymns, singing them with 
much earnestness in a thin 
quavering voice. It was Mrs. 
Stowe, and she had the free- 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER. 

dom of all the neighbor's houses, and she 
frequently availed herself of the privilege 
of using their pianos. 

The last time I saw her was eight years 
ago, when one afternoon 1 joined my nurse, 
Annie, who was 
"wheeling' ' my baby 
on Forest street. She 
had also in the car- 
riage her sister's ba- 
by. We met Mrs. 
Stowe who asked us 
to stop that she might 
see the children. 
First, she patted the 
fluffy ringlets on my 
boy's head, in a child- 
ish, pleased way, 
much as a little girl 
might have done, 
and asked his name. 
The name. Perry, 
held her attention 
and she murmured 
something about 
Commodore Perry 



that I did not catch. Suddenly 
turning to the other little one 
she said : 

"What is this one's name?" 
' ' Charles Mehegan^ ' ' answer- 
ed Annie. 

"Mohican!'' exclaimed Mrs. 
Stowe in surprise. 
"No ; Meliegan.'^ 

But she would have it that it was Mohi- 
can, and she burst out laughing, saying : 
"Well, well! So this is 'The L^st of 
the Mohicans ! ' " She walked away still 
laughing heartily. 




POND ON THE GEORGE H. WARNER ESTATE. 



LITERARY LAWN. 



47 



But a short distance from Mr. War- 
ner's is Dr. Richard Burton's modest and 
artistic little home. He, too, has gone 
away, to fill the chair of English Lit- 
erature in the University of Michigan. 

Near by there lived for several years 
that writer of "delightful stories of Japan- 
ese life, Mr. E. H. House, with his adopt- 
ed daughter, Koto, a little Japanese wom- 
an who won us all with her winsome 
manner. What a pleasure it was to go to 
one of her "teas" — and such tea! One 
didn't want to spoil it by adding cream 



rity. We "did up" Greek literature in 
one season. We shot through Germany 
next, I believe, and tucked Italy out of 
sight in short order. Then we had "real 
parliamentary debates." We settled — in 
a way that we felt convinced ought to sat- 
isfy the entire nation as well as relieve 
it from any further responsibility upon 
these themes — such questions as existence 
after death, co-operative housekeeping, 
cremation, and the propriety of omitting 
the word, oheij^ from the marriage cere- 
mcnv. 




RESIDENCE OF HARRIET BEfXHER STOWE. 



and sugar. With what grace the Jap- 
anese servant waited on us — a picture in 
his snowy kiinono. 

Indeed, at one time, hardly a house on 
"Literary Lawn" but had its well-known 
writer or its promising young one. It 
was in one of these houses, the home of 
that gifted girl-poet, Caroline Wilder Fel- 
lowes, that 'we girls" founded our lit- 
erary club, now in its eighteenth year. 

We felt equal to undertaking any her- 
culean task and forged ahead with en-* 
thusiasm as well as with wonderful alac- 



Mr. Warner and Mr. Clemens encour- 
aged and aided us. and lectured to us in 
their own lovely homos. The faculty of 
Trinity College also took us under its 
wing. Dear Prof. Rolfe came down from 
Cambridge and gave us inspiring talks. 
He called us the "1. gs. " — lovely girls. 
We were very much jniffed up until one 
day out at Mrs. Rose Terry Cooke's — she 
invited us there to hunt for arbutus — a 
young man, very disagreeable we thought 
him. told us tlmt Mr. Warner antl Mr 
Clemens called us •'The Jurv. " And it 



48 



LITERARY LAWN. 



leaked out that they seemed 
to enjoy calling names. For 
one of us had become engaged, 
the first one to so distinguish 
herself, and we all looked on 
her with awe and at the Man 
with bated breath. We all 
felt, as one of the girls ex- 
pressed it, "a little engaged, 
too. ' ' Fancy our sensations 
when we discovered that 
Messrs. Clemens and Warner 
always spoke of the Man — in 
private, of course — as "The 
Jumping Frog !" The worst 
of it was we were obliged to 
acknowledge the fitness of 
the nickname. 

But how good those two famous men 
were to us. Mr, Warner was ever ready 
to listen to us and suggest lines of study. 
He delighted in showing us his many 
curios and souvenirs from all parts of the 
world and from all sorts of people. Mr. 
Clemens occasionlly played drive-whist 
with us with sublime resignation. He 
called it "the infernal excuse-me game." 

Indeed, all the dwellers in 'Literary 




HOME OF RICHARD BURTON, PH. D. 

Lawn" good-naturedly encouraged and 
aided us in oifr quest after culture— or. 
was it "culturine?" 

Now, , when I walk through Forest 
street, the houses in which we had so 
many happy times, seem to gaze on me 
in a mournful way. 

— ''all are departed. 
All, all are gone, the old familiar faces !" 




BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



BY THE HON. T.. H. MUNSON. 



Arnold was the historic figure of the 
exodus which left American soil at 
the close of the Revolutionary War 
for political sunshine in the realms of Eng- 
land. I shall speak of him as a hero 
in the group, 
though not a 
hero by my pa- 
per. Heroes are 
made of sterner 
stuff than pa- 
p e r platitudes 
however artfully 
drawn or hope- 
fully expressed. 

Arnold's his- 
tory belongs to 
the nation, and 
not exclusively 
to New Haven, 
Connecticut, or 
New England. 
Connecticut 
may proudly 
share the glory 
of his rising, 
but is not 
smirched by the 
infamy of his 
ending. He was 
of national char- 
ter and stamped 
the impress of 
his heroic life 
upon the desti- 
nies of the Re- 
public, that will live as long as the Re- 
public] stands and brightens as years re- 
volve. 

Arnold was born in Norwich, Connect i* 
cut, January 14, 1741, of English par- 
ents, who could trace their lineage back 




BENEDICT AKNOI.n 



through the centuries with the best blood 
of England coursing through their veins. 
Arnold early exhibited qualities as a 
born leader of men. Among the boys of 
his neighborhood he was a bold dashing 
leader, even to 
the line of dan- 
ger, which gave 
a heroic charm 
to his advent- 
ures. 

At the age of 
fifteen he ran 
away from his 
home to Hart- 
ford to enlist as 
a soldier, where 
Connecticut 
troops were 
gat h e r i n g to 
start for Lake 
G e o r g e. His 
mother sought 
his return, but 
the love of ad- 
venture and the 
fascinations of 
camp-life haunt- 
ed him in his 
night dreams 
and caused him 
to be restless 
and moody dur- 
ing his wakeful 
hours, and he 
longed to ex- 
exchange the monotony of quiet home- 
life for the stirring realities of active 
border-life. So, again he left the i^iter- 
nal roof and joined the provisional troops 
at Albany under Cxeneral Schuyler, mov- 
ing on to the frontier amid the i)erils and 



5Q 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 






^^s^^^^szzzz 







#ici-pe 



BENEDICT ARNOLD'S SIGN. 
NOW IN THE KOOMS OF THE NEW HAVEN COLONY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



hardships of a march through the wilder- 
ness. 

Returning from, this expedition, he en- 
tered a drug-store in Norwich, where he 
mastered the secrets of mercantile trade. 
At the age of twenty-one, in 1762, he 
went to New Haven and opened a drug- 
and book-store on Water street, then the 
court end of the town and hung out his 
store-sign in conspicuous golden letters 
which read as follows: 

"B. ARNOLD, DRUGGIST, 

Book Seller, &c. 

FROM LONDON. 

Sibi Totique." 

Here he soon rose to prominence in 
commercial life, and to eminence as a 
progressive, active leader in affairs of the 
town. His business prospered and he en- 
tered the West India trade — owned his 
own ships, often sailing them himself to 
the West Indies and sometimes to Lon- 
don, exporting his commodities and im- 
porting his goods. 

February 22, 1767, he married the 
daughter of Samuel Mansfield, then 
high sheriff of New Haven county. Mrs. 
Arnold is represented to have been a lady 
of much refinement in manner, affection- 
ate in disposition, religious in convic- 
tions, and devoted to acts of piety in her 



daily life. They were of the Presbyteri- 
an order of religious faith. In 1771, Ar- 
nold built, near his store, his house, of 
much pretension in architectural de- 
sign, with fire-places and mantels set in 
polished Italian marble, which are pre- 
served as Revolutionary relics by the 
Historical Society in New Haven and are 
objects of much interest to visitors to 
its rooms. 

The massive, broad stone steps on ap- 
proach to the house, still preserved, in- 
dicate a liberal purse not unsuited to a 
generation one hundred years later. 

To Arnold, Mrs. Arnold bore three 
children : Benedict, Richard, and Henry. 
Arnold was happy in his family relations, 
and prosperous in business ways. He 
was of commanding figure, gifted in in- 
tellect, brilliant in conversation, eloquent 
of speech. Energetic in action, he was 
a man of mark among men of distinction 
anywhere and everywhere in the circles 
of humanity where he was placed. He 
was great as measured by the standard of 
great men in any age of the world. He 
early espoused the causes that led up to 
the Revolutionary War, and was ever 
ready to defend his convictions by his ac- 
tion. 

In March, 1770, there was a collision be- 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



tween British troops and the people in 
Boston, sometimes called the "Boston 
Massacre, ' ' in which several citizens were 
killed. Arnold at the time was absent 
from the country on a voyage to^ the 
West Indies. On his return he was in- 
dignant at the apathy of the people that 
they had not risen in their anger and 
taken vengance on British soldiers for 
their murderous acts. Maorch 15, 1775, 
he was elected captain of the Governor's 
Foot Guard, a military company then 
as now prominent in the history of the 
city and State. The battle of Lexing- 
ton was fought April 19, 1775. News of 
the battle reached New Haven at noon 
next day. 

Arnold immediately called his com- 
pany together on the public square, no- 
tified them of the battle at Lexington, 
addressed them in patriotic fervor, say- 
ing that he was "ready to lead them to res- 
cue or defense of Americans at Boston, ' ' 
and asked for volunteers. The company 
favorably responded. On the morning 
of April 21st, two days after the battle of 
Lexington, the company and some vol- 
unteers, sixty in number, were ready to 
start. Arnold called upon the of&cers 
of the town for ammunition and was re- 
fused. General Wooster saying they 
' ' had better wait for regular orders. ' ' But 
delays did not suit Arnold, and he marched 
his company to the place where the offi- 
cers were in session, and gave them no- 
tice, "that if they did not surrender the 
keys to the Powder House in five minutes, 
they would break open the doors and help 
themselves. ' ' The keys were surrendered 
to Arnold, under protest, and he opened 
the door; and with knapsacks filled the 
men were ready to start. Excitement was 
at tenor pitch. Mothers and sweethearts 
clung upon brawny arms that held the 
muskets, and silent tears dropped upon 
the breasts of patriotic soldiers. General 
Wooster appeared upon the scene and tried 
to persuade Arnold to wait for regular 
orders. Arnold replied "that nothing 
lut Almighty God could prevent his 
marching to the rescue and help of Amer- 
icans. " And they took up the line of 
march with quick step for the scene of 
conflict. 



It is a memorable fact that before he 
moved his company from the influence 
and restraints of home life, he drew up 
and every member of the company under 
his command signed Articles of Agree- 
ment, which I am glad to incorporate in 
this paper, in contradistinction to the hi- 
larious departure of other companies mov- 
ing to the front under the bugle's call or 
even to camp life in the State. 

This paper reads: 

"To all Christian people believing and 
relying on that God to whom our enemies 
have forced us to apply ; and having taken 
up arms for the relief of our brethren and 
for the defense of their and our just rights 
to prevent disorders, etc. , each binds him- 
self by all that is sacred to observe and 
keep this mutual covenant : 

"1st. That they would conduct them- 
selves decently and inoffensively both to 
their countrymen and to each other, and 
would obey all the rules and regulations. 

"2nd. Drunkenness, gaming, profanity 
and every vice, should be avoided and 
discontinued. 

"3rd. Obedience to their officers is not 
to be enforced by blows, but if any person 
guilty of any offense, after being admon- 
ished, should persist, such incorrigible 
person should be expelled as totally un- 
worthy of serving in so great and glori- 
ous a cause. ' ' 

It was a proud day for the city and State, 
that the company took up the line of 
march, and opened the Revolutionary 
struggle in Connecticut under such a rec- 
ord. The company marched with ban- 
ners bearing the arms of the colony ; and 
upon each drumhead was painted the mot- 
to then, as now, the arms of the State. 

Such was the beginning of Revolution- 
ary history in Connecticut under Benedict 
Arnold, the foremost and one of the brav- 
est, most accomx^lished officers that ever 
wore a military uniform in the State. 

Passing through Pomfret on their way, 
the music of fife and drum attracted the 
ear of General Putnam who, it is said. 
unhitched his team, left his plow in the 
field, and with knapsack, powder-horn, 
and flint-lock musket, marched with the 
company to Cambridge. Arriving there 
Arnold took ix)Ssessiou of the mansion 



I 



52 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



vacated by the fleeing lieutenant-governor, 
whose sympathies were with the Crown, 
established his headquarters there, and 
flung his flag to the breeze. The con- 
spicuous uniform, the efiiciency of drill, 
together with their handsome, energetic 
commander, at once brought the company 
into deserved notoriety and I am glad to 
say that it has preserved its prestige of 
history, then so auspiciously commenced, 
for more than a hundred years, and still 
preserves its efficient organization for pa- 
triotic duty. 

From this time forward, Arnold was 
constantly in military service, patriotic in 
devotion, heroic in action, and brilliant 
in achieve- ^,^ 
ment. ffl 

Washing ton 
assumed com- 
mand of mili- 
tary forces in 
the Revolu- 
tionary War at 
Lexington, Ju- 
ly 3d, 1775, 
three mnoths 
after Arnold 
had arrived 
there with his 
gallant compa- 
ny. From that 
time forward 
Was h i n g t o n 
deferred to the 
judgment of 
Arnold — coun- 
seled him 




at Ticonderoga, Bennington, Lake 
George, and other places where battles 
raged fiercest, are memorable in the his- 
tory of the Revolution, and can never be 
effaced by his fall. Had he died from his 
wounds at Quebec or Saratoga, or on the 
bloody deck of his ship on Lake Cham- 
plain, his name would have been em- 
balmed in the history of this nation as the 
peer, if not the greatest, of any one in the 
Revolutionary War save that of Wash- 
ington alone. 

Arnold's wife died June 19, 1775, and 
was buried before he was able to reach 
home, which was not until several months 
after her burial. 

From the 
first, Arnold 
entered into 
the spirit of 
the Revolution 
drank into his 
life-blood the 
inspiration of 
its justness, 
and allowed 
no adverse in- 
fluences to 
warp his judg- 
ment or deter 
his action in 
its prosecu- 
tion. 

From the 
captaincy of a 
military com- 
pany of sixty 



BENEDICT AENOLD'S HOUSE 
jjj^ As it Appeared One Hundred Years After Confiscation When Used j^ number he 
plans and ^'^^ Business Purposes In Connection with a Lumber Yard. shortly arOSe 

^ Now Demolished. "^ 

shared in re- to a general- 

suits — more than with any other officer in in-command of armies, carrying the ea- 



the army. Csesar at the Rubicon, Han- 
nibal crossing the Alps, Bonaparte on his 
marches, Jackson behind his cotton-bales 
at New Orleans, Scott storming Che- 
pultepec, Sherman on his march to 
the sea. Grant in the Wilderness, had 
no more trusty generals to obey or- 
ders and execute plans, than bad Wash- 
ington in the person of Benedict Arnold. 
Arnold's marches through the wilder- 
ness into Canada, his storming of Que- 
bec, his capture of Saratoga, his victories 



gles in triumph from battle to battle, from 
post to summit, and waved his flag in tri- 
umph over conquered battlements of the 
enemy. 

From Boston to Quebec, through the 
wilderness, from Quebec to Lake Cham- 
plain, Lake George, the banks of the Hud- 
son, through the valley of the Mohawk, 
and on to Ridgefield, Coiim, he marched 
at the head of his army, and after a des- 
perate engagement drove the enemy to 
seek shelter in their boats on Long Is- 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



53 




FIKEPLACE IN THE BENEDICT ARNOLD HOUSE, 

Now in the Eooms of the New Haven Colo- 
ny Historical Society. 

land Sound. 

The battle at Saratoga, in October, 1777, 
was the hardest fought battle in the Rev- 
olution, and really was the turning-point 
in the struggle. Arnold, Schuyler, and 
Morgan met and defeated Burgoyne and 
the flower of the British army, capturing 
7,599 troops and prisoners of war, 46 brass 
cannon, 4,600 muskets, ammunition, pro- 
visions, etc. This battle was fought and 
victory won while historians have re- 
corded that General Gates was sleeping 
oif a debauch in his tent, oblivious of 
the battle or its victories till the conflict 
was over. 

Arndld was everywhere in the thickest 
of the fight, urging his soldiers on to vic- 
tory. His horse was killed under him 
by a ball that shattered Arnold's leg, and 
when the surgeons insisted that his leg 
be amputated, he resisted and requested to 
be placed on another horse and to remain 
on the field. His presence was an inspira- 
tion of courage to the soldiers, and they 
pressed the battle into the face of the 
enemy, till Burgoyne retreated and victory 
was ours. Arnold was brought off the 
field at twilight maimed for life by his 
shattered leg. The shades of night set- 
tled over the field and midnight still- 
ness ruled the hour. 

In the morning the suii rose clear over 



a sight seldom witnessed on a battle-field. 
There lay friend and foe, some in gray 
and some in scarlet uniform, side by side, 
sleeping the sleep that knows no awaken- 
ing, holding their weapons of warfare in 
deathly grasp. There stood forty-two brass 
cannon of English manufacture of the 
most approved pattern, some with open 
sulphurous mouths, some with throats 
shattered with elements of destruction, 
standing in their tracks as left the night 
before. The blood of Arnold had conse- 
crated the ground, and the American flag 
floated in peaceful protection over the 
field, and it floats there still in an intensity 
of interest that a century of time has not 
diminished. 

Arnold was the hero of this battle and 
worthily bore his honors. Gates, to 
herald the victory, dispatched a messenger 
direct to Congress verbally announcing 
the battle and its victories, ignoring 
mention of his generals and General Wash- 
ington, the head of the army, to whom 
and through whom the report should have 
been made. Congress, without repri- 
manding this military incivility by Gates, 
hastily voted him a medal in honor of the 
victory which Arnold's blood had pur- 
chased in the absence of Gates from the 
field. Congress coming to its sense of jus- 
tice, after learning the facts of this battle, 
issued to Arnold an antedated commission, 
and Washington, on the 20th day of Jan- 
uary, 1778, forwarded it to him at Albany, 
where he was confined by his wounds, 
. closing his letter in the following Ian- 
gauge : , 

"May I venture to ask whether you are 
upon your legs again? If you are not, 
may I flatter myself that you will be soon? 
There is none who wishes more sincerely 
for this event than I do, or who will re- 
ceive the information with more pleasure. 
As soon as your situation will permit, I 
request that you will rei^air to this Army 
it being my earnest wish to have your ser- 
vices the ensuing campaign." 

Arnold, by reason of his wounds, was 
only able to reach Connecticut on a 
stretcher the last of April, 1778. In Now 
Haven he met with the most enthusiastic 
reception, civic and military, that had 
then ever been accorded to any ]->ersou in 



54 



BENEDICT ARNOLD, 



the State. About a week after his ar- 
rival, May 7, 1778, Washington wrote him 
from Valley Forge a letter in warm terms 
of friendship and confidence, conferring 
upon him a handsome pair of epaulets 
and sword-knots, which he had received 
from France, as a mark of his confidence 
and esteem. He had previously presented 
him with an elegant brace of pistols for 
the signal victory in Saratoga in Octo- 
ber, 1777. 

The full text of thi& Valley Forge letter 
is as follows: 

Yalley Forge, May 7, 1778. 
Dear Sir: 

A gentleman in France, having oblig- 
ingly sent me 3 setts of epauletts and sword 
knots, 2 of which professedly, to be disposed 
-of to my friends I should choose, I take the 
liberty of presenting them to you and General 
Lincoln, as a testimony of my sincere regard 
and approbation of your conduct. 

I have been informed by a brigade major 
of General Huntington's of your intention of 
repairing to camp shortly; but notwithstand- 
ing my wish to see you, I must beg that you 
will run no hazard by coming out too soon. 
I am sincerely and affectionately, 

Your obedient servant, 

G. Washington. 

June 19, 1778, Washington appointed 
him to the command in Philadelphia. 
British troops under General Howe re- 
treated from the city. Arnold entered and 
took possession of the mansion vacated by 
General Howe and established his head- 
quarters there. Here the shadows of fate 
began to environ him. Citizens of wealth 
and social life were much on the side of 
the Crown. Military orders, permits, and 
licenses, issued by General Howe, brought 
Arnold into collision with their execu- 
tion. Pennsylvania officers were jealous 
of the appointment, thinking a Pennsyl- 
vanian should have the command. 

General Reed was particularly veno- 
mous over the appointment, and he lost 
no opportunity to manifest his displeas- 
ure. 

Arnold's military orders were criticised 
and he was eiabarrassed in sources from 
which he should have had support. Jeal- 
ousy crept out in unexpected ways; vile 
military plots were matured to bring him 
into disrepute ; secret detectives dogged 
his footsteps to find something to aid in 
plots for his removal ; wagging tongues 



of gossip on street-corners discussed his 
social relations with the Shippen family, 
a distinguished family of Philadelphia. 
This family were strong in sympathies 
with the English government, and held 
close social relations with officers of the 
King's army. At that time social life 
in the city was largely in an amosphere 
of loyalty to the Crown. The youngest 
daughter of this family was one of the 
most beautiful, accomplished, and fasci- 
nating women in Philadelphia. British 
officers and court circles had basked in 
the sunshine of her presence and sought 
her favors in matrimonial alliances. 

When the splendid figure of Arnold ap- 
peared upon the horizon of Miss Ship- 
pen's vision she was fascinated with his 
appearance, and opportunity was not 
avoided to make his acquaintance as the 
* 'plumed knight" and victor in many bat- 
tles over English forces. His reputation 
as a brave accomplished general, pre- 
ceded his entrance into Philadelphia, 
and his name was a household word 
throughout the colonies. Arnold and 
Miss Shippen met and each was charmed 
with the other. Acquaintance blos- 
somed into love, and love ripened into 
marriage in the early days of April, 1779. 

At the marriage Arnold was so dis- 
abled by his wounds received in the bat- 
tles at Quebec, Saratoga, and other 
places, that he had to lean upon the arm 
of a soldier during the marriage cere- 
mony, which condition added a heroic 
charm to the occasion. 

In prophetic vision the marriage 
seemed the approaching end of the Revo- 
lutionary struggle. Two weeks before 
the marriage, March 32, 1799, Arnold 
bought a splendid mansion on the banks 
of the Schuylkill river and settled it up- 
on himself, wife, and family. Here they 
lived and entertained in lavish manner, 
much beyond the staid ways of the Pen- 
nites in sympathy with the Revolution. 
Extremes in warlike sympathies met in 
social harmonies round the festive board 
on a common basis, where hospitalities 
were equally dispensed and pleasantly 
shared. 

After the marriage Arnold joined the 
Church of England, and he and his wife 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



55 



together worshiped at its altar. 

Washington, conversant of Arnold's mer- 
it as an officer and of his tribulations in 
Philadelphia, on the 3rd day of August, 
1780, transferred him from Philadelphia to 
the command at West Point. But the 
seeds of political discord and loss of mil- 
itary zeal in the American cause had ger- 
minated, and were ready to be trans- 
planted from American soil into the 
King's garden, fertilized by promises of 
rich fruit-gathering in the future. 

Arnold's wife was kind, affectionate, 
and devoted to her husband and family 
during all the vicissitudes in after life. 
Her education and sympathies were 
strong in the faith of English suprema- 
cy, which, added to his graceless treat- 
ment in Philadelphia, probably had in- 
fluence over his treasonable fate. 

Charles Lee, an officer in the British 
army, had resigned his commission to 
enter the American army. Lee was pom- 
pous, arrogant, egotistical, and boast- 
ful of what he could do ; not what he had 
done. He had no military record to 
boast of. His brother in Congress, Rich- 
ard Henry Lee, championed his preten- 
sions, and Congress voted him |30,000 as 
compensation for property losses he might 
sustain in England by reason of his join- 
ing the American army, and Congress is- 
sued to him a commission, next in rank 
to that of Washington and in it "dele- 
gating him to be chief of our armies in 
case of Washington's disability." Such 
action was a flagrant insult to American 
commanders who had imperiled their 
lives and shed their blood to save the 
nation. Lee was nothing but a "legal- 
ized British spy in our Army," and he 
found ignoble shelter back in British 
lines, chuckling over his $30,000 venture, 
and his freedom from arrest as a spy, 
without the loss of a drop of blood upon 
American soil. 

Lee was looked upon as an "English 
turkey cock" strutting around in "Amer- 
ican feathers, " finding fault with the con- 
duct of the war on the American side, 
and intriguing for its chief command in 
lieu of Washington, even up to the line 
of insubordination. Had Lee's plans 
matured, the surrender of the American 



army to British forces would have been 
hastened without the death of Andre, or 
shadow of treason over Arnold's fame. 
Lee's ripening plots were timely discov- 
ered and timely prevented by his prompt 
dismissal from the army. 

Lossing, in his "History of our Coun- 
try," Vol. n., page 891, says: "Lee was a 
charlatan and a traitor to the cause which 
he despised, and supported only from base 
motives. He was a hot-headed, wrong- 
headed man and extremely vain. He was 
proud of being an Englishman, and looked 
with contempt upon his American asso- 
ciates ; he was boastful, fault-finding, 
and by the force of an imperious will and 
temper, deceived the Americans into 
the belief that he was a^great soldier. He 
had at Philadelphia, wrung from Con- 
gress a grant of $30,000 as an indemnity 
for any losses of property he might sustain 
in England in consequence of his playing 
"rebel," and he came to Washington's ar- 
my in the field, with the sanction of Con- 
gress as the delegated commander-in-chief 
on a certain contingency. Forever after- 
ward he intrigued as did Gates for the 
chief command by superseding Washing- 
ton until he was driven from the Army in 
disgrace. ' ' 

In Lincoln's history of the early pres- 
idents of the United States, published in 
the first half of the last century, speaking 
of Washington, on page 67 of the volume, 
he says: 

"It is now settled as a fact beyond dis- 
pute, that General Gates was connected 
with General Lee in a conspiracy to su- 
persede the illustrious Washington. 

"The Commander-in-Chief was well 
aware of the means they used to deprive 
him of the affections of the Army and the 
confidence of the people." 

Other historians were in accord with 
the above and equally emphatic in expres- 
sion. 

Gates was an Englishman by birth, and 
was in the English army before he came 
to America, and while in our army was in 
active sympathy with Lee in his jilans 
and intrigues. 

History does not in a "haphazard" way 
record facts or events for amusement. Is 
it any wonder that our army commanders 



56 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



should have felt this Congressional action 
over Lee keenly ; and that Washington 
should have watched Lee's movements 
with caution and anxiety while in the 
disguise of an American uniform? 

Arnold, the most brilliant commander in 
the army, who had seen greater variety 
of service, endured more hardships, fought 
more battles, won more victories in the 
field than any other commander under 
Washington, was criticised and subjected 
to indignities in Philadelphia cruel in 
theory and false in fact, which cut his 
sensitive nature to the quick and pois- 
oned the atmosphere of his patriotic man- 
hood, which, with mosaic frescoing in his 
pathway, lured him on till his feet 
slipped, and he went over the precipice. 

Arnold was human with human in- 
firmities, and he paid the penalty of his 
surroundings. Better remember him as a 
patriot having honored and served his 
country in the darkest hours of its peril 
than to add to the darkness that sur- 
rounds his memory. It does not become 
us after the lapse of more than a century 
of national life, sitting under our own 
vine and fig-tree, whose root and branches 
were nurtured by his blood, to be very se- 
vere in our judgment over his fall, at- 
tribute that fall to what you may. 

Times were gloomy and the outlook un- 
propitious for betterment. Lafayette 
wrote to Washington "that open dissen- 
sions existed in Congress — that parties 
there hated one another as much as they 
hated British rule." Washington was 
criticised and opposed by members of the 
Provisional Congress, and measures urged 
by him for army relief, were ignored or 
postponed to the embarrassment of the 
army which was reduced to a few thous- 
and starving, ragged, disheartened sol- 
diers, while the British had ten thousand 
in New York, and many more at diiferent 
points ready to be concentrated to sweep 
down in annihilating force upon the 
American army. Washington hardly 
thought it possible to keep his army to- 
gether, and he wrote to Congress, May 
28, 1780: 

"There if? no time to be lost; the dan- 
ger is imminent and pressing, our efforts 
must be instant, unreserved, and univer- 



sal. "Unless a system different from that 
which has long prevailed be immediately 
adopted, our affairs must soon become des- 
perate beyond the possibility of recovery — 
indeed I have almost ceased to hope." 

Arnold "shared in the gloomy situa- 
tion." Times were propitious for cessa- 
tion of hostilities, and Arnold was in a 
frame of mind to be tempted by unworthy 
motives. The British army, unable to 
conquer Arnold on the battle-field, re- 
sorted to strategy in the field of diploma- 
cy. Arnold's capture was considered equal 
to the capture of Washington, and in 
either event, would foreshadow the end 
of the war. 

Secret communications were opened to 
the ear of Arnold. His wife, by virtue of 
her social relations in Philadelphia, held 
the confidence of British army officers 
and other sympathizers with the Crown. 

It is said that the devil beguiles a wom- 
an and the woman bedevils the man. 

Mrs. Arnold possibly was a medium 
through which evil suggestions came, 
negotiations opened, promises made, plans 
matured for a transfer of Arnold's alle- 
giance from American forces to that of 
the Crown, before he should be swept into 
the vortex as a prisoner of war. The war 
had dragged its bloody length through 
years of suffering and peril from Canada 
to the Carolinas, and the outlook was 
gloomy for its continuance. Clouds of 
darkness settled over the valleys of hope, 
and failure seemed the fate of the Amer- 
ican army. At this juncture of affairs, 
Major Andre appeared as an angel of light 
and hope to Arnold. 

Andre was charming in conversation, 
fascinating in manner, resourceful in ex- 
pedients, and diplomatic in results — 
just the man for the emergency as the 
sequel proved. 

With a flag of truce and a passport from 
the commanding general of the King's 
army, he entered West Point, and was 
received by Arnold with customary civil- 
ities as bearer of dispatches from a bel- 
ligerent foe 

INDUCEMENTS HELD OUT. 

Sugar-coated promises of pecuniary re- 
ward, his military rank in the American 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



57 



army to be preserved in the armies of 
the king with its emoluments, a peace 
commissionership to negotiate and arrange 
settlement of details with contending 
forces, by which the colonies were to get 
what they were contending for without 
further sacrifice of blood and treasure ; 
that he should be the head-center in the 
settlement, should have a peerage under 
the English government, which with other 
promises and inducements held out, sti- 
fled the judgment of Arnold and he yield- 
ed to grasp the glittering prize. 

Then, as now, money was a powerful 
incentive to action. Ten thousand 
pounds in glittering gold were tempting, 
as was the apple in the garden to Eve on 
the shores of humanity. Other promises 
and inducements had their effect. I im- 
agine the points that weighed heavily 
with Arnold were that the war would 
cease, that Americans would get what 
they were contending for without further 
bloodshed, and that he would be a high 
commissioner to negotiate a settlement 
and arrange details between the nations 
which would place him. in a conspicuous 
position before the world. This was in 
the line of his ambition. Arnold was hu- 
man, with human impulses, and was 
tempted beyond what he could bear, and he 
yielded. While there is no apology for 
his treasonable act it is well not to glibly 
throw stones at glass houses over the way 
without first taking into consideration 
his surroundings. 

PROMISES REDEEMED. 

The English government paid to Arnold 
10,000 pounds in gold as a starter on his 
road to infamy, preserved his military 
rank with its emohiments in the armies 
of the king, paid 6,315 pounds for his 
losses in confiscated property, and granted 
him 13,400 acres of land in Canada. With- 
in three months after the arrival of Ar- 
nold and family in England, the English 
government ordered : 

"To be paid unto Margaret Arnold, 
wife of our trusty and well-beloved Brig- 
adier-General Benedict Arnold, an annu- 
ity or yearly pension of five hundred 
pounds, and to each of her children one 
hundred pounds. ' ' 



Other considerations were conferred 
upon him and his family. But with all 
these beneficiaries, Arnold was miserable. 
The price of his apostacy did not compen- 
sate for his sacrifice. Man proposes, but 
God disposes and overruled the treasona- 
ble scheme, to the glory of American arms. 

Major Andre, aider, conspirator, and 
plotter of the treason, on his way back 
from West Point to the king's army, was 
arrested with treasonable evidence in his 
boots, tried, convicted, condemned, and 
executed on the banks of the Hudson, Oc- 
tober 2, 1780, a week after the treasona- 
ble plots were matured. 

Arnold, the day after Andre's arrest, in 
his hasty flight, facilitated by his alert- 
ness and quick perception which always 
served him in emergencies, barely escaped 
a similar fate before reaching protection 
of British guns he had periled his life to 
defeat. 

Within a year and a month from the date 
of the treasonable conspiracy to surrender 
our army to the English forces at West 
Point, the English army under Lord 
Oornwallis, surrendered 22,000 soldiers 
with their arms, munitions of war, and 
battle-flags to Washington at Yorkto^vn. 
The war was ended, and American inde- 
pendence secured. 

Had Arnold remained steadfast to his 
trusts, his name would have embellished 
the pages of history as foremost among 
the constellated heroes of the Revolution. 
Lucifer never fell from more imperial 
heights into a deeper abyss of infamy 
and woe than did Arnold when he ex- 
changed his American uniform for the 
tinseled garb of a foreign power. 

Arnold cursed the day of his treachery, 
and died in England, June 14, ISOl, sixty 
years of age, in the deepest agony of spirit, 
hated by himself, and despised by every- 
body else, with the ^^'rath of God resting 
upon him for his treasonable acts, and 
blasting his memory after death. The 
consciousness of a great ^^Tong burdened 
his life, and like burning fagots of mem- 
ory consumed his peace till death closed 
the tragedy. 

I^His last words were : "Bring me. I beg 
you, the epaulets and sword-linots Wash- 
ington'gavejne. and let me lie in^my old 



58 



BENEDICT ARNOLD. 



American uniform in which I fought my 
battles. God forgive me for ever putting 
on any other. ' ' 

His American patriotism was a shining 
example, worthy of imitation in all gen- 
erations of men. Let his fall be a warn- 
ing that treason to a nation, or treachery 
to an individual, is an offense that has no 
forgiveness in the English language. 

The history of the American Revolu- 
tion, in some respects, bears analogy to 
the War of the Rebellion a generation 
ago, when rebellious hands tried to pull 
down the American flag that symbolized 
the government that had sheltered them 
from infancy, under which they were ed- 
ucated, had been protected, and to which 
they had sworn allegiance, and were then 
trying to defeat at great sacrifice of life, 
blood, and treasure. 

I cannot help contrasting the inhuman- 
ity of Revoutionary times with the char- 
itable age of the Rebellion, when those 
that had conspired against the govern- 
ment they had sworn to protect, had re- 
mission from their political sins by pass- 
ing under the flag they had tried to pull 
down. The secession flag went down, and 
the American flag with its stars and 
stripes healed the controversy and par- 
doned the offense. 

When the British flag went down by the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his ar- 
m.y at Yorktown, New Haven sympathiz- 
ers'^with the Grown were exiled with the 
loss of everything but their patriotic man- 
hood ; and they [met [their fate as bravely 
nd honestly as any American ever met 
fate on the battle-field in the Revolution- 
ary War, or in any war since the stars 
and stripes first floated from Bunker Hill ; 
and they, took the consequences as hero- 



ically as man ever met fate from an over- 
powering force he could not divert. 

I find as of record that twenty-seven in 
New Haven had their property confis- 
cated and parceled out to informers 
through the courts under the laws of Con- 
necticut — a large proportionate number, 
out of a population of about three thous- 
and all told. 

Other localities had laws with corres- 
ponding results. Pennsylvania by special 
act, October 27, 1780, ordered Mrs. Ar- 
nold, then quietly resting with her infant 
child at her father's in Philadelphia, to 
leave the city and State in fourteen days 
under penalty" for neglect she could not 
hazard. 

The spirit of the Revolutionary period 
was akin to the Blue Laws period of Con- 
necticut, when witches were hung for 
being- tempted by the devil; and public 
outrages comm.itted upon person and prop- 
erty by members of religious denomina- 
tions — upon saints and other church or- 
ganizations — without fear of church dis- 
cipline or punishment by civil tribunals. 
The history of the "Blue Laws Period" 
by Rev. Dr. Peters, republished by D. 
Appleton & Company, New York, in 1877, 
enlarged with copious notes and confir- 
mations, and the history of confiscated 
estates of loyalists in New Haven, in 
the "Revolutionary Period," furnish in- 
teresting reading to the novice in Con- 
necticut literature during the periods of 
its early history. 

Let us hope, that with the ending of 
those historic periods, also ended the vile 
practice of church and political domina- 
tion, over the feebler powers of their os- 
tracised subjects. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



BY FREDERIC CALVIN NORTON. 



{First paper.) 



Several years ago, while living in Guil- 
ford, the home of that sturdy Puritan, 
Governor William Leete, I became inter- 
ested in collecting data concerning the 
early governors. The work then begun 
was continued until the biographies of 
all the governors of Connecticut were com- 
pleted, when the editor of this magazine 
made arrangements for its publication 
during the present ysar. 

The following sketches are necessari- 
ly condensed from the original work, and 
are designed to furnish the principal facts 
in the life of each governor of Connecticut. 

To Trumbull's "History of Hartford 
County," and the articles in that work 
on the original proprietors of Hartford, 
by Miss Mary K. Talcott, I am especially 
indebted for important facts obtained con- 
cerning the first governors of Connecticut 
colony. 

am particularly obligated to Professor 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter of New Haven, 
assistant librarian of Yale University, 
for many acts of courtesy in placing at 
my disposal the books I desired. From 
the late Dr. Charles J. Hoadly, librarian 
of Connecticut, I also received valuable 
assistance in obtaining material for these 
sketches. His vast storehouse of inform- 
ation concerning Connecticut and her peo- 
ple was always open to those who were 
interested in dealing with the past. 

JOHN HAYNES. 

1639, '41, '43, '45, '47, '49, 51, and '53. 

Eight Years. 

The first governor of Connecticut was 
John Haynes, who had previously held 
the same office in the neighboring colony 
of Massachusetts. He was the oldest son 
of John Haynes of Coddicot, county of 
Hertford, England, and was born in 1694. 
The Haynes family was old and wealthy, 



and besides other valuable property they 
owned Copford Hall, 'a fine country-seat 
which furnished a large income. The 
father of Governor Haynes, in his will 
dated Oct. 30, 1605, describes lands owned 
by him in the counties of Hertford and 
Essex. 

Governor John Haynes became an ad- 
mirer of Thomas Hooker and emigrated 
with him to America. They sailed from 
England in the Griffin in 1633, and in the 
party, besides Haynes and Hooker, were 
John Cotton, the eminent divine, and 
Samuel Stone, who was destined to take 
so important a part in the early history of 
Hartford. They landed in Massachusetts, 
Sept. 3, 1633, and Haynes was made a free- 
man there May 14, 1634. He was chosen 
an assistant, and finally governor in 1635. 
The next year he was made an assistant 
again ; but in May, 1637, he, with others, 
removed to Hartford where he was to be 
one of the foremost men in the infant 
colony. Hartford, at that time, had a 
population of eight hundred persons, of 
which two hundred and fifty were adult 
men. 

Haynes was an original proprietor and 
owned a lot on the main street, opposite 
the meeting-house yard, ' ' but previous to 
February, 1639, he purchased from Rich- 
ard Webb the lot on the corner of Front 
and Arch streets. In November, 1637, 
Haynes presided over the session of the 
General Court and continued in that po- 
sition two years. 

The first election of officers of the Con- 
necticut colony, under the Constitution, 
was held April 11, 1639. John Haynes was 
elected governor and Roger Ludlow dep- 
uty-governor. He was so stitisfactory as 
chief magistrate of the colony that he was 
elected to that high office every alternate 
year until his death. Haynes was deputy- 



59 



6o 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT, 



governor in 1640, '44, '46, '50, and '52, inter- 
changing with Edward Hopkins. Origi- 
nally no one was to be chosen governor 
two years in succession ; but in 1660 this 
restriction was abolished by the free- 
men. Governor Haynes's career in Hart- 
ford was eminently distinguished. He 
was one of the five who prepared the 
first Constitution of Connecticut, which 
embodies the main part of all subsequent 
State constitutions, and of the Federal 
Constitution. 

In 1646 Governor Haynes made a voyage 
to England. He died at Hartford, on 
March 1, 1653-4. His will, dated 1646, 
brought to light the fact that his resi- 
dence in Connecticut caused a serious 
shrinkage in his property, the estate in- 
ventorying only 1540 pounds. General 
Hezekiah Haynes, his son, wrote in 1675 
of his father, 'It is sufficiently knowne 
how changeable the government was to 
the magistrates in that first planting 
wherein my father bore a considerable 
part to the almost ruin of his family. . . . 
for he has transmitted into these parts be- 
tween 7000 and 8000 pounds." Governor 
Haynes is described as "of large estate 
and larger affections, and dear to the peo- 
ple by his benevolent virtues and disinter- 
ested conduct. ' ' He was probably the best 
representative of the republicanism of 
the period. 

EDWARD HOPKINS. 

1640, '44, '46, '48, '50, '52, '54. Seven Years. 

Edward Hopkins, the second governor of 
the colony, was, like his predecessor, 
John Haynes, a wealthy English land- 
holder. He was born at Shrewsbury in 1600, 
and early in life became a merchant. 
While his headquarters were in London he 
carried on an extensive business with 
many foreign countries. 

While yet a young man Hopkins had 
made a comfortable fortune, and when in 
1637 he concluded to emigrate to America 
he was classed as a rich man. For a long 
period he had worshiped at St. Stephen's 
parish, in Coleman street, London, where 
the Rev. John Davenport was the preacher 
and Theopilus Eaton a member. These 
three friends, Hopkins, Davenport, and 
Eaton, sailed for America in the ship 



Hector in 1637. Hopkins landed in Bos- 
ton and proceeded to Hartford which he 
made his future home. Eaton and Dav- 
enport remained in Boston a few months 
and then went to Quinnipiac where they 
laid the foundation of the present New 
Haven in 1638. Soon after arriving in 
Hartford, Hopkins became a prominent 
citizen, and in 1639 was chosen the first 
secretary of the colony. The next year he 
was elected governor, and continued in 
office every other year from 1640 to 1654. 
In the alternate years he was usually 
deputy-governor and very often a dele- 
gate from the colony. His mercantile 
habits followed Governor Hopkins to his 
new home, for we are told he carried on 
a trading business in Hartford and es- 
tablished trading-posts far up the Con- 
necticut river. Although a man of ex- 
tensive business affairs and very active 
all his life, Mr. Hopkins never enjoyed 
good health and constantly suffered from 
disease. His wife also suffered from men- 
tal derangement, which was a source of 
constant anxiety to the governor. 

In 1634 Governor Hopkins sailed for 
England on a business trip and with the 
full intention of returning to his adopted 
country ; but circumstances prevented 
him from following out his plan. Soon 
after his arrival in England he inherited 
from his brother the position of "Keeper 
of the Fleet Prison," on Farringdon 
street, London, and his title was Warden 
of the Fleet. This was the King's pris- 
on as far back as the twelfth century, 
and obtained a high historical interest 
from its having been the place of con- 
finement of religious martyrs during the 
reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. 

Hopkins afterward became a commis- 
sioner of the admiralty and navy and a 
member of Parliament. Governor Hop- 
kins died in London in either March or 
April, 1657. He was characterized after- 
ward by a writfer as being "eminent for 
piety, kindly nature and patient endur- 
ance of suffering and affliction. ' ' 

About a year previous to his death 
Governor Hopkins received a letter from 
his friend Davenport, of New Haven, sug- 
gesting the pressing need of a collegiate 
school in that town. He was requested 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



61 




From reprodjiction for the Coiiincticiii Maii^txziui by RaudaH. 



^^^if^ -^^^wf^^ 



62 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT, 




From reproduction for the Co7inecticiit Magazine by Randall. 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



63 



to aid the enterprise ; and in replying the 
governor wrote, April 30, 1656 : "If I un- 
<3erstand that a college is begun and like 
to be carried on at New Haven for the 
good of posterity, I shall give some en- 
couragement thereunto." When he died 
one year later and the contents of his will 
became known, it was found that "New 
England was his chief heir," as Dr. Ba- 
con aptly remarked in recent years. 

This will, dated March 7, 1657, set aside 
one thousand pounds of his estate for 
grammar schools in Hartford, New Haven, 
and Hadley, divided as follows : Hartford 
400 pounds. New Haven 312 pounds, Had- 
ley 308 pounds, and Harvard College 100 
pounds. He also left 500 pounds to be 
given "for upholding and promoting the 
Kingdom of the Lord in those parts of the 
earth." This sum was, somewhat pecu- 
liarly, given to Harvard by a decree of 
chancery in 1710, and the trustees invest- 
ed it in a township purchased from the 
^'praying Indians," and called the place 
Hopkinton, in honor of the donor. The 
school founded by the bequest in Hadley 
opened in 1667, and afterward became the 
Hopkins Academy. In 1889 the property 
was valued at $57,325. The 400 pounds for 
Hartford were invested in local real es- 
tate, and a school erected in 1665. In 
1778 it w^as named the Hartford Grammar 
School. For the last fifty years this school 
and the Hartford High School have been 
practically the same thing. The Hop- 
kins Grammar School at New Haven has 
always been in a flourishing condition. 
It was founded in 1660 and the building 
is on the corner of High and Wall streets. 
It has long been a prominent preparatory 
school for Yale University. 

GEORGE WYLLYS. 

1642-1643. One Year. 

George Wyllys was an Englishman of 
means and rank who became an ardent 
advocate of the Puritan movement and 
decided to live among the men and wom- 
en who held opinions similar to his own. 

He was born about 1570 in the town of 
Fenny Compton, county of Warwick, 
England. His father was a man of wealth 
and position, who gave his son as good 
an education as could be obtained at aii 



English university of that period. Set- 
tling on a fine estate in Warwickshire, he 
lived the life of a country gentleman, and 
had plenty of time to watch the course 
of events in England. 

Becoming interested in the cause of the 
Puritans, Wyllys, rather late in life, found 
his native land uncongenial to him and 
planned to settle in this country. In 1636 
he sent his steward, William Gibbons, to 
America, accompanied hj twenty men, 
to purchase for him in Hartford, Conn., 
"an estate suitable to his rank." Gib- 
bons was also instructed to have a dwell- 
ing-house erected on the estate, and to 
put everything in readiness for the advent 
of the Wyllys family. Plenty of time was 
spent in preparation for the reception, 
for Wyllys did not arrive until 1638 — two 
years after his steward. 

His estate embraced the square now be- 
tween Main, Charter Oak, Governor, and 
Wyllys streets in Hartford, and was appar- 
ently a pretentious establishment for the 
sparsely settled colony. 

Wyllys was one of the original planters 
of Hartford. On his farm stood the fa- 
mous Charter Oak, in which the Con- 
necticut charter was secreted. There was 
a legend current for many years that Gov- 
ernor Wyllys' s steward, Gibbons, gave or- 
ders to have the ancient oak cut down, 
but that a party of Indians dissuaded him 
from his plan to remove it from the estate. 

After settling in Hartford Wyllys took 
a leading part in the transacting of 
public biisiuess, and was one of the fram- 
ers of the Constitution of 1639. On April 
1, 1639, he w^as chosen as one of the six 
magistrates of Connecticut, and held the 
office until his death. 

In 1641 he was elected deputy-governor, 
and the next year governor of the colony. 
He was also commissioner of the United 
Colonies. Holding the office of governor 
one year, Wyllys did not appear promi- 
nently after his retirement from office, 
and he died in Hartford, March 9. UUo. 

He left four children, one of whom. 
Samuel Wyllys, was graduated at Harvard 
College and was magistrate in Connect- 
icut for thirty years. 

A grandson of Governor Wyllys was sec- 
retary of the colony from 1712 to 1735 ; his 



64 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



son and successor, from 1735 to 1796 ; and 
Ms son and successor from 1796 to 1810. 
So that the office remained in the Wyllys 
family for the unusually long period of 
ninety-eight years. This record was never 
outdone in Connecticut. The next best 
record was the Whiting family, members 
of which held the office of treasurer for 
seventy years. 

Governor Wyllys was not a great man, 
like some of his contemporaries, but, as a 
biographer has said, "He was famed for 
his social and domestic virtues, his sim- 
plicity of manners and his love for civil 
and religious liberty. " 

THOMAS WELLES. 
1655-1658. Two Years. 

Thomas Welles was born in 1598 and be- 
longed to an ancient English family. 
From the English Colonial State papers 
we learn that in the year 1635 Thomas 
Welles and his wife Elizabeth (Non-con- 
formists) left Rothwell, Northampton- 
shire, their property probably having been 
confiscated. Soon after this he entered 
the service of Lord Say-and-Sele, and ac- 
companied him to America in the spring 
of 1636. 

They settled where the town of Saybrook 
now stands, but his lordship becoming dis- 
heartened over the gloomy aspect of af- 
fairs in the new land, returned to Eng- 
land, leaving Welles to face the discom- 
forts of a trackless wilderness. Welles 
and the company at Saybrook soon after- 
ward decided to proceed up the river to 
Hartford. In 1637 he was chosen a magis- 
trate at Hartford and he held the office for 
twenty-two years. 

At the election in 1639 Welles was chosen 
the first treasurer of the colony, holding 
the office until he asked to be relieved of 
it in 1651. In 1641 he was secretary, and 
in 1649 one of the commissioners of the 
tlnited Colonies. He was chosen gov- 
ernor in 1655 and 1656 ; the next year he 
served as deputy -governor, and in 1658 
was re-elected governor. The following 
year he was again a deputy-governor. He 
died on Sunday, January 14, 1660 in Weth- 
ersfield at the age of sixty-two years.' His 
remains were probably interred in the old 
burial-ground at Wethersfield, but noth- 



ing marks his resting place today. Albert 
Welles, a biographer of the governor, 
wrote that his remains were buried "on 
the top of the hill near the fence on the 
south side" of the old yard, in the rear 
of the meeting-house, where the remains 
of the Welles family for many generations 
now lie grouped." Benjamin Trumbull, 
the historian, wrote regarding this : 

' ' Though Governor Welles was first bur- 
ied at Wethersfield his remains were af- 
terward removed to Hartford. Four or 
five of the first governors of Connecticut — 
Haynes, Wyllys, Welles, and Webster- 
lie buried at Hartford without a monu- 
ment. Considering their many and im- 
portant public services this is remarkable. 
But their virtues have embalmed their 
names and will render their names vener- 
able to the latest posterity. ' ' 

One of Governor Welles' s descendants, 
Hon. Gideon Welles, of Hartford, wrote 
of his ancestor, the governor, in 1843,^ 
"My father, who died in 1834, aged eighty 
years, used to tell me that our English 
ancestors were once of the English nobil- 
ity ; that amongst his earliest recollec- 
tions were the strong injunctions of his 
grandfather and his great -uncle, Samuel. 
Welles, of Boston, never to omit the letter 
e in his name ; that the family had 
once great estates of which they were 
wrongfully deprived and that in due time 
they would return. These were the re- 
marks of the old men to him, born about 
thirty years after the death of Governor 
Welles, and who in childhood imbibed 
impressions brought with the family 
from the parent land. ' ' 

JOHN WEBSTER. 
1656-1657. One Year. 

The early life of John Webster is shroud- 
ed in mystery. Family tradition said 
that he was from the county of Warwick, 
England, but even this is indefinite. The 
date of his birth is unknown and there is 
nothing handed down to us regarding his 
ancestry. 

His name first appears in history when 
he became one of the original proprie- 
tors of Hartford. 

Webster must have been one of the first 
settlers, for it is recorded that he owned a 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



lot on the east side of the thoroughfare 
now called Governor street. His promi- 
nence in the town is demonstrated by the 
fact that in 1639 he sat with the Court of 
Magistrates, . and was a magistrate him- 
self from the year 1639 to 1655. In the 
latter year Webster was chosen to the of- 
fice of deputy -governor of the colony, and 
in 1656 was advanced to governor. He 
held the office one year. During the year 
164*2 Governor Webster was a member of 
the commission that framed the code of 
criminal laws for the colony. In 1654 he 
was one of the commissioners of the Uni- 
ted Colonies. Governor Webster took a 
prominent part in the famous church 
controversy at Hartford. Professor John- 
ston, in his scholarly book, "Connecti- 
cut," says the nominal beginning of this 
trouble was after the death of the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker in 1647. "Goodwin, the 
ruling elder," writes Johnston, "wanted 
Michael Wigglesworth as Hooker's suc- 
cessor ; and Stone, the surviving minis- 
ter, refused to allow the proposition to 
be put to a vote. The Goodwin party — 
twenty-one in number, including Depu- 
ty-Go' "^nor Webster — withdrew from the 
church ; '^ tone party undertook to dis- 
cipline them ; a council of Connecticut 
and New Haven churches failed to recon- 
cile the parties ; the General Court kindly 
assumed the office of mediator and suc- 
ceeded in making both parties furious ; 
and finally a council at Boston in 1659 in- 
duced the Goodwin minority, now some 
sixty in number, to remove to Hadley, 
Mass." 

The year following his removal to 
Hadley, Governor Webster was admitted 
as a freeman in that colony. His career 
in Hadley was destined to be brief, how- 
ever, for he died on April 5, 1661 — nearly 
two years after his arrival. He was sur- 
vived by his widow and eight children. 

The historian, Hollister, speaks of his as 
an "honored name," and "whose virtues 
are still perpetuated in those who inherit 
his blood." Probably the most distin- 
guished descendant of Governor Webster 
was Noah Webster, the famous lexico- 
grapher, who was born in Hartford in 
1758 and died at New Haven May 
28, 1843. 



JOHN WINTHROP. 

1657, 1659-1676. Eighteen Years. 

The brilliant career of John Winthrop, 
as governor of Connecticut, led the histo- 
rian,. Bancroft, to write that "The New 
World was full of his praises." He is 
generally conceded to have been the most 
distinguished and scholarly of the early 
governors of the colony. His father, 
John Winthrop, commonly called the old- 
er, was governor of Massachiisetts. and 
the founder of the famous Winthrop fam- 
ily in America — a family that has produced 
many able men and women. 

John Winthrop, the younger, was born 
in Groton Manor, England, Feb. 12, 1606. 
He received a careful education at Trinity 
College, Dublin, and afterward entered the 
Inner Temple, where he studied law. 
Finding this distasteful, he entered the 
English naval service, ailing with 
George Villiers, the Duke of Bucking- 
ham. He took part in the unsuccessful 
expedition for the relief of the Protes- 
tants at New Rochelle. After a tour on 
the Continent Winthrop returned to Eug- 
and in 1629 and found that his father and 
closest friends were preparing to sail for 
Massachusetts. 

In 1631 he followed his father to New 
England and was soon elected an a^^sis- 
tant in the Massachusetts^ colony. He 
was one of the settlers of the town of 
Ipswich, where he owned a large estate. 
Winthrop returned to England in 1()34. 
On July 7, 1635, articlesof agreement were 
drawn up between Winthrop and Lord 
Say-and-Sele, with several others, em- 
powering Winthrop to erect a fort at the 
mouth of the Connecticut river and cre- 
ating him governor of the territory for 
one year. His coumiission was sealed ami 
delivered on July 18, 1()35, and he arrived 
at the mouth of the river about Novem- 
ber 24th of the same year. After his term 
of office exxfired Winthrop went to Massa- 
chusetts where he busied himself with 
scientific investigation. He is spoken of 
as one of the best "chjnnists" of his age. 

In 1640 he procured a grant of Fisher's 
Island, and then left for England where 
he spent the next two years. Returning 
to Massachusetts ^inj.l(>43. he undertook 



66 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



to develop the iron industrj^ in the vicin- 
ity of Brain tree. 

Soon after he acquired considerable 
property where New London now stands, 
and reinoved to that place, which he made 
his future home. Miss Oaulkins, the his- 
torian of New London, calls him the father 
of the town, and adds that Winthrop's 
home on Eisher's Island was the first 
English residence in that territory. He 
brought thither the first company of set- 
tlers, planned the town, founded the gov- 
ernment, fixed the bounds, and conciliat- 
ed the Indians. In 1650 he transferred his 
residence to New London, and from then 
on took a leading part in the government 
of the town and colony. Rising rapidly 
from a magistrate in 1650, Winthrop was 
elected governor of the colony in 1657. 
He was re-elected to the same office in 
1659. Originally no man was to be chosen 
tojthe office of governor two years in suc- 
cession ; but in 1660 the General Court, 
in their anxiety to retain Winthrop as gov- 
ernor, requested the freemen of the colony 
to abolish the restriction of re-election. 
This was done immediately and then 
John Winthrop began his career as gov- 
ernor, which covered a longer period 
than was ever reached by any chief execu- 
tive in Connecticut. Gurdon Saltonstall 
and Joseph Talcott in the next century, 
however, were each governor for seven- 
teen years. Governor Winthrop was in 
England for a year and a half, from 1661 
to 1663, when he was elected a member 
of the Royal Society. Possessing much 
tact and having a thorough knowledge of 
court procedure, as well as considerable 
influence with Charles the Second, Win- 
throp obtained from the king the famous 
charter which consolidated the colonies 
of Connecticut and New Haven. In this 
charter of 1662 Winthrop was named the 
first governor of the United Colonies, and 
in this office he passed the remaining por- 
tion of his life. Governor Winthrop died 
at Boston April 5, 1676, while attending 
a meeting of the commissioners of the col- 
onies. 

Winthrop endeared himself to the peo- 
ple of Connecticut, and historical writ- 
ers [all aa'ree that his' Puritanism was] of 
the |_finest^-;type ; [that [he had|the good-w 11 



of even those who differed widely from 
him. In the kindred sciences of chem- 
istry and medicine he was one of the 
best authorities of his time. Trumbull 
called him "one of the most distinguished 
characters in New England." HoUister 
vrrote, "It is difficult to consider him as 
an individual character so inseparably is 
his bright image blended with that of 
the Colony herself during the most doubt- 
ful, and at the same time, most glori- 
ous period of her existence. ' ' 

Bancroft paid him a glowing tribute 
when he wrote, "Puritans and Quakers 
and the freemen of Rhode Island were 
alike his eulogists. The Dutch at New 
York had confidence in his integrity, and 
it is the beautiful testimony of his father 
that ' God gave him favor in the eyes of all 
with whom he had to do.' " 

Such careers shine as a briliant light in 
the hazy horizon of the past. 

WILLIAM LEETE. 
1676-1683. Seven Years. 

William Leete is generally known in his-, 
tory as the sturdy governor who shel- 
tered and defended the regicides when 
they were in Guilford. This was one of 
the unimportant incidents of a particu- 
larly busy life, yet it has found a place 
in various local histories and in more pre- 
tentious biographical works. His ances- 
tors were members of an ancient family. 
Gerard Letie, or Leete, owned lands in 
1209, during the reign of King John, in 
McrdeU; Cambridgeshire. Matthew Lety, 
John Leet, and Henry Leete, were 
all Englishmen of prominence and their 
names appear in the public records previ- 
ous to the year 1550. 

William Leete was the son of John 
Leete of Dodington and Anna Shute, 
daughter of one of the justices of the 
King's Court. He was born in Doding- 
ton, Huntingdonshire, England, in 1612 or 
1613. Educated as a lawyer, Leete was 
for a time clerk of a Bishop's Court at 
Cambridge, where he witnessed the op- 
pression and cruelties imposed on the 
unoft'ending Puritans. 

Jn 1643 Leete and Samuel Desborough 
met the Court at New Haven, when New 
Haven colony was planned and organized. 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



67 



He was one of the deputies from Guilford 
to the General Court of New Haven col- 
ony until 1650 ; and from 1651 to 1658 was 
magistrate of the town. During the latter 
year he was elected deputy-governor of 
the colony, and continued in the office 
until he was chosen governor in 1661. He 
held this position until the union of the 
colony with Connecticut in 1664. After 
the consolidation of the colonies Leete 
^was an assistant until 1669 when he was 
chosen deputy-governor of Connecticut 
colony. He was re-elected to this office 
annually until 1676, when he became gov- 
ernor of the colony. 

Shortly after his election as governor, 
Leete moved to Hartford from Guilford, 
and he resided in that town until his 
death in 1683. His remains were buried 
in the old cemetery at Hartford ; and 
Treasurer John Talcott made an entry in 
his account book that it cost the colony 
eleven pounds of powder for firing the 
"Great Gun at Gov'rleetes funerall." 

Governor Leete was a popular official ; his 
a.dministration abounded with good results 
through a particularly difficult period, 
and his great integrity won the approba- 
tion of friends and enemies. Dr. Trum- 
bull wrote of him, "He died full of years 
and good works." Palfrey summed up his 
public life in these words : "Leete was an 
intelligent and virtuous ruler and Con- 
necticut prospered under his care." 

The story of Governor Leete 's experi- 
ence with the regicides — Goffe and Whal- 
ley — when they fled to New England, up- 
on the restoration of Charles I. , is as fol- 
lows : 

Ezra Stiles, in that curious little vol- 
ume, "The Judges," states that Goffe 
and Whalley were in Guilford twice. The 
first time was when they were flying from 
Boston to New Haven. The second visit 
has been the foundation of a story, which, 
according to Dr. Bernard C. Steiner, the 
historian of Guilford, is much disputed as 
«ome of the details are clearly wrong. 
Goffe and Whalley probably went to Gov- 
ernor Leete's home and were secreted 
there several days and nights. Finally 
the judges returned to their place of con- 
cealment in New Haven. There is a tra- 
dition given credence in several histories 



that the governor's daughter, Anna, who 
afterward became the wife of John Trow- 
bridge of New Haven, fed the regicides 
from the governor's table. Dr. Steiner. 
an eminent authority, says these men were 
hidden in Guilford, if at all, in June, 
1661. President Stiles relates the story 
thus: 

"It is an anecdote still preserved 
in that family that she (the gov- 
ernor's daughter Anna) used often to 
say that when she was a little girl 
these good men lay concealed some time 
in the cellar of her father's store ; but she 
did not know it till afterward ; that she 
well remembered that at the time of it she 
and the rest of the children were strictly 
prohibited from going near that store for 
some days, and that she and the children 
wondered at it and could not perceive the 
reason of it at that time, though they 
knew afterward. 

"Tradition says that they were, how- 
ever, constantly supplied with victuals 
from the governor's table, sent to them by 
the maid who long after was wont to glory 
in it — that she had fed those heavenly 
men." As the governor's daughter, 
Anna, referred to in this anecdote, was 
born on March 10, 1661, and the regicides 
were there in June of the same year, the 
error is obvious. 

ROBERT TREAT. 
1683-1698. Fifteen Years. 

The priceless services of Robert Treat 
rendered to the colony during a critical 
period, have always been appre^natively 
recorded by the historians of the State. 
Born in England in 1622, Treat came to 
America with his father, Richard Treat, 
early in the century and settled in Weth- 
ersfield. The elder Treat owned a farm 
of nine hundred acres, which is now com- 
prised in the town of Glastonbury ; wa«^ a 
patentee of the charter, a man of high 
character and great worth. Robert Treat 
lived in Wethersfield only a short time, as 
he removed to the town of Milford in U>:?l>. 
At the first meeting of the planters Treat, 
then a lad of eighteen, was appointed as 
one of a commission of nine to aid in sur- 
veying and laying out the lands of the 
town. He was elected a deputy in l(>o3. 



68 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



and served until 1659. He also held the 
office again in 1665. Treat served as an as- 
sistant from 1659 to 1664, and was strongly 
opposed to the union of New Haven and 
Connecticut colonies. When the consol- 
idation was finally effected he was one of 
a party who removed to New Jersey and 
founded the present city of Newark. The 
settlers elected him the first town clerk of 
the settlement and granted him a 
lot of eight acres. In 1670 Treat was ap- 
pointed a major of Connecticut troops and 
he returned to this State two years later. 
Three years after his return Connecticut 
thought enough of Treat's military abil- 
ity to choose him commander-in-chief of 
the forces then engaged in the war against 
King Philip. By his gallantry and bravery 
he was chiefly instrumental in ridding 
Northfield and Springfield of the Indians 
who infested that locality. 

When the Indians made their assault up- 
on Hadley, Treat drove them from the vil- 
lage ; and in the celebrated fight with the 
Narragansetts on December 19, 1675, near 
what is now South Kingston, R. I., he 
showed courage only rivaled by Captain 
Mason before him and by General Putnam 
in the following century. With the Con- 
necticut troops he led the forlorn hope 
against the block-house where Philip's 
sharp-shooters had more than once driven 
back the men of Massachusetts. He was 
one of the last to leave the fort when the 
Indian power was broken. His prowess 
was fully recognized and in 1676 the free- 
men chose Treat as deputy-governor. 

In 1683 he was elected governor of the 
colony, serving in that office for fifteen 
years. Then he declined to act longer 
and was chosen deputy-governor. In 1683 
Governor Treat was a member of the com- 
mission to settle the controversy between 
Connecticut and the governor of New 
York. New York claimed that three towns 
— Rye, Greenwich, and Stamford — be- 
longed to that colony, but a compromise 
was agreed upon whereby New York re- 
tained the town of Rye, and Greenwich 
and Stamford were conceded to Connecti- 
cut. 

During the period of the Andros 
usurpation Governor Treat steered the 
destinies of Connecticut in what is gener- 



ally conceded to be a masterly manner. 

When Sir Edmund Andros became gov- 
ernor of New York and chief magistrate 
of English America, Governor Treat feared 
that the colony would be divided and he 
decided upon a pacific course. The people 
of this colony acted loyally toward Andros 
when he went to Hartford on Oct. 1, 1687, 
and Treat was made a member of his 
council a month later. Connecticut suf- 
fered but little from Andros, which is un- 
doubtedly due to Treat's great tact. The 
English Revolution came in due time and 
when the news of it reached Boston, in 
April, 1689, Andros was thrust into cutsody. 
Treat was quietly awaiting his chance, and 
on the 9th of May he resumed the office 
of governor. The assembly was ordered to 
meet in June, and William and Mary were 
proclaimed with enthusiasm. The old- 
time government swung into motion again 
and the story of Andros entered into his- 
tory. 

Governor Treat died at his home in 
Milford on July 12, 1710, having reached 
the great age of eighty-nine years. His 
son, Samuel Treat, was a distinguished 
clergyman in Massachusetts and grand- 
father of Robert Treat Paine, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. 

In summing up the life of Robert Treat 
Hollister's opinion of him seems 
the best. He says: "Governor 

Treat was not .only a man of high 
courage, but he was one of the most cau- 
tious military leaders, and possessed a 
quick sagacity united with a breadth of 
understanding that enabled him to see at 
a glance the most complex relations that 
surrounded the field of battle. He was a 
planter of that hospitable order that 
adorned New England in an age when hos- 
pitality was accounted a virtue, and when 
the term gentle iikui. was something more 
than an empty title. His deep piety has 
still a traditionary fame in the neighbor- 
hood where he spent the brief portion of his 
time that he was allowed to devote to the 
culture of the domestic and social virtues. 

' There existed between Robert Treat 
and John Winthrop the most cordial 
friendship, growing out of the admiration 
that each felt for the character and abili- 
ties of the other, and also on account of 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



69 



the part they took ; the one procuring the 
charter, the other in vindicating its ju- 
risdiction and in preserving it from the 
violence of its enemies. ' ' 

FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 

1698-1707. Nine Years. 

John Winthrop, commonly known in 
history as Fitz- John, and son of Governor 
John Winthrop, was born at Ipswich, 
Mass. , on March 19, 1639. He entered Har- 
vard College, bu"!; did not take a degree 
as he left to accept a commission in the 
parliamentary army. 

Winthrop saw much service in Scotland, 
where he commanded at Oardross, and 
afterward accompanied General George 
Monk on his famous march to London. 
When his regiment was disbanded on ac- 
count of the Restoration, Winthrop re- 
turned to New England in 1663, settled in 
Connecticut and there passed the remain- 
ing portion of his career. During that try- 
ing period, when the discouraging In- 
dian wars were in progress, Winthrop 
rendered considerable service to the col- 
ony in the field. When Connecticut joined 
with the other New England colonies in 
sending an army up the Hudson river to 
co-operate with Governor Philip's sea ex- 
pedition, Eitz-John Winthrop was named 
as commander of the whole force, with 
Milboui'n as commissary. The army suf- 
fered greatly from the latter's inability to 
perform his duty, and both the matters of 
furnishing food and providing transpor- 
tation for the forces were hopelessly mud- 
dled. In the face of these gross irregu- 
larities, and also on account of the weak 
support of New York, Winthrop had no al- 
ternative but to retreat, and the expedition 
proved an utter failure. 

Jacob Leisler, the self-appointed gov- 
ernor of New York, branded Winthrop as 
an incompetent, and heaped considerable 
abuse upon him for the failure of the ex- 
pedition, although historians generally 
agree that the blame rested largely upon 
Milborn, a son-in-law of the governor. 

When he returned to Connecticut Win- 
throp received the thanks of the General 
Court for his services. In 1698 he was 
made an agent of the colony and sent to 
England to obtain if possible a confirma- 



tion of the charter, as there was a belief 
that it had been superseded. Winthrop re- 
mained in England for four years an agent 
of Connecticut colony to the court of 
William III., and succeeded in obtaining 
from Lord John Somers, attorney-general, 
a strong opinion that the charter of 1662 
was valid. The opinio'a of the attorney- 
general was concurred in by such able 
lawyers as Treby and Ward, and 'Lord 
Somers declared, "I am of the same opin- 
ion, and as this matter is stated, there is 
no ground of doubt. ' ' King William rati- 
fied this opinion in April, 1694, and when 
Winthrop returned to Connecticut he re- 
ceived the thanks of the people for hav- 
ing rendered such valuable service to the 
charter obtained by his father a, genera- 
tion before. In 1698 Winthrop was chosen 
governor of the colony, and continued in 
the office until his death in 1707. 

In the fall of 1707 Governor Winthrop 
journeyed to Boston in an enfeebled con- 
dition to obtain medical assistance and 
visit his brother. Wait Still Winthrop. 
The Boston Neirs Lcffcr of November 
27, 1707, announced his death in this man- 
ner: '* About four o'clock this morning, 
the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq. , Gov- 
ernor of His Majesty's Colony of Connect- 
icut, departed this life in the sixty-ninth 
year of his age ; being born at Ipswich, in 
New England, March 14, Anno, 1()3S : 
whose body is to be interred here on 
Thursday next, the 4th of December." 
His body was interred in the same tomb 
with his father and grandfather in the 
burying-ground at King's Chapel. 

Governor Winthrop lived in New Lon- 
don, and his home was long fanu>us for its 
unbounded hospitality. Miss Caulkins 
says of him: "His death was an impor- 
tant event to the town. As a member of 
the commonwealth it had lost its head. and 
as a community it was bereaved of a true 
friend and influential citizen. 

While Fitz-John Winthrop lacked the 
qualities of a statesman like his grand- 
father, or a scholar like his father, yer 
he is known in history as a brave sol- 
dier and an administrator of public affairs 
who W(ni the absolute trust of his con- 
stituents. His integrity and lofty jvitri- 
otism were unimpeachable. 



70 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



GURDON SALTONSTALL. 
1708-1725. Seventeen Years. 

The name of Saltonstall carries with it 
a long line of men distinguished in the- 
ology, at the bar, in the army and navy, 
and as statesmen. Richard Saltonstall, 
the first of note to bear the name, was a 
nephew of a lord-mayor of London, and a 
patentee of Connecticut. He returned to 
England and was one of the judges that 
sentenced Lords] Holland, Norwich, and 
Capel, the Duke of Hamilton, and Sir 
John Owen to death for treason. His 
great-grandson, Gurdon Saltonstall, was 
born in Haverhill, Mass., March 27, 1666. 
He was graduated from Harvard College in 
1684, studied theology, and was ordained 
the 19th of November, 1691 as the min- 
ister at New London. 

His career as a preacher was not only 
eminently satisfactory, but he was regard- 
ed as a scholar of finished qualities. It is 
said that his thorough knowledge of men 
and affairs, his polished majestic bearing, 
and his strong loyalty to the colonies made 
him one of the most valuable men in Con- 
necticut. He was one of the originators 
of the plan to establish a college in Con- 
necticut, and it is recorded by writers on 
the subject that he did much to have the 
institution situated in New Haven in- 
stead ,of Hartford. He is credited with 
having made the plans and estimates for 
the buildings. 

Among the clergymen of the colony he 
enjoyed great popularity. 

In 1698 Mr. Saltonstall was a member of 
a committee appointed to welcome the 
Earl of Bellomont when he visited this 
country. 

Governor Eitz-John Winthrop and Mr. 
Saltonstall were close friends ; in fact, 
during a long illness through which the 
governor passed, the minister acted as his 
chief adviser. Through tliis agency Sal- 
tonstall became intimately acquainted 
with the routine business of the colony, 
so that he was as familiar with the ques- 
tions of state as the governor himself. 
When, therefore. Governor Winthrop died 
in 1707 a special session of the General 
Assembly, called a month later, elected 
the Rev. Mr. Saltonstall as his successor. 



He began the duties of the office Jan. 1, 
1708, and in the May following was regu- 
larly elected by the people. Then began 
his long career as governor, which was ter- 
minated only by his death. 

His sudden transition from the preach- 
er's desk to the governor's chair was too 
sudden for the parishioners at New Lon- 
don. They were filled with grief and 
amazement, we are told, and Trumbull 
adds that the Assembly sent a letter to his 
people explaining that "their minister was 
called to engage in another important 
course of service and using arguments to 
induce them to acquiesce in the result." 
He was criticised and even censured for 
having given up the work of the ministry 
for a ' ' temporal office, ' ' and the Rev. Isaac 
Backus, a Baptist preacher and author 
of repute, wrote: "He readily quitted the 
solemn charge of souls for worldly promo- 
tion." The governor always retained his 
interest in the church at New London. 

One of his first acts as governor was to 
suggest the appointment of a synod of 
ministers and laymen for a more thorough 
system of ecclesiastical discipline. The 
outcome of this was the assemblage of 
Congregational clergymen at Saybrook, 
which framed the famous ' ' Saybrook Plat- 
form. ' ' 

In 1709 he was an agent of the colony to 
convey an address to Queen Anne, urging 
the conquest of Canada. 

In 1711, when Connecticut placed four 
hundred men in the field against Quebec, 
Governor Saltonstall personally conduct- 
ed them as far north as Albany. The dis- 
aster which befell stupid Sir Hovenden 
Walker, commander of the expedition, in 
Canadian waters, is well known. 

Governor Saltonstall practically intro- 
duced the printing press in Connecticut, 
as he put one into his house as early as 
1709. 

He died suddenly of apoplexy on Sep- 
tember 20, 1724, at his home in New Lon- 
don, and was buried two days later with 
high military and civic honors. "The 
horse and foot marched in four files ; the 
drums, colors, trumpets, halberts, and 
hilts of swords covered with black, and 
twenty cannon firing at half a minute's 
distance." Rev. Eliphalet Adams in his 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT, 



71 



\l 


. 


*% ^ 


^^p ' 







Fro7ti reprodiiction for the Comiecticiit Magaziiic by Raudall. 




72 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 




From reproduction for the Conncctintt Magazine hy Randall. 




GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



n 



funeral sermon, referring to his work for 
the college said: "Under his wing and 
care our little nursery of learning hath 
sprung up to that consistence, observation 
and strength that it is this day; and now 
it heartily bemoans the loss of its best 
friend under God." 

After the remains of the governor had 
been deposited in the tomb, two volleys 
belched from the fort, and then the mili- 
tary companies marching in single file, 
as each respectively came against the 
tomb, discharged, and so drew up orderly 
into a body as before and dismissed." 

Governor Saltonstall was a great man 
and an able executive. Professor Dex- 
ter has truly said that Yale College, in 
common with the whole colony, and in- 
deed with all New England, suffered a 
great loss in his sudden death. 

JOSEPH TALCOTT. 
1725-1742. Seventeen Years. 

Joseph Talcott was the first person to oc- 
ctipy the office of governor who was born 
in Connecticut. 

John Talcott, his grandfather, was a 
member of the committee that sat for the 
first time with the Court of Magistrates 
in 1637, and he was deputy every year fol- 
lowing until 1659. He was also an as- 
sistant and treasurer of the colony. His 
son, the governor's father, was treasurer 
of the colony and resigned in order to 
take command of the troops raised by Con- 
necticut to participate in King Philip's 
War. He was one of the patentees named 
in the charter, and died full of honors July 
23, 1688. 

Joseph Talcott was born in Hartford, 
November 11th or 16th, 1669, and was the 
fourth son of Colonel John Talcott and 
Helena Wakeman. His first appearance in 
public was when he petitioned the General 
Assembly in 1691 against the division of 
his father's property in Hartford. He 
claimed possession of all the real estate by 
right of primogeniture. At the age of 
twenty-three years Talcott was chosen se- 
lectman of Hartford, and in 1697 he was 
re-elected. From that time he held many 
offices in the colony. 

When the alarm of the Indian war 
flashed through Hartford and the colony 



in 1704, Lieutenant Joseph Talcott was 
appointed on a committee "to proportion 
and lay out to each person how much they 
shall make of the fortifications agreed on 
to be done on the north side of the river." 

He was also for twenty years amemVjer 
of the committee which managed the af- 
fairs of the Hopkins Grammar School in 
Hartford. In October, 1697, Talcott was 
appointed ensign of the Train Band in 
Hartford, "on the north side of the nv- 
erette," and also held various military 
offices until he was elected governor. In 
fact, he spent so much time in looking 
after military affairs of the colony that 
the General Assembly in 1724 voted him 
the sum of fifteen pounds " to be paid to his 
Honor out of the public treasury for his 
good services in that affair.'' First chos- 
en as a deputy from Hartford in 1708, he 
was then elected speaker of the ]o^^e^ 
House in the May session, and was made 
an assistant May, 1711. This latter office he 
held until elected deputy-governor in Oc- 
tober, 1723. In 1725 he was chosen govern- 
or and held the office during the next sev- 
enteen years, until 1742. 

Governor Talcott 's service to the courts 
of the colony was extensive and able. In 
May, 1721, he was appointed judge of the 
Supreme Court, and was also chief judge 
of the County Court and judge of the Pro- 
bate Court for Hartford county for a long 
course of years. 

During the long administration of Gos*- 
ernor Talcott the chief thing which at- 
tracts attention in the history of the col- 
ony was its constant growth by the estab- 
lishment of new towns. The town of 
Willington, destined to become the birth- 
place of one of the most famous of early 
.'Vmorican writers, started with twenty- 
seven inhabitants. The settlement of 
Somers, Cornwall, Salisbury, Canaan. 
Kent, Goshen, Torrington. Winchester, 
New Hartford, Hartland. Colebrook. Un- 
ion, Barkhanisted, East Haddam, and 
New Fairfield, followed in rapid success- 
ion, and demonstrated the thriving con- 
dition of the community they enlarged. 
Governor Talcott died late in 1741 and 
he was buried in the old cemetery in the 
rear of the Center Church at Hartford. 

In commenting on Governor Talcott 's 



74 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



career a writer has said: In summing 
•up Governor Talcott's character we may 
say that while not in any way a brilliant 
man he displayed sterling good sense, great 
faithfulness in performing the duties of 
his station, excellent judgment in manag- 
ing the affairs entrusted to him, and a 
disinclination to follow extreme measures 
in any direction. ' ' 

He left a large family, and many distin- 
guished descendants have not allowed the 
luster of the name to grow dim. 

JONATHAN LAW. 
1T42-1T51. Nine Years. 

Jonathan Law, twelfth governor of Con- 
necticut, was born in Milford, August 6, 
1674. Richard Law, his grandfather, was 
King's Attorney and emigrated to this 
country in 1635. 

Jonathan Law studied at Harvard Col- 
lege and was graduated in the class of 
1695. After studying law he commenced 
practice in his native towm in 1698, and 
with such success that he was soon made 
chief judge of the New Haven County 
Court. He held this office five years, when, 
in May, 1715, he was chosen as an asso- 
ciate judge of the Superior Court. In this 
capacity Law demonstrated his thorough 
knowledge of the law, so that his ability 
was rewarded two years later when he 
was chosen as a governor's assistant. 
He held this office eight years, until 1725, 
when he resigned, having been elected 
lieutenant-governor of the colony. Dur- 
the same year Law was made chief justice 
of the Superior Court, an office he held 
for seventeen years. 

Upon the death of Governor Talcott in 
1741 Jonathan Law succeeded as acting- 
governor until the time of the regular 
election in the spring, and he succeeded 
himself annually until his death in 1751. 

After the election of Governor Law it 
was the rule in Connecticut that a govern- 
or hold office until he died or refused to 
serve longer, when the deputy-governor 
took his place for a like term. 

The administration of Governor Law 
was uneventful, except for the expedition 
against Louisburg, commanded by Roger 
Wolcott, and for which Connecticut fur- 
nished a thousand men. Governor Law 



was a strong opponent of the preaching 
of Rev. George Whitfield and the other 
revivalists, and signed an act prohib- 
iting any itinerating clergymen or ex- 
horter from preaching in a parish with- 
out the express desire of the pastor or 
people. ' ' Under the provision of this law 
such preachers as the Rev. Samuel Fin- 
ley were driven from Connecticut as va- 
grants. 

The governor had an extensive farm 
near Cheshire, and he was one of the first 
to plant mulberry trees and introduce the 
raising of silk- worms. This industry Gov- 
ernor Law advocated and advertised in a 
public manner by appearing in 1747 wear- 
ing the first coat and stockings made of 
New England silk. Dr. Aspinwall of 
Mansfield and President Stiles of Yale 
College were both deeply interested in 
the industry and the latter wore a gown 
made of Connecticut silk at the next Com- 
mencement. From this humble begin- 
ning developed the extensive silk indus- 
try in Connecticut. 

Governor Law died on November 9, 1750, 
and at his funeral Dr. Ezra Stiles pro- 
nounced a eulogy in Latin which is still 
in print. He referred to the dead gov- 
ernor as "a most illustrious man and the 
great patron of Yale college." 

A biographer wrote, "He was unques- 
tionably a man of high talents and accom- 
plishments, both natural and acquired- 
He was well acquainted with civil and 
ecclesiastical subjects, and gradually rose 
by the force of his own exertions to the 
highest honor in the State. He was of a 
mild and placid temper, amiable in all the 
relations of domestic life, and seems to 
have well discharged the duties imposed 
upon him." 

A son, Richard Law, LL. D. (1733-1806) 
was graduated at Yale in 1751, and prac- 
tised law in New London. He was a del- 
egate to the Continental Congress in 1777. 
78 and in 1781-84, and mayor of New Lon- 
don for twenty years. The leading law- 
yer of that section of Connecticut, Law 
was made chief justice of the Supreme 
Court, and Washington appointed him 
judge of the United States District Court. 
Richard Law and Roger Sherman revised 
the laws of Connecticut. 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



75 



ROGER WOLCOTT. 
1751-1754. Three Years. 

On the fourth of January, 1679, in the 
town of ^Vindsor, was born Roger Wolcott, 
the progenitor of a famous family. In 
the section of Windsor where the Wolcotts 
lived onslaughts from the Indians were so 
frequent that it was imiDOSsible for the in- 
habitants to support either a minister or 
school-master. It is said by one writer 
that Roger Wolcott did not attend a com- 
mon school a day in his life. As a boy he 
learned the weaver's trade, and at the age 
of twenty-one went into that business for 
himself. By great industry he acquired in 
a moderate length of time what was con- 
sidered a competence. 

In 1709 he was chosen as a representa- 
tive from Windsor, and a justice of the 
peace the following year. Wolcott was 
selected as commissary of the Connecticut 
troops in the expedition against Canada in 
1711. In 1714 he became a member of the 
Governor's Council, which position he 
held when chosen judge cf the County 
Court in 1721. His ability as a judge was 
so generally recognized that in 1732 he was 
raised to the bench of the Supreme Court 
of the colony. In 1741 Wolcott served 
as deputy-governor of the colony, and 
chief justice of the Supreme Court. When 
Connecticut in 1745 furnished one thou- 
sand men for the famous expedition against 
Louisburg, Wolcott was made a major- 
g-eneral and placed in command of the Con- 
necticut troops. During the famous siege 
General W^olcott was second in command, 
Sir William Pepperell being the chief of- 
ficer. 

Wolcott succeeded Jonathan Law as gov- 
ernor when the latter died in November, 
1750, and was continued in office for three 
years. His administration, on the whole, 
was satisfactory, but near the end of its 
last year an unfortunate affair occurred 
which injured his popularity. A Spanish 
vessel, while in distress, put into New 
London harbor for protection. While at 
anchor she was robbed of a portion of her 
valuable cargo. Complaint was made to 
the Crown by the Spanish ambassador at 
London. There was £v good deal of agita- 
tion over the matter, and for a time it 



looked as if the Connecticut colony would 
be held responsible for the loss. Gov- 
ernor Wolcott was blamed and severely 
censured on account of existing conditions 
in that part of the colony which made 
such a robbery possible. Public resent- 
ment of what they called "official neg- 
ligence," was widespread, and the epi- 
sode cost Governor Wolcott a re-election. 

From his retirement in 1754, Governor 
Wolcott did not again enter public life, 
but lived quietly at his old home in Wind- 
sor. He devoted the remainder of his life to 
religious meditation and literary pursuits. 
Although he had no education whatever 
Governor Wolcott by hard and extensive 
reading fitted himself for his career in life. 
To literature he devoted much time, and 
a small volume entitled, "Poetical Medita- 
tions," was written by him and published 
at New London in 1725. It was a collec- 
tion of six short poems, and a long narra- 
tive poem entitled,- "A Brief Account of 
the Agency of Hon. John Winthrop in the 
Court of King Charles the Second, Anno 
Domini, 1662, when he obtained a Charter 
for the Colony of Coimecticut." This 
poem has been printed in the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society collection. A let- 
ter written to the Rev. Peter Hobart in 
1761, entitled, "The New England Con- 
gregational Churches, etc.," is reprinted 
in Everest's "Poets of Connecticut." 

Governor Wolcott died on May 17, 1767, 
at Windsor in the eighty-ninth year of his 
age. On his tomb is the following in- 
scription : 

"Earth's highest station ends in 'Here 
he lies, ' 

And 'dust to dust' concludes her noblest 
song. ' ' 

Governor Wolcott 's son, Oliver, was af- 
terward governor of the Sta!:e ; and an- 
other one, Erastus, was a judge of the Su- 
preme Court. 

THOMAS FITCH. 
1754-1766. Twelve Years. 

President Dwight once said that Gov- 
ernor Thomas Fitch was "probably the 
most learned lawyer who had ever become 
an inhabitant of the Colony." For a 
long period he held a foremost position 
among Connecticut lawyers, and won a 
distinguished place in the profession. 



76 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



Born in Norwalk in 1700, Thomas Fitch 
was a son of one of the first settlers of the 
town. He studied at Yale College and 
was graduated in a class of thirteen in 
1721. Five years later he was licensed 
to preach as a supply in the Norwalk 
church, "at thirty shillings per Sabbath. ' ' 
In May of the same year he began his 
long public career by serving asadeputj' 
to the General Assembly. Afterward he 
was elected a justice of the peace and 
served from 1726 to 1730 in the Assembly, 
when he was nominated as a governor's 
assistant. He had previously studied law, 
and was so successful in the practice of his 
profession that in 1742 he was appointed 
on a committee to revise the laws of the 
colony. The work dragged along for two 
years, when in May, 1744, Fitch was 
asked to revise the laws himself without 
the aid of the committee. He accom- 
plished the gigantic task in six years, and 
the result of his labors was published at 
New London. The revision called forth 
praise in both America and England. 

Serving as an assistant in 1734 and 1735, 
and from 1740 to 1750, Fitch was then 
chosen deputy-governor by the Assembly, 
in special session on account of the death 
of Governor Law, to take the place of 
Roger Wolcott who had been advanced to 
the office of governor. At the same time 
he was selected as chief judge of the Su- 
perior Co art of the colony. He was elect- 
ed to the office of deputy-governor every 
year until 1754, when he became governor 
of the colony. The French war began at the 
commencement of Governor Fitch's term 
of office, and the long dreary struggle occu- 
pisd much of his attention. The clouds of 
the Revolution were 'gathering during the 
last year of his administration and his 
course at this time resulted in his being 
Ijractically forced to retire from office. 

Governor Fitch reported to the Lords 
of Trade on September 7, 1762, that the 
population of the colony amounted to "a 
hundred and forty-one thousand whites, 
and four thousand five hundred and nine- 
ty blacks, or thereabouts." 

Connecticut experienced a share of the 
excitement resulting from the passage of 
the Stamp Act. In March, 1764, George 
Grenville, Prime Minister of England, in- 



troduced his budget of "Declaratory 
Resolves" in the House of Commons, 
and one year was to elapse before 
the Stamp Act was to go into effect. 
The following May the Connecticut 
Assembly appointed a committee, in- 
cluding Governor Fitch, "to collect and 
set in the most advantageous light 
all such arguments and objections as 
might justly and reasonably be advanced 
against creating and collecting a revenue 
in America, especially against effecting the 
same by stamp duties." The outcome of 
the work of the committee was set forth in 
a pamphlet, written by Governor Fitch, en- 
titled, "Reasons why the British Colonies, 
in America, should not be charged w ith in- 
ternal taxes, by Authority of the Parlia- 
ment, humbly offered, for consideration, 
in behalf of the Colony of Connecticut. ' ' 
This was forwarded by order of the Assem- 
bly to the colony's agent in London. 

Lord Halifax addressed a circular to 
Governor Fitch in 1764, asking him to pre- 
pare for the use of the British ministry a 
schedule of particulars as a guide for fram- 
ing the proposed act. The governor 
took advantage of the opportunity to enter 
further remonstrance against the Stamp 
Act. The act was assented to by George 
III., March 22, 1765, and according to its 
terms every colonial governor was obliged 
to take an oath before November 1st to in- 
sure the Crown of their loyalty in its sup- 
port. The penalty for refusal to take this 
oath on the part of a governor was removal 
from office and a fine of 5,000 pounds. Ex- 
citement ran high in the colony as the 
time approached for the obnoxious act to 
go into effect. 

Evidently fearing the royal mandate, 
Governor Fitch threw the inhabitants of 
Connecticut into an uncontrollable rage, 
when on October 29, 1765, he took the oath 
to sustain the law he had so ably opposed. 
The wrath against his course grew apace 
as the time for re-election approached. 
Two months before the election, in March 
1766, the governor published an anony- 
mous pamphlet which is still preserved in 
the library of Yale University. It was 
entitled, "Some Reasons that influenced 
the Governor to take, and the Councilors 
to administer, the Oath." This able de- 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



73* 



fense of his actions did not ward off the 
impending blow and he was succeeded by 
Willaim Pitkin. 

After his defeat Governor Fitch lived in 
retirement until his death, which occurred 
at Norwalk on July 18, 1774, in the sev- 
enty-fourth year of his age. In the sermon 
delivered at the funeral of Governor 
Fitch, the Rev. Moses Dickinson (Y. C, 
1717), his pastor, spoke of the dead gov- 
ernor's life-work in glowing terms. Re- 
ferring to his revision of the laws of 
the colony, he said the work was "justly 
esteemed by gentlemen in Great Britain, 
who are acquainted with them, to be the 
best code of plantation laws that were 
ever published." 

The governor's descendants have been 
leading citizens in the southwestern por- 
tion of Connecticut. 

WILLIAM PITKIN. 

1766-1769. Three Years. 

William Pitkin, the governor who dis- 
tinguished himself during the excitement 
attending the passage of the Stamp Act, 
by his bold, uncompromising advocacy of 
the cause of the colonies, was born April 
20, 1694, in the town of East Hartford. Of 
his early life and education we know very 
little. He was a member of the Pit- 
kin family that furnished a number of 
brilliant men to the commonwealth at 
different periods. At the age of nineteen 
William Pitkin was chosen town collector. 
He was afterward a representative in the 
General Assembly from 1728 to 1734. 
During these years he took a deep inter- 
est in military affairs, becoming a captain 
of the Train Band in 1730 and a colonel 
in 1734. In 1734 he became a member of 
the Governor's Council, and the year fol- 
lowing was appointed a judge of the Coun- 
ty Court. He occupied this position until 
1752. Governor Pitkin was also a judge 
of the Superior Court, and served as 
chief justice of the Supreme Court for 
twelve years. 

In all matters that pertained to the fu- 
ture welfare of Connecticut, and in the 
days when the colony was rearing the 
structure of its future freedom, Governor 
Pitkin was an important figure. 

He was a member of the famous Albany 



convention of 1754, when Franklin offered 
a plan for the union of the colonies. Gov. 
Pitkin also served on the committee, of 
which Franklin was chairman, appointed 
by the convention to draft a constitution. 
Always a strong -exponent of colonial 
rights, Pitkin was one of the first in Con- 
necticut to resist the Stamp Act, when 
the British ministry undertook to foist 
that measure on the colonies. He was 
thoroughly uncompromising in his de- 
nunciation of the Act, and when on Oc- 
tober 29, 1765, Governor Fitch took the 
oath to uphold it, William Pitkin, then 
lieutenant-governor, showed his courage 
in a forcible manner. Mr. Pitkin, to- 
gether with several other prominent men, 
including Jonathan Trumbull, were in the 
room where Governor Fitch and mem- 
bers of the Council were to take the oath 
to support the Act. Pitkin indignantly 
rebelled against the action of the gov- 
ernor, and, in company with the sturdy 
Trumbull, deliberately left the room while 
the oath was being administered. This 
patriotic act was thoroughly commended 
by the majority of the people of Connect- 
icut, and they manifested their appro- 
bation in a substantial way when, in the 
following May, 1766, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the colony by an overwhelming 
majority. 

A newspaper of that day rather face- 
tiously remarked, in commenting on the 
election, that Pitkin's majority over Fitch 
— who had fallen into popular disfavor—^ 
"was so great that the votes were not 
counted." Governor Pitkin's course 
through the stormy period preceding the 
Revolution was uniformly consistent ar.d 
eminently patriotic, which called forth 
the plaudits of his constituents. He died 
while in office, in October, 1769. 

His biographer tells us that the gov- 
ernor was "of commanding appearance, 
highly affable and pleasing in manner." 
The following inscription is on his monu- 
ment : ' ' Here lieth interred the body of 
William Pitkin, Esq.— late Gov. of the 
Colony of Conn. To the God of Nature 
indebted for all his talents, he aimed to 
employ them in Religion, without affec- 
tation, chearful Humble, and Temperate, 
zealous and bold for the Truth, Faithful 



bers 



•The first folio of this section should read 77 instead of 73. Folios up to 88 inclusive .ire thus advanced tour num- 
The occasion of this change being the insertion of the four Governor's Plates. 



74 



FAIR MAIDS OF LONG AGO. 



in distributing Justice, Scattering away 
Evil with his Eye, an Example of Chris- 
tian Virtue, a Patron of his Country, a 
Benefactor to the Poor, a Tender Parent, 
and Faithful Friend. Twelve years he 
presided in the Superior Court, and three 



and a half Gov. in Chief. After serving 
his generation by the will of God, with 
calmness and serenity, fell on sleep, the 
1st day of October, A. D., 1769— in the 
76th year of his Age." 





FAIR MAIDS OF LONG AGO. 



MABEL WARD CAMERON. 




M^^=^^'^^«^^=*^'^^^ 




Great grandmother Zerviah, so quaint your name and pleasing. 
Your house so neat; your larder full; you've left a lasting fame. 

Homespun clothed your family, 

This spoon often stirred your tea. 
Would too I owned your many virtues, and your curious name ! 

Elizabeth, and Agnes, Joanna, too, and Mary, 

Sailed from old England's shores three centuries ago, 

These daughters, wives, and mothers, 

With fathers, husbands, brothers. 
Faced the weary winters, 'mid New England's ice and snow. 

In the new world's forests, fighting, working, praying. 

The austere Puritan Fathers were alert to watch and guard, 

And the mothers ever bringing 

Prayers to mingle with their singing, 
Nor regrets for old world comforts their simple home life marred. 

And little strangers coming, sent from Heaven to bless and brighten, 
Personified their parents' many noble traits and thought. 

Little Mindwell playing gaily, 

Met with Faith and Patience daily, 
The laws for every action in the Holy Writ were sought. 



FAIR MAIDS OF LONG AGO, 75 

Experience, light-hearted, beside the big wheel sitting. 
Smiling, passed the time with hymns until her task was done, 

Singing, sweetly singing, 

'Round, 'round the big wheel swinging, 
With never thought of leaving until her stint was spun. 

Years passed, the Anglo-Saxon, a conquering race triumphant. 
The Red Man routed or subdued, the wild beasts drove away. 

With naught to dread or frighten. 

The sombre households brighten, 
Fancy the forest's child was bred, and Romance had full sway. 

Fair Phillury and Abi, with stately step advancing, 
With Abiah and Sevilla dance a minuet with grace. 

While Azubah, haughty lady, 

Adown the long walk shady. 
Her train upheld by little page, to her carriage walks apace. 

Lovicy, youthful housewife, a victim to ambition. 

Too well she learned the homely arts — so young she was to die ! 

Electa mounting gladly 

On a pillion, gallops madly 
Across the woodland pathway, the fragrant meadows by. 

With^viol, flute, and fiddle, sweet voices blend and mingle. 
In Sunday choir, and singing school^ — O Grandmothers sedate ! 

Harmonious through the ages, 

Singing of J them on the pages. 
Are names on musty records, kept by Church or State. 

Lucia, Diantha, Abigail, Anne, Aurelia, 

Jemime, Rosanna— how sweetly flows the rhyme ! 

Named for sacred mount — Moriah, 

With Florilla and Bethiah, 
Sweet maidens conjured up for us, after this lapse of time. 



PRESIDENT McKINLEY'S TRIBUTE. 



EXECUTIVE MANSION. 

WASHINGTON. 



February 9, 1901, 



The death of Johrs Addison Porter brought to a 



preeiature end a career of honor and v/orthy public 



service. ■ His ideals were high, ami his lifia,'^all 



too short, v/as bright ?.'ith promise. He t/as a faith-. 



ful friend and to me as to others who knew him wall 



his death v/as a personal s'orrov/ 







TESTIMONIAL TO THE HON. JOHN ADDISON PORTER BY PRESIDENT^McKINLEY. 
(By request of The Connecticut Magazine.) 



JOHN ADDISON PORTER. 



BY NORRIS G. OSBORNE. 



John Addison Porter was born at New 
Haven, April 17, 1856. He died at Pom- 
fret, December 15, 1900. His was a short 
career, the major part of which was spent 
in preparation for the public service. 
As a boy the very thought of it fascinated 
liim and left an impression upon his char- 
acter which was seen and appreciated by 
his friends and by the community in 
which he lived. His failure to achieve 
all that his youthful dreams had pictured 
to his imagination constitutes something 
of a tragedy — such, unfortunately, as the 
pages of history are filled with. Disease 
and death overtook him at the very mo- 
ment when his political star was in the 
ascendant. He had learned the practical 
lesson of life and was ready to apply it to 
Tiis own ambitions. What had been de- 
nied him was being prepared for him in 
that odd and eccentric crucible which we 
call public opinion. 

Mr. Porter came from a distinguished 
parentage. His mother was a daughter 
of the honored founder of the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale, Joseph E. Shef- 
field. His father, who also bore the name 
of John Addison Porter, was a distin- 
guished scientist, and the first dean of 
the department of Yale founded by his 
father-in-law. The atmosphere of his 
home was refined and ennobling. His 
early education was secured at the famous 
schools of New Haven, Russell's Collegi- 
ate Institute, and the Hopkins Gram- 
mar School. In 1874 he entered Yale Col- 
lege with the class of 1878 and was grad- 
uated four years later with honors. He 
was in every sense of the word a bene- 
ficiary of the best educational traditions 
and influences of New Haven, and re- 
mained to the end a loyal and affection- 
ate supporter of them. 

After graduation he studied law at Cleve- 
land, O., in the office of his uncle, as a 



further preparation for a public career. 
At this time the attractions of journalism 
began to fascinate him and draw him in- 
to its circle. He did work of a general 
character upon New Haven and Hartford 
newspapers, while taking a post-graduate 
course in American history at Yale. This 
concluded, he became literary editor of 
the New York Observer, a position which 
he continued to hold until he was called 
to Washington to act as secretary to his 
uncle, the late William Walter Phelps, 
then a member of Congress from New Jer- 
sey. He continued there his literary stud- 
ies and historical researches, which the 
nearness and vastness of the Congress- 
ional Library favored. In 1888 he invested 
in the stock of the Hartford Ereniug Fi>.'<t, 
and later became its controlling editor 
and publisher, a position whch he re- 
tained until its sale two years ago. 

Mr. Porter was a. member of the State 
House of Representatives from Pomfret 
during the memorable deadlock session 
of 1891 and '93, and was conspicuous in the 
council-room of the Republican "steer- 
ing" committee, exhibiting there a judg- 
ment and patience which brought him the 
respect of both colleagues and adversaries. 
It was in consequence of the qualities he 
then displayed and the service he then 
gave that he was elected a delegate in 1892 
to the Republican National Convention 
which assembled at Minneapolis and nom- 
inated Benjamin Harrison for President. 
It was during the preliminary campaign 
of 1896 that he was thrown into person- 
ally intimate relations with President 
McKinley, whom he supported with en- 
thusiasm and i^ersistence. It was through 
his efforts that the Connecticut delegi\- 
tion to the National Convention refrained 
from endorsing Mr. Reed for President, 
though he could do no more than divide 
its vote between the aspirant from Maine 



77 



78 



JOHN ADDISON PORTER, 



and the aspirant from Ohio. During the 
campaign which followed Mr. McKinley's 
nomination he took an active part and 
contributed materially to the large plu- 
ralities secured. 

It was Mr. Porter's preference to rep- 
resent his country at a foreign post. He 
made a dignified and self-respecting pre- 
sentation of his claims, but was persuaded 
by the President-elect to postpone that 
ambition and become his confidential sec- 
retary, a post which was immediately 
increased in dignity to almost the level 
of a cabinet folio. He reluctantly yielded 
to the President's desires, though in tem- 
perament better fitted for the former posi- 
tion. Having, however, plighted his troth, 
so to speak, he threw himself, upon the 
inauguration of the President-elect, into 
his responsible work with an abandon and 
spirit which both surprised and alarmed 
his friends. He became indispensable to 
the President, and in acknowledgment 
received that gentleman's sincere affec- 
tion. It was through Mr. Porter's influ- 
ence that Yale conferred the august degree 
of Doctor of Laws upon. President McKin- 
ley, and that Yale became so conspicu- 
ously identified with his administration. 
It was Mr. Porter who gave willing and 
sympathetic ear to the ambitions of Yale 
men, which caused the eyes of his exalted 
chief to frequently twinkle with sup- 
pressed merriment. It was only necessary 
to speak to Mr. Porter of the nesds of the 
Yale Battery, encamped during the sum- 
mer of 1898 at Niantic, without guns and 
horses, to enlist the hearty co-operation of 
the President and the Secretary of War. 
His influence with the President at all 
times was marked, and such selections to 
positions of great responsibility as that 
of his friend and classmate. Judge Wil- 
liam O. Taft, to the presidency of the 
Philippine Commission, can be traced in 
part to his judgment. 

Socially Mr. Porter's influence in 
Washington was not second to that of a 
cabinet officer. There was born in him 
that gracious love of the amenities of life 
which made him the most charming of 
hosts. He gathered about his "mahog- 
any," as Mr. Bromley delighted to call 
the dinner-table, men drawn fom the va- 



rious walks in life which develop in 
them breadth of view, convictions of a 
mature character, and thoughts beyond the 
mere material things of life. Mr. Porter 
loved a man of genuine character above 
all things, and though not infrequently 
a victim of men, who were designing by 
nature and cunning in their control of 
others, he would return from contact with 
them in a spirit of buoyancy and inno- 
cence, which left his intimate friends in 
doubt as to the real dominant character- 
istics of his nature. He received his guests 
with the grace of a woman, presided over 
his entertainments with the steadiness of 
refinement, conducted the conversation 
with the grace of intellectual cultivation, 
and dismissed his guests with a kindliness, 
which in an older man would have been 
a benediction. He was "the gentleman" 
in all his social relations, and it was that 
quality which the most select of official 
and diplomatic society in Washington saw 
and admired in him, and it was on that ac- 
count that his social life there was so full 
of brightness and gladness. 

I may be permitted to recall a gathering 
about his abundant board during the hur- 
ried preparations of the government 
for the war with Spain. From every 
quarter of the country came the volunteer 
soldier, whose patriotism had been fired 
with the desire to serve the flag and up- 
hold the cause of freedom. It was Mr. 
Porter who discovered among the troops 
encamped at Camp Alger a score of Yale 
graduates, youngsters as well as seasoned 
men, who had, in several instances, left 
business and professional cares of impor- 
tance and homes of comfort to enlist for 
the expansion of the territorial limits of 
democratic policies of government. These 
were the men whom he gathered about 
his hospitable dining-room. Some were 
attired in the uniform of th.e cavalry, 
with yellow facings, already soiled with 
the stains of a hurried encampment, while 
others wore the white of the infantry 
darkened slightly with the penetrating 
dust of the highway whch lay between 
the camp-ground and the city. It was a 
spectacle which derived effective color- 
ing and significance from the atmosphere 
of "business" which surrounded officer 



JOHN ADDISON PORTER. 



79 



and private. The smart dress-uniform of 
the ball-room would have deprived the 
event of its dominant charm, and raade 
comparatively distinguished the three or 
four graduate guests, who appeared timid 
and out of place in their conventional 
evening di:ess and spotless shirt-fronts. 

Mr. Porter never appeared to better ad- 
vantage than upon that occasion. It was 
but the labor of love for old Yale to "be- 
nevolently assimilate'' the soldiers and 
citizens of varying ages, and spread over 
the feast that spirit of pure comradeship, 
which voluntarily broke forth in song 
and unrestricted merriment, to his im- 
mense gratification. His eyes shone with 
a peculiar light that evening, which was 
afterward commented upon by those of us 
who dropped private interests to lay him 
away, as exj^ressive of his love and pride 
in the Yale that had done so much for 
him, and which was there before his eyes 
personifying its spirit of generous sacri- 
fice and profound patriotism. He reluc- 
tantly parted with his guests who in im- 
agination had heard "taps" sounded, with 
the assurance upon his lips that it had been 
the most enjoyable of his many happy 
hours in that hospitable home. And there 
was a sadness felt by those who left him 
upon the threshold, for already care and 
worry and the warning of physical weak- 
ness had left their shadows upon his face, 
which even his cordial smile and fasci- 
nating self -depreciation could not chase 
away. 

If I were to attempt to put my finger 
upon Mr. Porter's distinguishing char- 
acteristic it would b3 his downright 
honesty, for he was absolutely incorrup- 
tible. His ambitions were as pure as the 
means he took to gratify them. He did 
not always use the tact and judgment 
that men who succeed by the favor of 
their fellows find it essential to use, but 
then he was not "smooth" and "unc- 
tions" by nature. Generous to a fault 
and as full of emotion as a child, he was 
more apt, through a kind of absent mind- 
edness, to give an impression that he 
was neither. He was considered aristo- 
cratic when at heart he was a democrat. 
He was thought exclusive at the very mo- 
ment when his heart yearned for the most 



intimate association. He was shy, with 
all his powers of aggressive candor, and 
oftentimes, under the spell of an odd em- 
barrassment, he would appear, or was 
thought to appear, conscious. How often 
indeed do men overlook in their near- 
est and dearest friends the qualities which 
lie at the very base of their characters, 
not to clearly see the existence of which 
takes from them what they would most 
value and profit in. 

There was a touch of the poet in John 
Addison Porter. It led him on the one 
hand to do creditable literary work, and 
moved him on the other hand to stand in 
the way of his own political advancement. 
Had his ambition to be governor of his 
native State been a task to be entrusted 
to his literary instinct he would have suc- 
ceeded in the first of his three character- 
istic campaigns. Being a task essentially 
practical and human, he was frequently 
misled in his judgment and induced to 
put his confidence in measures which were 
inoperative. For example, what he 
thought was a most honorable and effec- 
tive means of demonstrating his fitness for 
executive office, namely, his newspaper, 
proved his undoing, just as the news- 
paper has proved the undoing of equally 
sensitive and high-strung souls before 
his day. It takes a poet to believe in the 
elevating power of newspaper editing. 
The more practical man uses the newspa- 
per edited by another and for whose di- 
rection he is not raspousible. 

Men differ in this work-a-day world of 
ours with regard to what cont^titutes suc- 
cess. The hateful doctrine that "there is 
no success like success" has sunk so deep- 
ly into the hearts of men, and society in- 
sists upon such distinction being shown 
the beneficiaries of its accidental achieve- 
ments, that we are given no fixed stan- 
dard of value to guide us in an e.-timate of 
a man's character and his service in life. 
There are doubtless men who look ui>ou 
Mr. Porter's career a^ setting forth a lim- 
ited success if not actual failure. Had 
he succeeded in his known ambitious 
he would, in their eyes, have been success- 
ful. That is an inadequate judgment, 
since few men, even among those who 
gratify mere ambition, reach that achieve- 



80 A TRAGEDY OF NATURE, 

ment in deeds which satisfies the ideals fications which make a bold crusader. > It 

they had set for themselves. was his mission to do, not to he.^ 

It was Mr. Porter's mission to purify Mr. Porter was more than an interest- 

and not to gratify. He raised the stan- ing figure in the contemporaneous life of 

dard of civic life by exposing the humbug Connecticut. He was a force in it, and 

of the false civic life which selfishness his influence went for better things and a 

and meanness had created. He did not nobler standard. He has been recruited 

cure, but he did strengthen and reinforce. into the larger but more silent army of 

He demonstrated the lack of qualifica- men whose work has been done, but the 

tions which make a successful campaign- example he set and the ends he sought 

er. He exhibited the possession of quali- are still conspicuously] before [men's eyes. 



A TRAGEDY OF NATURE. 



BY H. ARTHUR POWELL. 



Environed by the rude and wild a lovely flower grew ; 
Her tinted petals, velvet-piled, gleamed 'neath the crystal dew. 
By contrast with the chill gray earth her beauty was enhanced, 
And ever as the breeez did pipe she sweetly, shyly danced. 
One day a bold young bee flew by, upon some business bent, 
When suddenly she caught his eye, and quite changed his intent. 
So back he flew, the flower to woo ; she blushed as he alighted, 
And yet methinks I had a view of eyes whose glance invited, 
So courtly was the young bee's grace, such ease in every motion, 
So thrilling was his mellow bass, like the sea-shell's song of ocean, 

That, while she blushed and hung her head, yet listened she, enchanted, 
And ere he sung his heart's desire, his heart's desire was granted. 

The morrow came ; again I trod the steps of yestermorn. 

And came again upon the spot where ill-starred love was born. 

The pain of pity touched my heart, for prone upon her bed. 

All broken, faded, and alone, there lay the flower — dead. 
Her healthy bloom and beauty gone, and gone her singing lover. 
Who but the day before had hung so dotingly above her. 

What was it broke her trusting heart — was she deceived, forsaken? 

Or was she by the wanton Wind rude-bufl'eted and and shaken 
Until her fair head drooped to earth, and with one perfumed sigh 
She yielded up to him her life to swell his lusty joy? 

And did the bee, returning from his work at set of sun. 

Behold with grief the murder that the wicked Wind had done? 
Vain, vain our speculation. God knows, who marks the fall 
Of bird and man and nation ; He knows the truth, and all. 

The mysteries of nature lie open to His eye ; 

He knows the cause of action and the springs of tragedy. 



CONNECTICUT'S GOVERNORS AND SPEAKERS 
OF THE HOUSE. 

1897. 1899. 1901. 




Governor Lorln A. Cooke. 
Speaker Joseph L. Barbour. 



Governor George E. Lounsbury. 
Speaker Frank E. Brandegee. 



Governor George P. MoLonn. 
Speaker John H. Light. 



On February twentieth, in Foot Guard 
Armory, Hartford, the Legislative Asso- 
ciation of the Session of 1897, held its 
annual reunion. A dinner was served in 
the elaborately and tastefully decorated 
hall to the members and their guests — 
456 in all. There were present many 
prominent members of other sessions. 
81 



The Hon. Joseph L. Barbour, speaker of 
the House of 1897, was toastmaster. and 
opened the after-dinner speeches with 
some of his characteristic and felicitous 
remarks. 

Above are excellent likenesses of gov- 
ernors, and speakers of the House, of the 
last three terms. 



THE REAL NICK GOODALL 

IN 

"EBEN HOLDEN." 



*■ Mrs. Collins, well-known for her papers on eco- 
nomics and reforms, is that rarity in these days— a 
daughter of a soldier of the Revolution, whose name, 
James Parmele, is on the Revolutionary roll at the 
Connecticut State Capitol. Mrs. Collins, who Is in 
her eighty-seventh year, wrote the following valua- 
ble personal reminiscence after reading "Eben Hol- 
den."— Editor. 



I 




T may have 
been the 
popula r i- 
ty of Mr. 
Westcott's 
amusing 
book, "David 
Harum, ' ' that 
enc o u r'a'g e^d 
another^writer 
to try his pen 
in nearly the 
same almost 
untilled field 
of literary ef- 
fort ; and the 
phenomenal 
sale of his 
book, "Eben 
Holden, ' ' calling for the hundredth edi- 
tion in three months from the time 
of its first issue, attests the success 
of his work, which gives a lifelike 
picture of the manners and social 
habits of the uncultured country peo- 
ple of New England and the Northern 
States a half century ago. Their gen- 
eral uprightness of character, sturdy com- 
mon-sense, and genuine kindness are all 
well shown and make us Yankees, or of 
Yankees born, not ashamed of our ances- 
try. The quaint dialect and familiar 
expressions forcibly remind the reader, 
who lived in those days, of the half -for- 
gotten scenes of her earlier years. 

In one episode in Mr. Bacheller's book 

he introduces and most vivdly describes 

an abnormal, half-insane character whom 

the writer of this paper well knew forty 

82 



years ago in Rochester, N. Y. It was 
Nick Goodall, a young man of twenty-five 
or thirty years, who had not the common 
sense of a five-year-old child. But as a 
violinist he was a second Paganini. He 
never used notes, but could play the most 
difficult pieces of classical music correctly 
as well as other kinds. He could never 
be made to realize the necessity of keep- 
ing an engagement. And if he did remem- 
ber it he played anything that his own ca- 
price selected without regard to the pro- 
gram or the wishes of others. 

He always appeared respectably dressed 
and neat and clean in his person. His 
music was such an attraction to my fam- 
ily that we often invited him to our home 
with his violin, which was his insepara- 
ble companion. Nothing of his history 
or kindred was known, but there was 
a story current that in early childhood he 
exhibited a most marvelous musical tal- 
ent, and that in order to perfect it his 
father made him practise so constantly 
that every other sense remained undevel- 
oped, and he grew up a half idiot. Yet 
at times, like some insane people, he ex- 
hibited much adroitness and cunning. 
The following incident shows this pecu- 
liarity. 

(We shall not attempt so formidable a 
ghost-story as they produce in Chicago, 
but ours will have the rare merit of being 
strictly true.) 

On a sultry Sabbath evening in the sum- 
mer of 1861, while the last notes of the 
deep-toned organ rolled out a solemn 
good-night to the dispersing throng who 
met to worship in one of our largest and 
most fashionable churches, the young sex- 
ton stood by the side of one of the outer 
doors, perchance to inhale a breath of 
fresh air, or possibly to catch a glance from 
a certain pair of bright eyes among the 
crowd. He stood there till the last foot- 



NICK GOODALL. 



83 



steps of the retiring multitude had died 
away, when he turned and re-entered the 
church — proceeding to arrange it prepar- 
atory to leaving it. He fastened the side 
entrance, carefully spread the canvas cov- 
ering over the rich, velvet-cushioned desk, 
shut the doors leading to the other apart- 
ments, turned off the gas, and was trip- 
ping lightly down the carpeted aisl^ to 
make his exit from the only remaining 
unlocked entrance, when a slight sound, 
like the creak of a door-handle, caught his 
ear. He turned round. The moonbeams 
struggling through the stained window- 
panes, cast a dreamy light over the spa- 
cious room, and he saw the door, which 
he had just closed, at the right of the pul- 
pit, standing ajar. 

"Who's there? "shouted the sexton, as 
the idea struck him that some sleeping 
worshiper had been left behind. "Who's 
there?" And the lofty ceiling echoed 
back his voice. Immediately there was 
a heavy sound, as though some ponderous 
body had fallen upon the floor in the ad- 
joining apartment. At once he thought 
some mischievous wight was playing him 
a trick ; and he dashed back, burst open 
the door leading into the room and 
peered round. But no semblance of life 
in the faint light could be seen. 

Lighting a small lamp !he searched care- 
fully through the different rooms. In vain 
he looked. He could discover nothing that 
could produce the movement of the door, 
or the sound he had heard. Suddenly his 
lamp was extinguished — possibly by a 
quick, nervous motion of his hand that 
held it. A creeping chill began to steal 
through the young sexton's veins. Just 
then there flitted through his mind all 
the stories of hobgoblins and haunted 
houses that ever he had heard or read — 
from "AUoway's Auld Haunted Kirk," 
down to the last* mysterious "noises" in 

a house on B street. On the day 

previous, the funeral of a well-known 
personage had been held at the church, 
and the thought came over him that the 
unquiet spirit had wandered back to the 
scenes of its earthly pilgrimage. He had 
seen in the presence of so-called spiritual 
mediums, tables dance a pirouette without 
any visbile cause, and chairs fly off on a 



tangent as [if imbued with life and intel- 
ligence. But it was quite 'another thing 
to witness such movements in the night, 
alone in that vast silent edifice. 

Still determined to crush down the rising 
terror which now thrilled his frame, and 
relieve himself from the imputation of 
cowardice, our sexton shouted : 

"Man or devil, show yourself, or I'll 
lock you in !" The echo of his own words 
was the only response. 

He waited a moment. Was it imagi- 
nation, or did he hear a sound? — some- 
thing between a groan and smothered 
cough. He looked at the place from which 
the noise proceeded, but saw — nothing, 
and started to leave, when — crea): ! He 
turned and lo ! the door on the other side 
of the pulpit was slowly swinging back, 
No form was visible ; but there the door 
stood wide open for a moment, then 
gently closed again, while each particular 
hair on our sexton's head rose upright. 
He waited no longer, but on the double- 
quick down the long aisle he retreated 
toward the vestibule, feeling at every 
step that some undefined yet tangible 
horror was following closely at his heels, 
ready to clutch him. He reached the door, 
bounded out, turned the key, and rushed 
into the street. 

Breathing freely again, he made his way 
homeward, but with trembling limbs and 
a blanched face that elicited from his 
friends anxious inquiries after his health. 
He was "well," but he should "surren- 
der the keys of the church tomorrow," 

adding rather indignantly that Dr. S 

might "run it alone," for all his aid — 
as though the reverend doctor was re- 
sponsible for the diablerie at the church. 
No explanation could be elicited. But 
daylight dissipated his fears, without 
doubt ; for he returned the keys, though 
it might have been observed that the next 
Wednesday evening the sexton lighted the 
church ere the day had fairly faded into 
the twilight. And it was with more evi- 
dent satisfaction that he hailed the early 
arrival of a devout old lady than, a week 
before, he would have greeted a whole 
bevy of blooming girls. It was remarked, 
too, that in case of a fire at night, the 
sexton did not, as was his wont, hurry to 



84 CONNECTICUT. 

the church to ring the alarm ; but a key sleeping form of poor Nick Goodall, 
had been given to the policeman on the whose wits had strayed away on the mag- 
beat to enable him to perform that duty. ical tones of his violin, and who wandered 

Now we do not mean to impeach our often in vain, from one shelter to another 

sexton's courage ; for a few seasons later to find a lodging. 

than the incidents we have just related "Hello, Nick! Get up," said the sex- 
he hastened to the defense of his country, ton. "I am going to lock the doors." 
and on many a battle-field, where rebel "O, come now," said Nick, in his draw- 
shot and shell rained an iron storm round ling, half -silly way, "I have stayed here 
him, he gallantly proved his bravery. a good many nights, and I never did any 

But before we end our story, we will harm." 
give a circumstance that occurred some Poor Nick was ousted, as was, we pre- 

weeks subsequently, that might, in the sume, the idea in the mind of our sexton 

minds of many, help to solve the mystery. of a supernatural intervention in produc- 

One evening, after the services, the sex- ing the extraordinary occurrences of that 

ton was arranging to leave, as usual, memorable evening, 
when he happened upon the outstretched. 



CONNECTICUT. 



Rochester, N. Y, , April 5, 1901.— After reading the 
Nov. -Dec. number of THE CONNECTICUT MAGA- 
ZINE. 

Can e'er thy sons, Connecticut, 
Though far in foreign realms, 

"Forget thee and thy homesteads quaint, 
Thy meadows and thy elms? 

As oft thy rivers with the spring 
Break from their widening course, 

So memories mingling flood our lives, 
Though far from thee, their source. 

We view again with childish awe, 

Historic tree and ridge — 
That vista, too, with classic sound. 

The long, long wooden bridge. 

We see thy orchards in their bloom. 
Thy bordered door-yards trim. 

Thy goodly gardens, old well-sweeps, 
Stone walls, and churches grim. 

We see all these. Aye, see we more ; 

The soul we cannot name. 
Thy personality, dear State, 

Though felt by all the same. 

What better welcome might we ask 

Upon the thither shore, 
Than such as met brave knockers at 

Thy old divided door? 




FLORICULTURE. 



BY THE REV. MAGEE PRATT. 



There is a subtle mystery between man 
and all the vast domain of nature. Re- 
garded in some aspects man is both ephem- 
eral and helpless. The generations come 
and go. Nations rise and fall. Civ- 
ilization shifts its center from continent 
to continent. There is nothing in the 
world that touches the interests of human 
life that ip stable and sure, while out- 
side the man everything seems dowered 
with a terrible and almost eternal con- 
tinuity. The powers that clothe the 
earth with verdure in the ceaseless pro- 
cession of the years, the forces that un- 
aided weave the shroud for beauty, or 
frame coronets of loveliness to crown the 
summer day, take no counsel of human 
intelligence, nor ask for human help. 

The eternal march of the seasons, each 
doing with unvarying regularity their 
tasks of life or death, seems as indifferent 
to man's little efforts as the sun in its 
shining, or the tempest that in its wild 
rage plays with his life and work as it 
plays with the dead leaves that are borne 
upon its breath. 

The closer you look at the two mani- 
festations of power, the more real the 
contrasts seem. Man's will is as weak 
as morning mist when compared with 
the energies of the universe. His body 
is subject to innumerable accidents and 
ills, so that often he is but the creature 
of a day; he is victim to various perils 

85 



that lurk everywhere about his path — in- 
visible in the atmosphere, silent in marsh 
and swamp, but deadly always. And 
all about him the hills and streams, the 
trees and flowers, preserve their charmed 
existence. They were in being long ages 
before he came ; they smile upon h im dur- 
ing his little day, and when he is gone, 
still fresh in nearly immortal life, they 
co^er his resting-place with their dust 
until it is hidden forever from the mem- 
ories of men. 

And yet, strange as it may seem, man 
if he chooses can be the strongest. In 
his weakness he can challenge strength, 
while with the brief life of a few swift 
rushing years be can control the character 
of the centuries ; and taking the whole 
material world in his care will mould 
and change and alter the mountain and 
the plain, the seas and deserts, till the 
solitary places shall blossom as the rose. 
And the wild waste lands— that breed 
the messengers of death and send them 
forth on the wings of the morning to scat- 
ter desolation far and near— shall yield 
to the spell of man's all-conquering mind, 
and, losing its savage wildness at the 
touch of his hand, yield up with loving 
loyalty to its new master the rich fruits 
and grains that are his daily delight and 
sustenance, giving shelter for his chil- 
dren in the safe homes that nestle in gar- 
dens that burgeon in beauty in summer 



86 



FLORICULTURE. 




days, and are quiet and peaceful in the 
wild death of the winter night. 

Think what man's energies and will 
have done with this continent iu three 
hundred years ! Then, wild woods and 
waste land were everywhere ; now, a hun- 
dred million people live upon its harvest. 
Then, only the savage knew its vastness ; 
now, its fruits and foods go round the 
world. Then, it was banishment for the 
cultured man to oe sent to spend his 
strength fightng its hardships, and noble 
women died in sacrfice on the altars of its 
desolation ; now, it is the center of com- 
merce, the home of Art, the land where 
more people live in plenty than you find 
in any other land on earth. Every pos- 
session and privilege and every luxury of 
literature and life are trophies of the vic- 
tory of feeble man over the great forces 
that fought against the exhibition of his 
will. 

And yet, little that has been done has 
seemed great in the doing. The men 
who have wrought tha change have nearly 
always thought their labor mean and 
hard, fcr nearly every workman bemoans 



the littleness of his task. His vision of 
the finished miracle is always imperfect, 
because he remembers only the insignif- 
icance of the share that he is doing, just 
as the workman mixing the mortar grows 
weary of the day and regards his work as 
dirty and mean, seldom solacing himself 
with the picture of the taper spire pointing 
to the sky, or the columned glory of the 
vaunted dome. So each workman in the 
world's true work is apt to forget the issue 
of the battle that lasts a century, and 
remembers only how worn and weary he 
is when his day's work is done. 

The opening to human life of the great 
prairies of the West and the settlement 
of vast States were made possible by what 
seems a little thing: that some men — 
sometime, somewhere — took promising 
specimens of wild grasses and gave 
them thought and care, judiciously 
selecting every little, ripened shock 
of seed that looked better than the 
rest, placing side by side different vari- 
eties that seemed the best, letting the in- 
sects help them in their work of improve- 
ment by fertilizing the different sorts with 
the pollen of one another, choosing rich- 
er land in all experiment. And so 
through centuries of culture, of patient 
watchfulness, they developed for our mod- 
ern use the wheat and maize, without 
which the prairies would be untilled 
today, and myriads starving in the old 
lands instead of feasting in the new. 

And yet, the men who worked thought 
only of the heat and burden of the day, 
the tediousness of the toil, and never of 
the growth of the great nation that is 
changing the destinies of all the men of 
all the earth. 

The beauty that is the charm of the 
flower may be given to it to help make 
the lessons of life attractive, and the 
loving wisdom exhibited in the device 
to enlist our sympathies is in itself de- 
lightful. 

We plant the flowers for our adornment 
and pleasure, and as we watch them un- 
folding. Nature suddenly awakens with- 
in us the spirit of inquiry and experiment 
by showing us some more highly de- 
veloped attraction in place of the old charm 



FLORICULTURE. 



«7 



we knew so well. The old flower has 
changed into a new one under our very 
eyes, and when we ask the reason why, 
we have explained to us the elements of 
every successful philosophy — the secret 
reasons why man can rule all things, 
and the great laws of life that when 
obeyed banish the wilderness and cover 
the deserts with the plentitudes of life. 
And all are shown in harmonious work- 
ing — whenever a woman tends the gar- 
den flowers with care, or the skilled 
workman with two blossoms of ordinary 
beauty makes another one that transcends 
everything that we have seen before. 

Look at the illustrations that accompany 
this article. In them are shown what 
in some respect are the greatest achieve- 
ments of the florist's art. By the kind- 
ness of friends^Mr. Pierson of Cromwell 
and Mr. Arthur Brandegee of Berlin — I 
can picture for the pleasure of my readers 
the best specimens of the two flowers more 
loved than any other — the rose and car- 
nation. 

Nothing I have yet seen quite equals 
the charm of the Liberty rose. I am 
acquainted with rich, deep, crimson ones, 
full and sweet as this, but there is a pecu- 
liar tint of vermilion mingling with the 
luster of the crimson petals that light it 
up with a glow never realized outside a 
summer sunset. It has a depth of color 
in it that simply satisfies — not a fiery red 
that excites, nor a dull tone almost pur- 
ple or black that hints of decay, but a 
message of healthful, happy, perfect life. 

You look at it and think that everything 
you ever hoped of a flower has come true 
at last in this. The plant has faults ; of 
course it has. I cannot think that even 
the angels are quite perfect ; there must 
be some limitations in them. The Lib- 
erty rose tries to be too generous in its 
gifts, and blooms too freely to give each 
flower a length of stem worthy to bear so 
large a share of perfect lovliness. But 
this is perhaps a stimulus to the growers 
that love roses to work over it until it 
has no faults left. 

The other, the Golden Gate, is of a dif- 
ferent character, but quite unique. It 
is large, shaded somewhat like a Bride 
rose and like it, white at the base of the 



bloom but exquisitly formed, strong and 
healthy in growth ; but special in this : 
that toward the ends of the petals melted 
rubies and topazes have been floated in the 
sap cells, and the light of the liquid gems 
flames out in every alabaster petal till 
the whole blossom looks like a gigantic 
snowflake melting into a rainbow. And 
to those who, like myself, have grown 
somewhat weary of the everlasting Brides 
and Bridesmaids, the new introductions 
give a fresh impetus to our adoration of 
the Queen of Flowers. 

There are many new carnations, and 
the popularity of the varieties depends 
upon some merit and large advertising. 

The plate gives the chief of those now 
before the public, and the one certain 
thing that can be said about them is, 
that they are better than the older sorts. 

Having no commercial interests at 
stake, writing of flowers because I love 
them, I am able to say what I think. And 
of the much vaunted Mrs. Lawson I must 
testify that it has been a general failure 
where I have seen it. Half the plants died 
in the field, and those that survived pro- 
duce but a small portion of perfect flow- 
ers, and they lack grace and perfume. 

Much better is Olympia, a variegated 
variety with white ground and scarlet 
stripes, good sheen, and very fragrant. A 
bunch in a vase has grace and brightness, 
and the blooms are unequaled in size. 

The best all-round carnation I know is 
the Marion Bower. Its charm cannot be 
described. The markings are regular, the 
bloom medium size but perfect in form, 
and it produces more perfect flowers than 
any plant I have seen. 

Mrs. George Bradt is another of same 
type, and simply magnificent. No white 
flower with good treatment excels INIrs. 
Flora Hill. The Crane is the best scar- 
let ; Gomez, as a crimson, is very satis- 
factory, though I am told it is excelled by 
Roosevelt, a new pink of the same color. 
Ethel Crocker is the best pink yet grown 
— a soft shell, like the La France rose 
somewhat — very large and having the 
aesthetic attraction so lacking in the stiff 
bloom of the Lawson. 

One of the most successful hybriders in 
this State is Mr. James Smith, gardener 



88 



FLORICULTURE. 



to Miss Case of Hartford. Some of his 
productions rank equal to any in Amer- 
ica, but as they are private property they 
are not generally known. A coral pink 
that he has named King Edward YII. , is 
the king of all the color ever seen. 

Next year I hope to show some of my 
own hybridizing grown by Mr. Brande- 
gee. We have two, a red and a variega- 
ted, and hope they will give us both a 
measure of floral immortality. 

This is my message to the flower-lover 
everywhere : that all the new miracles of 
delight are in a sense simple and can be 
wrought by any one with a little care. 
Nature's method of producing floral di- 
versity is by insect activity. But the bees 
and the butterflies do not know just what 
I want ; they are thinking only of honey. 
I dream of beauty. They take the pollen 
everywhere. But what I do, and all my 
readers can accomplish, is simply this: 
Select two flowers as opposite in their 
characteristics as possible. See that 
neither has any radical weakness, unless 
you have perfect bloom on a weak stem ; 
then choose the plant with the strongest 
stem and best flower you can find and cross- 
fertilize them both. Raise seed on both 
plants. Before you place the pollen on 
the stigmas, very carefully pull every 
petal out and leave only the ovary and 
stigmas in the calyx. You can paint the 
pollen on with a fine camel's hair brush 
and then leave the plant alone, and watch 
the seed-pod grow. No matter if you grow 
roses, carnations, chrysanthemums, or 
any other variety, the principle is the 
same for every flower. But remem- 
ber always to raise your seed from 
the best. Imperfection, mediocrity, 
commonness, disease, will take too much 
care of themselves. They propagate fast 
enough without being looked after. Your 
skill always should be given to bestow 
upon the world something better than it 
has had before. 

What will be your guerdon? I hardly 
like to tell you. [lest I discourage you too 
much. If you raise a hundred plants, 



most likely ninety of them will not equal 
either of the parent flowers. That awful 
law is nearly irresistible. The clever 
men call it reversion to type, but work it 
will and who shall gainsay it? I wish 
I knew the way. Perhaps nine more will be 
equal to either of their parents — I cannot 
tell — perhaps ten may be. There is a glo- 
rious uncertainty about the matter, we 
know so little of nature yet. But there 
may be one, just one, larger in size, sweet- 
er in fragrance, richer in color, fuller in 
coronal mass, clothed in glad leaves of 
brighter green that will be pre-eminently 
the one flower of all the race — having no 
peer, transcendent and supreme — and the 
man or woman that gave it life will be en- 
vied by the nation, and have within the 
heart a sense of pride that only comes to 
those who have done something better 
than all the world has done before, and 
opened the door through which a new 
secret of the universe has walked like a 
veiled bride, shiniug in her jewels, 
crowned with her wreath of brilliant life, 
before the glad eyes of multitudes who 
cheer her on her way. 



^ 




imiJt:'^ *!a. 




NOTES FROM STATE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



CONDUCTED BY MABEL WARD CAMERON. 



A special court of the Connecticut So- 
ciety of Colonial Wars was held in March 
at the Graduates' Club in New Haven. The 
ex-governor of the society, James J. Good- 
win, presided. A committee was appoint- 
ed to nominate officers for whom votes 
will be cast at the annual court to be held 
on May 1st. The present governor is the 
Hon. F. J. Kingsbury. Professor Thso- 
dore S. Woolsey is the deputy-governor, 
and Charles E. Gross the lieutenant-gov- 
ernor. 

Resolutions were passed on the death of 
two members of the society — Professor 
Edward Eldridge Salisbury and Charles 
Dudley Warner. 

A deed of a small piece of land in Hart- 
ford, upon w^hich the historic Charter 
Oak used to stand, has been given to the 
society, and it is hoped that in time the 
site will be occupied by a suitable monu- 
ment. 



Members of the Society of Colonial 
Dames of Connecticut are taking a prac- 
tical interest in those children who live 
in localities where there are no public 
libraries. In 1899 Mrs. Henry Ferguson, 
assisted by the recording secretary, Mrs. 
Williston Walker and Mrs. Frank Che- 
ney, instituted the practice of sending out 
traveling libraries consisting of books es- 
pecially selected for the use of children. 
Portfolios of pictures are also sent in the 
same manner ; the pictures, many of them 
cut from magazines, are carefully se- 
lected in regard to their educational value. 
The subjects include animals, birds, copies 
of portraits, and famous paintings and re- 
productions of the masterpieces of sculp- 
ture. Both portfolios and traveling libra- 
ries are sent upon the application of 



school-teachers who then become respon- 
sible for the care of them. 

The work of the Colonial Dames has been 
supplemented by Mr. Charles H. Leeds of 
Stamford who has furnished little libra- 
ries for circulation among the older peo- 
ple of these same towns. 

Those who are interested in the various 
branches of this work have had the bene- 
fit of advice and assistance from the Con- 
necticut Public Library Committee. This 
committee is elected annually to look after 
all matters appertaining to the establish- 
ment and maintenance of free public libra- 
ries, the members giving their services 
without compensation. The committee 
consists of Charles D. Hine, of Hartford, 
chairman ; Caroline M. Hewius, of Hart- 
ford, secretary ; Storrs O. Seymour, of 
Litchfield, Nathan L. Bishop, Norwich, 
and Charles E. Graves, New Haven. 

There is a bill no^v before the Legislat- 
ure authorizing this committee "to pur- 
chase, arrange, and circulate books, 
traveling libraries, and pictures, to be 
loaned to public libraries, library asso- 
ciations, study clubs, farming communi- 
ties, and such individuals as said com- 
mittee may select." For this an appropri- 
ation of 12,000 is w\anted. 

If this bill is carried through, the Co- 
lonial Dames are to be congratulated, 
as the scheme for which they have labored 
will become an establised custom ; and it 
will not be forgotten that with a member 
of this society there originated the idea of 
giving intellectual pleasure to those who. 
living in isolateil rural districts, could not 
have access to the public libraries of the 
State. 



There are forty-four chapters, Daugb- 



^93 



*Page 88 should read 92. See foot-note on page 73. 



94 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



ters of the American Revolution, in the 
State of Connecticut. The Wadsworth 
Chapter of Middletown was the first 
one organized, its charter being dated Feb. 
20, 1892. The last to be formed was the 
ISathan Hale Memorial Chapter of East 
Haddam, the organization of which took 
place during the Nathan Hale celebration 
June 6, 1900. 

The latest report gives 3512 as the num- 
ber of members of the D. A. R. in Con- 
necticut ; of these forty-four are living 
"real daughters." 



At the Tenth Continental Congress, 
held at Washington by the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, February 18-23, 
1901, the forty-seven State regents, as 
well as the officers of the National 
Society were elected. It is a plsasure to 
record for Connecticut, the re-election of 
Mrs. Sara Thompson Kinney. Her ex- 
ecutive ability, tact, and uniform cour- 
tesy render her especially adapted to fill 
the position that has been hers for a num- 
ber of years. 



Appreciative words culled from our cor- 
respondence with members of tne Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution : 

From Mrs. John Laidlow Buel, regent 
of the Mary Floyd Talmadge Chapter : 
"I am much pleased with the plan of 
The Connecticyf Maqozine to institute a 
news corner from the Connecticut chap- 
ters." 

Mrs. J. R. Montgomery, regent Sibbil 
Dwight Kent Chapter, writes: "I am 
pleased to know that the State chapters 
of the Daughters of the American Rev- 
olution are to be given a little space in 
your magazine." 

From Mrs. Mary A. Hepburn-Smith, 
regent Freelove Baldwin Stow Chapter : 
"I certainly think our chapters should be 
in touch with your magazine." 

' ' I have from the first been much inter- 
ested in Uw ('oiinfcticvt Magazine . . . 
and hope it may have abundant success 
along all lines that it so well deserves. 
"Very cordially yours, 

'■'Mary P. Clark, 
"Registrar Lucretia Shaw Chapter." 

"Your magazine has many readers in 
our chapter and we are pleased to know 
you will report chapter work and wish 
you all success, Truly yours, 

"Mary C. Hart, 
Regent Stamford Chapter." 



Mrs. Cuthbert H. Slocomb is the regent 
of the Anna Warner Bailey Chapter, D. 
A. R., of Groton and Stonington. This 
chapter has undertaken a great commem- 



orative work in the purchase of the old 
Groton Heights not enclosed within the 
boundaries of Fort Griswold. In the 
little monument house the members of 
this chapter have started the sale of his- 
torical china, and have obtained an ap- 
propriation of $300 per annum to be used 
for the house. Valuable relics of the past 
have been received, and through the ex- 
ertions of the reading club, composed of 
New London members of the chapter, 
many armorial shields have been added 
to the decorations on its walls. 

On April 11, 1895, the chapter deter- 
mined to undertake the forming of socie- 
ties of Children of the American Revolu- 
tion. The regent, Mrs. Slocomb, was ap- 
pointed State Director for Connecticut, 
and under her able management the work 
has been crowned with success. 

Having discovered that Connecticut was 
without a legalized emblem to float over 
her personal belongings, this chapter me- 
morialized the State Legislature on the 
subject, and, with expressions of gratitude 
and thanks, received assurance from both 
houses of the Assembly, that when 
a State flag should be adopted, the Anna 
Warner Bailey Chapter should have the 
honor of presenting the first legalized 
banner to the State. This was done at 
Hartford Aug. 12, 1897. 

One hundred and fifty copies of by-laws 
have been presented to this chapter by 
the regent, Mrs. Slocomb. On the occa- 
sion of a reception at the latter'shome, 
the hymn, "For Home and Country" 
was first introduced to the public and 
has since been adopted as the State hymn 
of the D. A. R. At the meeting of this 
chapter on January 8th, resolutions of 
sympathy were passed on the death of Miss 
Eugenia Washington, to be forwarded to 
the National board. 

A committee was appointed to attend to 
the prizes ofi'ered to school children for 
the best short essays on Colonel William 
Ledyard and Captain William Latham, 
the local heroes of the Revolution. 

Miss Lillian Whipple read Whittier's 
poem "On the Death of a Friend," 
while members of the chapter were signing 
a memorial to be sent to the bereaved 
Queen of Italy. This document will be 
suitably prepared by Tiffany and delivered 
in person by a member of the chapter. 
A bond of union has been made between 
the women of Italy and America by the 
Countess di Brassa, herself an American. 
The latter has done much to help the Ital- 
ian peasant-woman by introducing their 
beautiful hand-made lace for sale in this 
country. 

Miss Amanda Allen read an original 
poem, after which Miss Emma Wood- 
bridge Palmer proposed the following 
toast : 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



95 



"Ladies: Although but recently admit- 
ted to your charmed circle I have the hon- 
or to be called npon to offer a toast to the 
Xew Year and Xew Centnry. npon which 
we are jn.st entering, so I give. 'The Anna 
Warner Bailey Chapter, of the Daughters 
of the -American Revolution. ' May Mother 
Bailey's historic petticoat so enlarge its 
herders this century that generations 
yet to come may gather beneath its gen- 
erous folds, and give praise to the able 
regent and founder vrho so nobly hung this 
banner on the outer walls I ' ' 



The Xorwalk Chapter. D. A. R.. of 
!N'orwalk. has been actively interested for 
over a year in securing a memorial to 
Nathan Hale. This interest seems espe- 
cially appropriate as Hale took leave of 
Connecticut from the shores of that part 
of the State. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the 
chapter held on the afternoon of Feb- 
ruary Slst. the recording secretary. Mrs. 
Jabe7 Backus, of Westport. presided. The 
minutes of the last meeting were read and 
accepted and it was voted to pay the per- 
. capita rate to the general utility fund. 

It was proposed that the chapter should 
have its short constitution and by-laws 
printed, with the history of the chapter 
up to May 1. 1901, prepared by Mrs. Scott, 
and a complete list of members. Mrs. 
Merwin of Wilton, read an essay enu- 
merating events that occurred during the 
month of February, at the time of the 
Revolutionary War. It was in February. 
1776, that Washington besieged Boston, 
waiting for the English to be starved out. 
In Febraary. 177S, our men were dying of 
starvation, disease, and exposure at Val- 
ley Forge, while the news of the treaty 
with France was on its way here : and in 
February. 17S0. the gloom of Arnold's 
treason seemed to be reflected in Washing- 
ton's troops in Morristown. during the 
cold, terrible winter that followed. 

After Mrs. Merwin finished reading her 
interesting essay. Mrs. Fitton rendered a 
song, and Mrs. E. H. Gumbart read a paper 
written by iMrs. Luzon B. Morris on ""The 
Religious Beliefs of the Revolutionary 
Forefathers. " After more singing by ^Irs. 
Fitton. tea was served by Miss Helen 
Curtis. ;Mrs. Christian Swartz, Mrs. 
George B. St. John, and Mrs. F. H. Quin- 
tard. 

The officers of this chapter are : Re- 
gent. Mrs. Samuel Richards Weed : vice- 
regent, Mrs, James L. Stevens : registrar, 
Mrs. Robert Van Bureu : recording secre- 
tary, Mrs. Jabez Backus : corresponding 
secretary. Mrs. Kate P. Hunter : treas- 
r-rer. ;^Irs. Frederick Belden : historian. 
Miss Angeline Scott : curator. Miss Mary 
P. Chichester ; advisory committee, Mrs. 



John Ferris, ^Mrs. E. H. Gumbart, 3Irs. 
Marion Olmstead, Mrs. G. H. Faxon, and 
>Iiss Mary A. Cunningham : honorary 
vice-regents. Mrs. E. J. Hill and ^Irs. 
Thomas K. Xoble. 

At an open meeting of the chapter held 
on the afternoon of March -^Ist. there were 
present about one hundred and twenty-five 
members and guests. The subject" to be 
discussed was. '"Club- Women and Wom- 
en's Clubs.' :Mrs. William Tod Hel- 
muth. ex -president of the Xew York Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, had accepted 
an invitation to be present and speak upon 
the subject, but to the great disappoint- 
ment of the audience she was unable on 
accotmt of illness to be present. 

Mrs. Franklin W. Hooper, president of 
the Brooklyn Woman's Club, apologized 
for ^Irs. Helmuth's absence, and gave a 
witty and fluent address upjon the snbject 
that is so near her heart. 

Mrs. E. H. Gumbart read a summary of 
incidents of the month of March during 
the War of American Independence, and 
as a substitute for the choral music. Pro- 
fessor C. F. Daniels, the well-known com- 
poser and pianist, playeii two selections. 

The chapter voted to dedicate the Xa- 
than Hale memorial fountain on April 19th 
and to invite the Connecticut Society of 
the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion to hold the annual conference in Xor- 
walk on that date. 

Mr?. Slocomb. regent of the Anna Warner 
Bailey Chapter of Groton and Stoning- 
ton, asked the members of the Xorwalk 
Chapter to add their names to an en- 
grossed memorial of condolence from 
American women to Queen Marguerira of 
Italy, to be presented on the anniversary 
of the assassination of King Humbert. 
Mrs. Slocomb has undertaken to get the 
signatures cf all members of the Connect- 
icut D. A. R. for this document. 



A meeting of the Ruth Hart Chapter, 
D. A. R. was held at the home of Mrs. 
Judson C. Perkins on Elm street. Meri- 
den. on Saturday afrernoou. March 9th. 
Reports of the Tenth Continental Con- 
gress at Washington were given by the del- 
egates. The regent, Mrs. Benjamin C. 
Kennard. gave an interesting acccuut cf 
the sessions of the week. She was fol- 
lowed by :Mrs. W. B. Hall, -he 
chainer's treasurer, who spoke of the 
social events that were given in enter- 
tainment of the delegates. She gave a 
vivid description of the receptions, mu- 
sicals, etc., held at the White House and 
elsewhere. 

Mrs. Frederick Pease represented the 
local chapter of the Children of the Amer- 
ican Revolution at the congress. Her re- 
ix)rt was read by Mrs. Hall. The musical 



96 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



part ' of the program consisted of the able 
rendering of "Old Glory" by the Glee 
Club, a pleasing solo, "Just for Today," 
by Miss Myra Marshall, and "America" 
by the chapter. A committee was ap- 
pointed to arrange for the reproduction of 
Cranford for the benefit of the public 
library. After the meeting the members 
of the chapter remained for afternoon 
tea, served in Mrs. Judson's usual dainty 
manner. 



The Susan Carrington Clarke Chapter 
of Meriden, has been most sucessful in 
the work of locating and marking graves 
of Revolutionary soldiers. One hundred 
and five such graves have been found with- 
in the towns of Meriden, Wallingford, 
( in Revolutionary days one town), Che- 
shire, and Berlin. 

This chapter holds the banner in regard 
to the chapter membership of "real daugh- 
ters, " the names of seventeen of these 
ladies being on its roll. 

This chapter was the first to issue pro- 
grams for the season's work. The month- 
ly historical meetings are largely at- 
tended, provision always being made for 
one hundred women. Business meetings 
are held quarterly and at these no refresh- 
ments are served. 



The Elizabeth Porter Putnam Chap- 
ter, D. A. R., of Putnam, has finished 
paying for the famous "Wolf Den" prop- 
erty, and now owns it clear of debt. 



The Sibbil Dwight Kent Chapter, D. A. 
R., was organized in 1896 and numbers 
fifty-four members, forty-six of whom re- 
side in Suffteld, and eight in Windsor 
Locks. This chapter is very much alive, 
both board and chapter meetings being 
well attended. 

The study for the year has been con- 
cerning historical landmarks and the pe- 
culiar characteristics of the early New 
Englander. 

The work in which the chapter has been 
interested has been the restoring and re- 
newing of old stones in the burial-place 
in Suffield and looking up and marking 
the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. 

The chapter has also offered prizes 
amounting to thirty dollars to the pupils 
of the Grammar schools of Suffield and 
Windsor Locks for the best essays upon 
historical subjects. The prizes will be 
awarded in June. 



regent, Mrs. Charles E. Gross, presided. 

Subscriptions were received for the 
books which will be published soon by 
the State Society, and which will give the 
lives of the "Patron Saints" or women 
after whom the different State chapters 
are named ; and contain sketches also of 
the "real daughters" who are members 
of the chapters. 

A paper writtten by Miss Mary K. Tal- 
cott on "The Early Constitutions of the 
American Colonies," was read by the 
chapter regent, Mrs. John M. Holcombe. 

Resolutions were passed giving thanks 
to the lecturers who contributed to the 
historical course held in Unity Hall, and 
it was announced that the lecture by Dr. 
John Fiske on "Connecticut's part in the 
Federal Constitution" would be pub- 
lished in pamphlet form. It was prepared 
expressly for Ruth Wyllys Chapter and 
its basis will be used by Dr. Fiske in his 
address at the millenial observance of the 
death of King Alfred of England at Win- 
chester next summer, his theme being the 
"Expansion of King Alfred's Idea of 
Federation. ' ' 

The delegates from the Ruth Wyllys Chap- 
ter to the Congress at Washington were : 
Mrs. W. C. Faxon, Miss F. M. Olmsted, 
recording secretary, and Miss Mary Fran- 
cis, ex-recording secretary. A special 
meeting of the chapter was called for 
Thursday, March 28th, and was presided 
over by Mrs. Frank Howard. The feature 
of the meeting was the reading by Miss 
Olmsted of her interesting and compre- 
hensive report of the Congress. 



At a meeting of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter 
held in the hall of the Historical Society 
in Hartford, on February 21st, the vice- 



r Under 'the [efficient leadership of its 
regent, Mrs. John Laidlow Buel, the 
Mary Floyd Talmadge Chapter, D. A. R. , 
of Litchfield is accomplishing good work 
in various fields of usefulness. 

This chapter was organized November 
7 , 1899, and there are thirty-one names on 
its roll. Within this short period of time 
the sum of $1844.50 has been raised toward 
an endowment fund for the maintenance 
of a library building recently given to' 
the town for the use of the Library and 
Historical Society. The chapter is also 
trying to arouse public sentiment in the 
matter of the preservation of the road- 
side shade-trees — the young saplings so 
recklessly mown down by the brush-cut- 
ters and road-makers. It also proposes to 
encourage the planting and care of such 
trees on the highways. Literature on this 
subject is being circulated among the 
farmers. The laws of the State in regard 
to high-road trees, and bounties thereon, 
have been published in the local paper, 
and in order to enlist their interest, prizes 
have been offered the public school chil- 
dren for the best essays on shade-trees. 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



97 



The chapter hopes in time to arouse 
throughout the State public interest in a 
matter so important to the health of the 
community and the beauty of the land- 
scape. 

The chapter has also actively interested 
itself in the movement against the dese- 
cration of the flag by publishing the anti- 
desecration flag-law of this State. 

At its last meeting on February 15th, 
the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted : 

' ' Resolved, that we, the Mary Floyd Tal- 
madge Chapter, D. A. R., of Litchfield, 
send to our honored leader, Mrs. Sara 
Thompson Kinney, our enthusiastic con- 
gratulations and sincere expressions of 
our personal pleasure upon her re-election 
as State Regent of Connecticut ; and 

"Resolved, that our regent present 
these resolutions to Mrs. Kinney at the 
Congress, and that our secretary enter 
them upon the minutes of this chapter, 
and also publish them in the newspaper 
report of this meeting." 



The Martha Pitkin Wolcott Chapter, 
is interested in conjunction with the Na- 
than Hale Lyceum of the Hockanum Con- 
gregational Church, in the project of re- 
claiming and marking the site of the first 
meeting-house built in East Hartford. At 
an open meeting held in February at the 
Raymond Library in East Hartford, a large 
number were present who were interest- 
ed in the project. The following report 
has been prepared by the recording secre- 
tary of the chapter : 

''The Martha Pitkin Wolcott Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution of 
East Hartford and South Windsor, Conn. , 
was organized Dec. 6, 1898, under the 
supervision of the State regent, Mrs. Sara 
T. Kinney, and its present regent. Miss 
Anna M. Olmsted, choosing for its chapter 
heroine Martha Pitkin, wife of the colo- 
nial governor, Simeon Wolcott. 

"The interesting story of her coming 
from England to this country in 1661 to 
visit her brother, William Pitkin, the pro- 
genitor of all of the name of Pitkin in 
this country ; and of her marriage to Sim- 
eon Wolcott, thus becoming the ancestress 
of a long line of illustrious governors and 
patriots, has been beautifully told by Mr. 
Charles Knowles Bolton in 'The Wooing 
of Martha Pitkin,' and in a character 
sketch which has been prepared by the 
late Mrs. Elizabeth Ellsworth Sperry for 
publication in the book soon to be issued 
by,the Connecticut Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. 

' i"The chapter since its organization has 
more than doubled its membership. Its 
meetings have been full of interest. En- 
tertaining and instructive papers have 



been prepared. National holidays have 
been observed and visits made to historic 
spots. It has contributed to the memor- 
ial annex of Connecticut's monument 
house on Groton Heights battle-field, 
and now has a project in view for reclaim- 
ing and marking the site of the first meet- 
ing-house built in East Hartford, known 
as the Third Ecclesiastical Society of 
Hartford. The earliest preserved record 
of action taken for the building of the 
ancient meeting-house bears the date, 
Dec. 39, 1699. 

' ' On February 22nd an open meeting was 
held by the chapter in Raymond Library 
in furtherance of this project. The meet- 
ing was opened by a few well-chosen 
words by the regent, expressing pleasuie 
at the large attendance, and explaining in 
brief the plan about to be presented by the 
speakers who would follow. She then in- 
troduced the Rev. Francis P. Bacheler, 
who made a most felicitous address, 
touching upon the many advantages pos- 
sessed by the town in its ancient and hon- 
orable history ; and its present advantages 
—educational, ecclesiastical — and its gen- 
eral trend toward progress. He also spoke 
of Nathan Hale Lyceum and of its desire 
to have the old meeting-house site im- 
proved and suitably marked, and prom- 
ised its hearty co-operation with the D. 
A. R. in their proposed work. 

' ' Mr. Joseph O. Goodwin was then intro- 
duced as the historian of the town. Mr. 
Goodwin read a paper on 'The Old Meet- 
ing House in East Hartford and its Site. ' 
The paper was admiraby written, con- 
taining as it did valuable information 
interspersed with quaint bits of humor. 
In it he described the building of the meet- 
ing-house by the joint labor or contribu- 
tions of all the inhabitants of the town, 
and closed with "A Memorial on a spot 
so hallowed should embody the following 
summary : 

" 'On this green was set up the first 
house of worshiii on the east side of the 
great river in Hartford. Here was trans- 
acted all the public business of the third 
society of Hartford from 1699 to 1783. 

" 'And the fact that the meeting-house 
was used as a rendezvous and hospital for 
the French army when encamped on Sil- 
ver Lane in June, 1781, and on the mead- 
ows in October, 1782, should also be noted. 

"The Rev. William B. Tuthill read an 
able jiaper jirepared by Mrs. A. H. Pitkin of 
Hartford on 'The Life of the Revolution- 
ary Parson,' giving a glimpse of the atti- 
tude of ministers of churches toward the 
great events of that day. and giving also 
an account of the habits, manners, and 
deprivations of the colonists. It dwelt 
particularly upon the lives of the Rev. 
Eliphalet Williams, D.D., who was at the 
head of the church in East Hartford from 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



1745 to 1800; and of the Rev. Timothy Ed- 
wards, first pastor of the church of South 
Windsor. 

"The members of the chapter were much 
gratified at the interest expressed in their 
plan for improving the meeting-house 
site, and the erection of a suitable memo- 
rial thereon, and grateful for substantial 
proofs of the sympathy of so many repre- 
sentative people of the place and non- 
resident descendants of the early settlers 
of the historic old town." 

"Harriet T. Kilburne, Recording Sec- 
retary. ' ' 



There was a large attendance at the 
meeting of the Board of Managers of the 
Connecticut Society, Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, that was held at the Co- 
lonial Club in Hartford on February 11th. 
The president of the society, Jonathan 
Trumbull of Norwich, presided. 

General Ford reported that although 
there was perfect harmony between the 
societies and the authorities of Yale 
College In regard to the proposed tablet 
commemorating the visit of Washington 
to New Haven, yet it would be better to 
put that matter aside for awhile until the 
funds needed for the Nathan Hale school- 
house project had been raised. 

The unused Lafayette fund amounts to 
|650 and it was voted to apply to those 
who had contributed to it for permission 
to use it for a tablet on the Hale school- 
house, and for the tablet at Yale. Messrs 
Trumbull, Lord, and Rogers of New Lon- 
don were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare the Hale -tablet to be ready for June 
17th. . — 

Funds are still lacking to complete the 
purchase of the school-house. About 
$3500 have been raised, but |2000 more are 
needed and contributions are solicited. 

Mr. Sherwood of Bridgeport gave his re- 
port concerning arrangements for the 
banquet to be given in Bridgeport on 
Washington's birthday. 

The board then adjourned to meet at 
the Atlantic Hotel in Bridgeport at 12 :30, 
February 22nd, the day of the banquet, on 
which occasion the members of the State 
society were the guests of the General 
Gold Selleck Silliman Branch, S. A. R. 

The annual banquet of the Connecticut 
society is an important event. It always 
takes place on the anniversary of the 
birth of Washington, and is the occasion 
for many interesting ceremonies. At the 
dinner this year there were 225 members 
present. An informal reception was first 
held in the parlors of the hotel, the fea- 
ture of which was the presentation to the 
society of a banner and a flag. These 
have been paid for out of the treasury of 
%\iQ State society under an order given 



by the president and approved by the sec- 
retary. The banner is made according to 
the design adopted by the vote of the Na- 
tional society, and measures seven by five 
feet. There are three perpendicular 
stripes of blue, white, and buff, the colors 
of the Sons of the American Revolution. 
Embroidered by hand upon the white 
stripe is the insignia of the society, upon 
which appears the head of Washington. 
The motto, "Libertas et Patria," is writ- 
ten upon a blue belt, and below the in- 
signia are the letters, 'S. A. R." The 
word "Connecticut," inscribed in a semi- 
circle, is at the top of the stripe. The 
edge of the banner is finished with buff 
fringe, and it is attached by ribbons to a 
ten-foot staff upon which is perched a 
gilr spread-eagle. Tl_e regulation belt, 
staff-holder, and cord and tassel complete 
the outfit. The accompanying national 
flag is also finished with a buff fringe, 
and is similarly equipped, but has no let- 
tering. 

The presentation was made by General 
E. S. Greeley, who called attention to the 
two emblems : the flag representing all 
that is good in this country, and the ban- 
ner representing that society whose aim 
is the installing of patriotism and love of 
the United States. 

The banners were accepted by Mr. 
Trumbull in the following words : 

"The Connecticut Society of Sons of 
the American Revolution adopts this ban- 
ner as a lasting emblem to signify to our 
organization throughout its future the 
aims and purposes for which we are 
banded together. May the sight of this 
mute but eloquent symbol inspire as in 
all our undertakings, and may its motto, 
"Liberty and Country," be ever before us 
as a standard for firm resolve and high pur- 
pose. May it form, too, a fitting emblem 
of our devotion to the Stars and Stripes, 
which accompany it." 

The presence of H. F. Norcross, of the 
Continental Guards, in full colonial uni- 
form, added interest to the occasion. He 
was. accompanied by a fifer and drummer 
from the organization, and it was to the 
strains of "Yankee Doodle" played by 
them that the guests marched to the din- 
ing room. The Continental Guards are 
an auxiliary of the S. A. R., only mem- 
bers of the latter society being eligible 
for membership. 

Mr. H. C. Sherwood who presided at the 
banquet, made an eloquent speech of wel- 
come, after which Mr. Trumbull spoke on 
the "Sens of the American Revolution."' 
Governor McLean was next introduced, 
the toast to which he responded being 
"The Hatchet and the Man." Other 
speakers were : Walter S. Logan, of New 
York, Henry P. Godard of Baltimore, and 
the Rev. Frank Russell. 



EE^g/40.®E 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



CONDUCTED BY EDWIN STANLEY WELLES. 



This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries 
should be as concise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his per- 
sonal attention to questions relating to Hartford Records free of charge. Extended investigations will be 
made by him for a reasonable compensation. 

Persons having old family records, diaries, or documents yielding genealogical information are re- 
quested to communicate with him with reference to printing them. 

Anything that will help to enhance the value and usefulness of this department will be gladly welcomed, 

Eeaders are earnestly requested to co operate with the editor in answering queries, many of which can 
only be answered by recourse to original records. 

Querists are requested to write clearly all names of persons and places so that they cannot be 
misunderstood, and to write on only one side of the paper. Queries will be inserted in the order in which 
they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CO]SNECTICTIT MAGA- 
ZINE, Hartford, marked Genealogical Department, Give full name and post-office address. 



1. Hyatt. — Wanted maiden name of 
Thomas Hyatt of Ridgelield, Conn. 

Experience ? Said Thomas was 

son of Thomas and Mary (Sention or 
St. John) Hyatt, and was born about 
1680 and died 1758 or '60. 

2. Hyatt.— Wallace.— One John Hyatt, 
born July 20, 1720, married Margaret 
Wallace. Wanted the parentage of both 
John Hyatt and Margaret Wallace. 

3. Wallace. — James Wallace of Nor- 
walk, Conn. , married Mary, daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (St. John) Hyatt, 
1706, and went to Ridgefield. Wanted, 
children of the above James and Mary 
(Hyatt) Wallace, and wives and children 
of all sons excepting first child, John, 
born Nov. 20, 1708. 

4. Lohdell. — Wanted the given name 
of wife of John Lobdell. He was born 

1721, and married Sherwood, 

A-lso Sherwood parentage. 

5. Lohdell.— Knot^eT John Lobdell, 
born 1743, married Elizabeth (presuma- 
bly) Sherwood. Wanted — date of mar- 
riage and Sherwood parentage. 

6. Lohdell. — Wanted maiden name of 
wife of Simon Lobdell. He was one of 
the "early planters" of Milford, Conn., 
1645. He appears to have been a set- 
tler in Hartford in 1655. He removed 
to Springfield, Mass., w^hore he was 
prison-keeper from 1666 to 1674, when 

99 



he returned to Milford. 

The Springfield records show the fol- 
lowing children to have been born there : 
Elizabeth, Oct. 7, 1669; Joshua, Dec. 
23, 1671; Anna, Dec. 1, 1674. 

Persis, w^ife of Simon Lobdell, was ad- 
mitted to first church of Milford, Jan. 
7, 1677. 

Query : — What trace is there of Simon 
Lobdell and his family on the Hartfc^rd 
Records? Were any children born thcie? 

Answer. — The Hartford Record .« givo 
but a glimpse of Simon Lobdell. He w a.s 
made a freeman, May 21. 1657. <'«</'- 
nial Reconh oC Con mcticnt 16fT)-l ('(».">, 
p. 297. The Court acts on a petili< ii • f 
his, March 14, 1660. (Ibid., p. .CO. ) 
There is also mention of him on p. 4C4 
of the Colonial Becord>^, 1665-16T7. Ho 
seems to have been paying rates iii 
Hartford as late as 1667 {Ifartford Toh'>k 
Votea, Yo\. 6, Conn., Historical Society's 
Collections, x>. 15(5.) 
If children other than those given abcvo, 
were born, a search among the cnily 
Probate Records at New Haven niiglit 
show the fact. Of course this \v( uld 
depend on his leaving property and ( ii 
the existence of the Probate Retoid iu 
relation to his estate. 

7. Lohdell. — Joshua Lobdell, son of Si- 
mon and Persis liObdell. born Doc. 2J\ 
1671, married at Milford Marv Purwoll 
for his first wife, Aug. 11. 1695. She 



100 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



died (presumably) at Milford, 1710-11, 
as he came to Ridgefield in 1712 with a 
second wife, Eunice , and sev- 
eral children. 

Who was this Eunice , and when 

did the marriage take place? 

8. Wolcott. — Appleton Burnham, of 
Cornwall, Conn., son of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Burnham, of Kensington, mar- 
ried, about 1753, Mary Wolcott. 

Wanted — Precise date of marriage and 
parentage of Mary Wolcott. 

(5. Lusk. — Waitstill Deming married 
Hannah Lusk in Newington, Conn., 
Sept. 1, 1758. Who was Hannah Lusk? 
Various Lusks came to Newington from 
different places, among whom was John 
An old deed shows that he came from 
Plainfield, Conn. Did Hannah Lusk 
originate from Plainfield? 

10. Fox. — A gravestone in the yard at 
Newington Center states that Ansel Fox 
was born April 6, 1791, and died May 9, 
1845. What was his parentage? It is 
evident that he was not a native of 
Newington and there is no deed on rec- 
ord to show from what place he came. 

11. Russell— ¥}ii\\^ Russell of Hatfield, 
Mass. , son of Mr. John Russell of Weth- 
ersfield. Conn., and Hadley, Mass., and 
brother of the Rev. John Russell of 
Hadley, died May 19, 1693. What was 
his age? His brother John, supposed to 
have been his senior, died Dec. 10, 1692 
in the 66th year of his age. ^ 

12. Smith. — Wanted the parentage of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Pomeroy Smith, who 
married Solomon Smith of Southwick, 
Mass., 1802 She was born in 1783, prob- 
ably in Suffield or Southwick. The chil- 
dren were : Solomon Jr. , of Chicago, 111. ; 
John, of Kingston, N. Y. ; Horace, of 
Southwick ; and Dency, the wife of 
Moses Loomis, of Southwick. 

13. Morton. — Who were the parents of 
Diodate, Zebulon, Isaac, and Russell 
Morton — who probably lived in Wap- 
ping, East Windsor, Conn? Diodate was 
in the Revolutionary War. Some of the 
family went to reside in Vermont. 

14. Cass. — Wanted the parentage of 
Moses Cass (not Case) who lived in 



Windham County, Conn., and married 
1st, Mary Haskins, Jan. 23, 1717 ; also 
the names of their children and dates 
of their births. He married, 2d, Mary 
who became later the wife of John 
Hutchins, M. D. 

15. Von Boskirk. — Have any of the read- 
ers of The Connecticut Magazine or their 
friends, records of the Van Boskirk 
family of New York and New Jersey? 



The Diary of the Rev. Stephen Mix of 
Wethersfield as Copied and Annotated 
by the Late Sherman W. Adams. 

The editor wishing to compare the copy 
here given with the original, was greatly 
surprised to discover that the diary is mis- 
sing. It has not been in the possession of 
the clerk of the Congregational church 
in Wethersfield since it was transcribed 
by Judge Adams, and no one seems to 
know where it is. If the mention of this 
fact will restore it to the custody of the 
clerk, he will be greatly obliged. One 
case of discipline cited, the editor has 
thought best to omit ; the rest remains as 
transcribed by him from the copy of 
Judge Adams. 

NOTE. 

The following pages contain all the Church Rec- 
ords kept by the Rev. Stephen Mix, known to be ex- 
tant. 

They were written in a little book, of about the 
size of an ordinary pass-book; being about 3% 
inches wide, and 5>^ inches long. Its pages were 
not numbered ; but, for convenience sake, I have 
numbered such pages as are preserved ; and this 
paging is continued in the margin of the copy. 
There are 54 closely written pages, today, and how 
many leaves are missing cannot now be obtained. 
There are some breaks— notably one from 1718 to 
1727, nearly ten years; and, whilst the period of Mr. 
Mix's ministry began in 1693, and ended in 1738, yet 
there are no baptisms recorded of an earlier date 
than 1697-8 ; nor any of a later date than 1735. 

So that, in all, the entries for from eighteen to 
twenty years are missing. And of those that re- 
main, many at-e exceedingly difficult to be read; in 
fact, they cannot be accurately read excepting by 
an expert in such matters. No attempt has been 
made by me to decipher such passages as are re- 
corded in short-hand. Probably such an attempt, 
if successful, would have revealed only such mat- 
ters as were of the least importance to the genealo- 
gist and historian. 

There are not, so far as I know, any Records of 
the First Church at Wethersfield, earlier than those 
of the Rev. Stephen Mix ; and these contain no en- 
tries of marriages. 

SHERMAN W. ADAMS. 

July, 1890. 



[Appears to be a List of Church Members in 1694. 





1694. 


13. 


Joshua Robbins 


26 


1. 


Mr. (?) Bulkly [GershomVI 


14. 


His Wife 


27 


2. 


Mrs. Bulkly 


15. 


Widdow Ryly 


28. 


3. 


Jona (?) Benton 


16. 


James Treat Senr 


29. 


4. 


His Wife 


17. 


His Wife 


30. 


5. 


Jonath Belden 


18. 


Wm Warner Senr 


31; 


6. 


His Wife 


19. 


His Wife 


32. 


7. 


Obadia Dickin.son 


20. 


John Waddams 


33. 


8. 


k His Wife 


21. 


His Wife 


34. 


9. 


Bcnozer Halo 


22. 


Mrs Boardman 


35. 


10. 


John Kilburn Senr 


23. 


Nathl (?) Butler's Wife 


36. 


11. 


His Wife 


24, 


Henry Buck's Wife 


37. 


12. 


Mary Robbins 


25. 


Wm Burnham 


38. 



His Wife 

Benj Churchel 

Widdow Curtice 

Moses Crafts 

His Wife 

Serjt Deming 

His Wife 

Jot'n Goodrich 

His Wife 

David Goodrich 

His Wife 

[Torn off, foot of page. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



lOI 



39. 


Torn off foot of page. 


[See the last four names in next 


40. 


" top " " 


column. 1 


41 


Enoch Buck 


T,. r, ^ ( Nathaniel Staddart 
'Q? ' \ Mary, wife of James 
^^' \ Wright 


42. 


His Wife 


43. 


Joh. Curtice, Senr 


44. 


His Wife 


June ( Ezekl Buck 


45. 


Abe'r Demlng 


30, ] Mercy Wright 


46. 


His Wife 


'95. ( Hannah Goodrich 


47. 


Eobt Francis 


Sept. Grace Kilburn 


48. 


Tho Wright R, 


29, Hannah Lane, Malde 


49, 


Nath Hun 


'95. Hannah Rose, Malde 


50. 


His Wife 


Nov. 3, '95, Sarah Tryan, Maide 


51. 


Danl Rose, Senr 


Nov. 24, '95, Mary Griswold 


52. 


His Wife 


Feb. 2, '95— Margaret, Wife of Ben- 


53. 


Ens Jo Wiat, Removd 


jam. Gardner: Abigail, wife 


54. 


His Wife 


of Jonath Goodrich 


55. 


Nath'l Stadart (Stoddard) 


Apr. 5, '96, Rachel Buck, wife of 


56. 


Jon Wiard 


Ezek'l 


57. 


Step Chester, Senr 


May 3, '96, Rebecca Wright, Sam'l 


58, 


Jon Chester Senr 


Wright's wife 


59. 


His Wife 


May 31, '96, Solman Treat 


60. 


Tho Fitch 


July 5, Jacob Griswold 


61. 


Th Griswold's Wife 


Aug 2, '96, Mr James Treat Jr & 


62. 


Luke Hill 


Jno Allin (Allis or Alliss) 


68. 


His Wife 


Oct. 4, '96, Stephen Chester Junr's 


64. 


Steph Hurlbut 


Wife 


65. 


His Wife 


Nov. 1, '96. Joslah Gilbert 


66. 


Saml Woolcutt's Wife 


Nov. '96, Capt Rob't Wells; Eliza- 


67. 


John Boreman 


beth Wells, his wife 


68. 


His Wife 


Mary, [second wife] now [inter- 


69. 


Jo'n Beckly 


lined] 


70. 


Ezekl Buck 


Prudence Treat, ye wife of James 


71. 


W^ld Crane, Senr 


[Treat Junr 


72. 


Wife of Jona Deming, Senr 


Lydia Crane, the wife of Israel 


73. 


Jon Deming, Jun'rs Wid 


Crane 


74. 


Jon Dix 


Mary, the wife of Mr Saml Talcot 


75. 


Jacob (?) Goflf's Wid 


ye 2d Sabbath in ye 11m '96, as 


76. 


[Torn off, foot of page.] 


I remember 


77. 


" " «' " " 


[I remember 


78. 


<( .< << << << 


Mr Jno Chester Junr, 7, 12, '96, as 


79; 


[All below this torn off.] 


Dan'll Boreman & his wife 

Aug. 28, '96, Bartholomew Foster 


[P. 2 m snort-liand, omitted. J 


& his wife 




1695. P. 3. 


[ing, ye 3d 
Martha, wife of Jonathan Dem- 


Hannah Rose 


David Wright 


Hannah Lane 


Benj Gardner 


Sar 


ah Tryon 


Mr Jno Lattimer 


Mary Griswold 


Elizab, wife of [Samll (?) Chester 



Marg [rest gone] , 

Prudence, wife of Anthony Stad- 

der 
Jno Stadder (Stoddard) Junr & 
Junr both 
Abigl, wife of Jac (?) Griswold 
Sam'll Boreman 
Rachel, wife of Peter Bulkly 
Mary, wife of Tho Chester 
Benja Beckley 

(Rest of Page 3 torn ofr.( 
(Page 4. 
( ) Deming's wife 

Nath'll Churchel's wife 
(Sun?) day, Octobr26, 1707, admit- 
ted to full comunion 
Feb. 6, 1708-9. Admitted to fu 
comunion : Mabel Treat & 
Martha, wife of Nathll Hun(?) 
Richard Treat was admitted to 
full comunion, March 5, 1709- 
10 
Dec. 31, 1710, ( ) Kelcy 

Margaret, wife of Jno How- 
ard; Comfort, wife of Tho 
Morton : -Jno Kelcy's wife, & 
Henry Sage, admitted to ful 
comunion 
Dec. 26, 1714, Jno Rose, & Dorothy 
wife of Mr Edward Bulkly, 
were admitted to full com 
Jany 13, 1711-12, ( ) Belding 

Edward Bulkly, I think 
25 Josiah Goodrich, and (Sarah) 
1712 his wife 

(Name gone) 
Sam'll Buck, deceased, his 
widow ( ■ ) Rose 

( admitt)ed to 

full comunion 
Josh(ua Robbi)n's son ^c his 
wife ( ) Robins, wife of 

(rest gone. 
( admitted ) to 

comunion. 
James Wright 
(Da)vid Wright 

(Rest of p. 4 torn oft.) 



(Page 5, a.) 

In consideration of ye ( ) 

the Church of Watertown is fallen, thro 
the divi(sion) wch the controversy about 
their meeting house hath ocasioned — 

We, the ministers of the Gospel in this 
Province, viz: at Boston, May 27, 1697, 
judge that o'r duty to them, & the comon 
interests of al o'r churches oblige th us to 
offer o'r advice once again unto them; not 
vrthout a deep resentment of ye very 
faulty neglect of counsel by wch the peace 
of that church hath al along been made so 
desparate, & by some late actions made 
yet more to be despaired of — 

Wherefore we do unanimously advise : — 

1. That the brethren of ye church who 
have their assemblys in ye new meeting 
house at Watertown do proceed in an or- 
derly manner unto ye settlement of Mr 
Samll (Angier) in ye pastoral charge 
of yt congregation, wth the concurrence 
& countenance of ye neighboring churches. 

2. In as much as the late proceedings at 
Watertown have rendred it more neces- 
sary yn ever for the brethren of ye 
church wch continue yr assembly's in the 
the old meeting house to be acomodated in 



yr present circomstances : We advise those 
brethren to (proceed in) an orderly man- 
ner to form themselves (into a) Church 
State, wth the ( ) their covenant 

(to) elect & ordain Mr Henry Gibbs to be 
their Pastor (wth) the like assistance from 
ye churches in ye neighborhood. 

Increas Mather, William Hubbard, 
Charles Morton, James Allin, Samll Tor- 
rey, Wm Brinsmead, Jiio Cotton, Samll 
Willard, Jno Baily, Samll Chever. Moses 
Fisk, Joseph Eastabrook, Jabez Fox, Je- 
rom : Shepard, Thomas Clark, Peter That- 
cher, James Sherman, Thomas Weld. Jno 
Dauforth, Joseph Capeu. Cotton 
Mather, Grindal Rawsou. Wm Williams, 
Jno Rogers, Nehemiah Walter, Jonathan 
P(ierpout) Jno Sparhawk, Joseph Bel- 
c(her), Benjamin (Wads worth), Jonathan 
(RusselU?) 

(Page 5, b.) 

(At) a General Meeting of Ministers 
from diverse (towns?) of the Massachu- 
sets Bay, assembled in Boston. May ( )lCi>7. 

The Ministers of ye Gospel in ye churches 
of New England, being made sensible of 
ye tendencys yt are among us towards de- 
viations from ye good order, wherein o'r 



102 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



churches have, according to the word of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, been happily es- 
tablished & continued-do here declare & 
Subscribe o'r ful purpose, by ye help of 
our Great Lord, to maintain in o'r sev- 
eral places the purity & fellowship & lib- 
erties of o'r churches upon al those prin- 
ciples wch we apprehend essential to ye 
Congregational church discipline hitherto 
professed in these churches : & yt we wil, 
in matters of moment, calling for it, mu- 
tually devise and assist & hearken to each 
other in the Lord. 

Increase Mather, Samll Chever, James 
Shirman, Wm Hubbard, Moses Fish, 
Jonathan Russell, Charles Morton, Samll 
Angler, Joseph Eastabrook, Jno Danforth, 
James Allin, Jabez Fox Cotton Mather, 
Sa(m)ll Torrey, Jerem. Shepard, Grindal 
Rawson, Thomas Clark, Nehem. Walter, 
(John Cotton, (Peter) Thatcher, Joseph 
Belcher, Samll Willard, Jonathan Pier- 
pont, Benj. Wadsworth. 

Copied out per me; Steph. Mix, Aug. 
17, 97. 

Admitted to ful Cornunion. 

Aug. 7, 1715: Prudence, wife of Capt. 
Goodrich. 

Experience, wife of Abra: Warren; Ma- 
bel Holmes, & Sarah, daughter of Jo- 
seph Belding. 

Jan'y 1, 1715-16. Admitted to ful Com- 
union, Mr Tho Weils & his wife, & Abi- 
gail, wife of Mr Josh. Robbins 2d. 

(Page 6.) 

At Weathersfield (date torn off ) 

The names of Wethersfield children yt 
w(er)e baptized by me, Stephen Mix 
from this January 14, 1697, & the time of 
yr Baptism, in Wethersfield. 

Thomas Wells, son of Ens : Tho : Wells, 
Jan. 16, 1697-8. 

Mary Talcot, daughter of Cornt Samll 
Talcot, Jan. 30 (1697-8) 

Joseph Staddar, son of Jno Staddar 
Junr. (Here are some omitted ; but two or 
thre, I think). Abel Jillet, son of Jno 
Jillet ; Steph. Ryly, son of Jonath. Ryly, 
March 13, 1697-8. 

Sarah Mix, daughter of Steph. Mix ; 
David Buck, son of David Buck, March 
(1697-8) 

Mary Crane, child of Abraham Crane, 
April 3: (1698.) 

Abigail Walker, child of Samll Walker, 
17 (Apr. ?1698). 

Mary Rowlandson, child of Joseph Row- 
landson - - Standish, child of Tho. Stand- 
ish, June (1698.) 

Samll Mecky, child of Jno Mecky, June, 
(1698.) 

Gideon Holister, son of Steph. Hollister, 
July 24: 98. 

Eleazar Kilburn, son of Etenezer Kil- 
burn, July 31, 1698. 

Mary, the child of Jno Waddoms ; Steph. 



the child of Samll Boreman ; Samll, the 
illegitimate child of Ruth W'ms, Aug : 
(1698.) 

Anna Woolcot, daughter of Mr George 
Woolcot, Aug. 14, (1698). 

Joseph, child of Jacob Griswould Senr, 
21 Aug: 98. 

Rebecca, child of Samll Wright ; Esther 
child of Joseph Crane ; Pelatiah, child of 
Sam Buck, Sept. 11. 98. 

Jonathan Emons, son of Samll Emons, of 
Haddum ; Elezabeth, child of Jonath. 
Beldin; Octob. (1698.) 

Jno, the child of Jno Russell (I think) 
Octob. 9, 98. 

David, ye child of Wm Burnham, Octob. 
16, (1698). 

Rachel, the child of Jno Curtis Junr, 
Octobr 31, (1698). 

Joseph, child of Jno Francis (1698.) 

(Another name too much torn off to be 
legible. ) 

(Page 7.) 



I 



( ye child of Wm Warner Junr, 

Decembr 4: 98- (9) 

( ) child of Jno Bronson of Farming- 
ton, January 1 : 98- (9) 

(Euni)ce, the child of Mr James Treat 
Junr, Januar. 29: 98 (9) 

(Meh)etabel, the child of John Rose 
Feb. 12 98-9. 

Benjamin, ye child of Benjam. Beckly 
(M)ary, the child of Simon Willard; (P) 
rudence, the child of Capt. Jno Chester 
Rebecca, the child of Ben;;. Gardner, 
March 5, 1698-9. 

(Euni?)ce, the child of Tho Deming ; Jo- 
siah, the child of Samll Boreman Senr ; 
March 19, 98-9. 

Lydia, child of Jno Stoddar Junr ; Rich - 
ard, child of Jonas Holmes, March 26, 
99. 

David, child of Jacob Williams, April 

17, 99. 

( ) child of Zach. Seymour, April 

16, 99. 

( ) illegitimate child of Jonath. 

Hollister; (Rich)ard(?) child of Samll 
Belding; (H)anah, child of David Tryon, 
April 23, 99. 

( )11 child of Ezekl Buck Junr, 

May 7, 99. 

( ) child of Barthol ( ?) Foster, May 

14, 99. 

( ), child of Isaac Ryly, May 21, 

99. 

(R)achel, child of Wm Tryan, June 4, 
99. 

(Sa)mU, child of Samll Deming, June 

18, 99. 

S)amll, child of Samll Smith, July 2,99. 

(T)imothy, the child of Danll Bore- 
man; Daniel, the child of Josiah Bowin, 
July 9, 99. 

Dorothy Bronson, adult person, of 
Farmington. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



103 



Anna, the child of Jno Nott, both July 
30, 99. 

Sarah, the wife of Ezkl Buck Junr ; 
(Eli)sabeth, child of Jonath. Colef ox ; 
(Th)omas, the child of Nathll Stoddar, 
Aug. 13, 99. 

(Jo)siah, child of Jacob Griswold, Aug. 
20, 99. 

(Eph)raim, child of Wm Goodrich; 
(Lucy?), child of Jonath. Goodrich; 

( ), child (the rest torn off), Sept. 17, 
99. 

(PaeeS.) 

(Novemr. 28?) 1697. I, Stephen Mix, 
(then) admonished, before ye assembly 
of Weathe(rsfield) on Sabbath day, in the 
afternoon, Mr Tho. Fitch, for dr(ink)- 
ing to excess : wch fact was testifyed by 
Mr Towsy & Benjamin Churchil. He 
offred a (con)fession of his sin; but he 
having before (com)mitted ys like fact, 
openly but now falling again ; it being 
lookt on as a thing wch he was frequently 
guilty of & attended, seemingly, wth 
stirdines & impenitency, he was yrfore 
by me admonished. Novr 28 : '97. 

At a Meeting of ye chh of X of Weath- 
ersfield, March 81, '99-1700: This chh 
Meeting, on March 21, 1699-1700, was oc- 
casioned by Naomi, wife of Philip 
Goff; who would not (attend?) the pub- 
ique worship of God with us here, & 
had been baptized by Jonath Sprag(ue), 
living abt Providence, near, or in the (Nar 
ra)ganset country, I think: this Naomi 
owned her separation from comunion 
a(nd) her rebaptization She alledgedfor 
separation yt we were no chh : I en- 
quired of her w(hat) gave the being to a 
chh? She said, profession of faith in Cht. 
I think I reply'd we profes faith in Xt. 
2. She alledged that ye Corinthians come 
out from among (us?) &c. I think I told 
her that was from the Heathen Ydol tem- 
ples, &c After debateing this, and infant 
Baptism, & whether by di(pping?) or 
sprinkling, &c. I admonished her, & (sus- 
p) ended her from the Lord's supper ; al 
wch) on March 21, 1699-1700 In her ad- 
monition (I) said: We charge you with 
(sism &c?) Mr Tim (Wood)brige of 
Hart (ford), (rest of the page frayed off. ) 
(Page 9) 

(At) the same meeting ye aforesaid 
chh voated (that) the Deacon should send 
for Wine, for the Ld's supper, to Boston ; 
& yt Bror Wright, Joseph Wright Senr, 
should be helpful in preparing matters 
respecting the Ld's supper. 

1700 Naomi Goff admonished, or warned 
to depart from her evil way. 

Then it was voated by the chh that w. 
a messinger w. from this chh to another, 
his necessary expence should be boarn by 
the chh (I think.) 

Marc(h 11, 1701-2. Yn voated by ye chh, 



(that) a contribution for ye Ld's supper 
should be ( ) next sacrament day; and 
yt ye Deacon should, continually, send 
for wine to ye Bay. 

Decembr 26, 1703. I publickly reproved 
Benj. Ohurchel Junr. It was testifyd 
against him that he moved Wm Goodrich 
Junr to go get Watermelons, and went 
wth Benj Leete & Wm Gooodrich's Junr 
to Mrs Denison's, wr yy (i. e. theyj, 
yt is B. Leete and Wm Goodrich, got 
watermelons, tho he (would?) not. Benj 
Ohurchel owned he went with them, and 
counseled them ; tho he said he also 
( ) suaded them. But refusing to ex- 
press some (thing publickly?), I openly 
repoved him. The Monday ( ) follow- 
ing, in ye evening I think, he (the rest 
torn off, at foot of page. ) 
I (Page 10.) 

Janry 2, 1703. Benj. Ohurchel Senr 
Spake something before ye membrs of ye 
chh, in ful com ( ( in way of confes- 
sion of his fault in his (car)riage; re- 
ferring to his son's case. He had carried, 
I think, corruptly. He had not fully told 
me wt Mr Woodbridge sd in's son's case, 
if wt Mr Woodbridge sd was true ; and I 
( ) had declared yt his son had repent- 
ed before he came to the place of ye water 
mellons, wch was not evidt, but an ap 
pearance, rather, of ye contrary, &c., had 
encouraged his son to withstand publick 
confession. 

(Page 11.) 

(Sep)tembr 7, 1707. I then read the tes- 
timony of (Ma)ry Lattemer & Grace Kil- 
burn, publickly, against Prudence, the 
wife of Mr James Treat Junr : & she 
being present (I) used to her words to this 
purport : I do, in the name of Xt, 
charge the guilt of this sin upon you,& 
warn you to turn from it, & bring forth 
fruits worthy of amendment of life ; ap- 
plying to her these words : I Oor. 6, 10. 

Sept. 11, 1709. Jno Beldiug's case, be- 
fore ye chh, yt he was not willing to 
acknowledge his excessive drinking, for 
wch he fined by not ( ) tains ye last 
election was twelve monteh, yt( ) 

tie day after ye sd election & of his drink- 
ing (then?) to excess. Yesterday ^^as 
fourtnight. (I) read the Testymonys of 
Robert Turner and (Su)san Rose, of his 
state then, & took a silen ( ) ial vote 
of ye chh for their approbation of his be- 
ing censured. 

April 16, 1710. Publickly reproved Jno 
Belding, for his excess in drink. After 
mention of the fact, ct shewing, by ye 
Scripture, his guilt, I applied myself t 
him, by way of exhort- that be would 
consider the unprofitable's c^ hurt of his 
sin, the deshonr (do)ne to God. »?tc. ; 
consider the mercy of God, penitently ; 
and then thus : You are a great 1 ) 



104 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT, 



an unreasonable man, &c. I do tlier(fore 
inXt) warn you that you sey'g ( )you 
( ( of impenitent going, (the rest torn 
off from foot of page.) 

(Page 12.) 

Samll child of Samll Hun; child 

of Wm Powell; child of Tho : "Wil- 
liams ; living abt Say brook (formerly 
of Wethersfield : S. W. A. ) Nov. 5, '99 

Novr 19, '99 Elisabth child of Jno Tay- 
ler 

Ezra child of Jno Belding Decembr 3, 
99. 

Comfort child of Mr Josh. Bobbins Senr 
Decmbr 10, (99.) 

Jno, child of Mr Tho : Chester, Decem- 
br 17, '99. 

Josiah, ye child of Samll Wright, Janry 
21, '99. 

Hezekiah child of David Goodrich; 
Lydia, child of Jacob Griswould Junr, 
Febr 11 (1699-1700). 

Jno child of Jno Renols ; Gideon child 
of Nathan Hurlbut Feb. 18 '99-1700. 

Mary ye child of Stephen Mix ; Hanah, 
child of James Wright ; Mehetebel, child 
of Samll Boreman ; Wm, child of Jno. 
Jillit (Gillette) ; Jno, child of Abraham 
Crane, March 17, (1699-1)700. 

Phinehas, child of Joseph Rowlandson ; 
Sarah, child of Joseph Crowfoot ; Eles- 
abeth, child of Jno Macky, March 24, 
(1699-1700.) 

Mary, child of Simon Willard, March 
31, 1700. 

Abigail, child of Tho. Wickam Junr, 
April 14, 17(00.) 

Gideon Deming, child of Jonath. ; 
Serjt Jno Deming's son. May 5, 17(00) 

Jno ye child of Jno Benjamin, May 12, 
(1700.) 

David, child of Jonath. Ryly, May 19, 
(1700) 

Abigail, child of Jonath. Boreman ; 
Elesabeth, child of Samll Wms, May (1700) 

Hanah, child of Waters, J(une ? 

1700. 

(Page 13.) 

(Heze)kiah, child of George Kilburn; 
Joseph, child of Joseph Kilburn ; Martha 
child of Jonathan Smith, July 14, 1700. 

Timothy, child of Danll Boreman, July 
21, 1700. 

Sarah, child of Wm Harris, Aug. 4, 1700 

Stephen, child of Michal Griswold ; 
Prudence, child of Tho. Boreman, Aug. 
19, 1700. 

Tho. , child of Joseph Beldin ; Isaac, 
child of Isaac Boreman Junr ; Mary, child 
of David Buck Septembr 15 1700. 

Danll, child of Jno Frances, Septr 22, 
1700. 

(Ma)ry, child of Jno Deming; (Serj)nt 
Deming Senr's son, Septr 29, 1700. 

Hezekiah, child of Joseph Grimes, Oc- 
tobr 6, 1700. 



Benjamin, child (of ) Smith, of 

Haddum, Octob 20, 1700. 

(Na)thll, child of Rich'd Beckly, No. 
vembr 3, 1700. 

(A?)nna, child of David Wright, De- 
cembr 22, 1700. 

Tho: child of Tho: Wells; Capt Robt 
Wells's son, Decembr 29, 1700. 

Keziah, child of Jonath: Renalls, 29 
Decemr, 1700. 

( Jo)siah, child of Jacob Griswold Senr, 
Jan'y 5, 1700. 

George, the son of George Woolcott, 
Janry 19, 1700. 

Martha, the child of Jno Waddoms ; 
David, the child of David Tryan, Janry 
26, 1700. 

(Sa)mll, child of Abraham Kilburn, 
Febry 2, 1700-1. 

( ), the child of Jno Curtis Junr, 

Febry 9, 1700-1. 

( )ah, child of Andrew Pinson, 

( )ah, child of Andrew Pinson, Mr 
George (Wo)lcott ; engaging for its Edu- 
tion ( ) Christian faith and fear of 
God 9th 1, 1700-1. (the rest frayed off.) 

(Page 14.). 
(Top line frayed off. ) 

Moses, child of Jno Stadder Junr, March 

( ). 

Sarah, child of Samll Buck, March 30, 
(1701). 

Jno, child of Jno Taylor, April 6th 1701. 

Josiah, child of Tho Standish, April 
13, 17(01). I suppose these dates(?) are 
true, tho I ( ) of ymare ( ). (This 
last sentence is very closely interlined, 
and partly illegible. — S. W. A.) 

Anna, the child of Jno Rose ; Sarah, 
child of Ezekl Buck Junr, Apr. 2o, (1701) 

David, child of Joseph Crane, May 4, 
1701. 

Mary, child of Tho. Deming. 

Mabel, child of Barthol. Foster ; Josiah 
child of Isaac Riley, May 11, 17(01.) 

Eunice, ye child of Capt* Jno Chest'r, 
May 18, (1701). 

Moses, child of Samll Boreman Janr, 
May 24, (1701). 

Thomas, child of Jno Coleman ; Abigail, 
child of Wm. Warner, June 8, (1701). 

Mathew, child of Samll Belding, June 
13, 17(01). 

Prudence, child of David Goodrich, 
June 22, 170(1). 

Mary, wife of Wm. Smith, her son, Wm 
Smith, her daughters, Mary & Han- 
nah Smith ; al baptized July 27, 1701. 

Lydia, child of Israel Crane ; Anna, child 
of Nathan Hurlbut, Aug. 10, 1701. 

Hezekiah, child of Capt. Tho. Wells ; 
Sarah, child of Samll Hunn ; Obadiah, 
child of Eliphalet Dickinson, 17 Aug. 
17(01). 

James, child of Mr James Treat Junr ; 
Jno, child of Jno Norton, of Farming- 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



105 



ton, Se(pt 1701). 

Mary, child of Jacob Will'ms, Novr 17, 
(1701.) 

(Page 15.) 

(Top [line frayed joff.) 

( ) ah, child of Jonas Holmes, Novr 
1701. 

(M?)argart, child of Benj. Gardner; 
Sarah, child of Jos. Crowfoot, Novr 30, 
1701. 

Nathll, child of Steph. Hollister ; Abi- 
gail, child of Jacob Griswold Junr, Dec. 
7, 1701. 

Thankful Tomlinson, a Maid Adult; 
Anne, child of Samll Walker, Dec. 14, 
1701. 

Honour, child of Samll Deming; Re- 
becca, child of Jonath. ; Goodrich, Dec. 
28, 1701. 

Mary, child of Jonath Buck Junr, Janry 
1701. 

Josiah, child of Mr Joseph Talcott, 
(Janry, erased) Feb. 1701-2. 

Jno, child of Jonath Colefox, Febry 15, 



1701-2. 

Hephzibah(?), child of Jonath. rB^ore- 
man; Abigail, child of Samll Wright 
Feb. 22, 1701-2. 

Rebecca Mix, { ?j, child of Steph. 
Mix, 22, 1, 1701-2. 

Elesabeth, child of Jcnath. Hollister 
29, 1, 1702. 

Mary, child of Mr Tho : Chester, April 
5, 1702. 

Rachel, the child of Samll Smith, April 
12, 1702. 

Samll, child of Samll W'ms, April 19, 
1702. 

Hezekiah, child of James Wright ; 
Abraham, child of Richard Beckly, Apr. 
26, 1702. 

Jonath, child of Jonath: Hurlbutt ; 
Hannah, child of Simon Willard, May 3, 
1702. 

(Do)rothy, child of JnoBeldin, May 17, 
1702; (Abr)aham, child of Abrah Crane, 
29, 3d, 1702. 

( ), child of Wm Powell, May 31, 
1702. 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



CONDUCTED BY MABEL WARD CAMERON. 



Corrections : — In the Nov. - Dec. number 
of The Connecticut Magazine the name of 
the president of the Devonshire associa- 
tion should have been given as Sir Roper 
Lethhridge. 

In the account of the Middletown cele- 
bration, for letters of Mettaheseck, read set- 
tlers of Mettaheseck. 



At a meeting of the Connecticut Histor- 
ical Society, held at Hartford on February 
5th, Mr. Arthur Shipman read a paper on 
Lieut. Thomas Leffingwell. His essay 
included notes on early Indian history, 
dating from the time of the Pequot war, 
and on Lieut. LefiS-ngwell's connection 
with those affairs as a particular friend 
of the Indians. 

The society has received of late several 
valuable accessions, notably from Mr. 
George E. Hoadley, the bequest made by 
his brother, the late Dr. Charles J. Hoad- 
ly, who for so many years was closely 
identified with the society as its presi- 
dent. The gift consists of original doc- 
uments relating to the case of Silas Deane, 
and includes the original manuscript 
which the latter wrote in his own de- 
fense to charges brought against him. 

Slias Deane, the Connecticut patriot, 
was born in Groton, Dec. 24, 1737. He 
was graduated from Yale College, and 



served as a delegate to the first Conti- 
nental Congress. He rendered valuable 
service to the United States as the coun- 
try's political and financial agent in France 
at the time of the War of American In- 
dependence, but suffered from the unjust 
charge brought against him of extrava- 
gance in making contracts, especially in 
regard to those made with French "^ofti- 
cers who served in the Continental army. 
His vindication came too late, and he died 
in poverty at Deal, England. 

Several years ago Mr. Hoadly acquired 
from the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment a bound volume containing memo- 
randa concerning the claim which was 
brought against the government by 
Deane 's heirs, and which was settled in 
1842 by the payment of $38,000. 
Phis volume and original letters and 
other documents relating to Silas Deane, 
were already the property of the society. 

Mrs. Eliza M. Hemenway of Suft'ield 
has recently donated to the society three 
portraits that date back to ITOO.' They 
are of Dr. Caleb Perkins, his wife and 
their daughter Lucy, the latter being the 
grandmother of Mrs. Hemenway. 

Mrs. Perkins was a Trumbull* a second 
cousin of John Trumbull, the artist, and 
it is probable the portraits were his work. 
A sister of Dr. Perkins was. however, 
also an artist and it is possible that she 



io6 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



may have painted them. The por- 
traits have been hung on the gallery rail- 
ing in the Historical Library. 
An enlarged and colored copy of Porter's 
Map of Hartford, showing the original 
distribution of land in 1640, has been late- 
ly hung upon the western wall of the Li- 
brary. It was presented to the Histor- 
ical Society by one of the departments of 
the City Government of Hartford. 

At the meeting of the society of March 
5th, the president announced the gift by 
James J. Goodwin of a complete set of 
the "Victoria History of the Counties of 
England." There are to be no fewer 
than 160 volumes, and it is the most valu- 
able single gift of books ever given to the 
society by a private individual. 

It is only after considerable thought 
that one begins to realize the enormous 
scope of the work, and what it will mean 
to have within easy access such valuable 
books of reference. It has been appropri- 
ately designated a "National Survey," as 
it is proposed to trace in these volumes 
the history of each of the English coun- 
ties froia the earliest times to the present 
day. 

Everything that tells of the progress of 
England from primitive beginnings will be 
included to make this a great monument of 
literary and historic enterprise. 

Each county has its own editor, with 
staff of sub-editors. Mr. H. Arthur Doub- 
leday, F. R. G. S., being the general editor 
of the whole series. He will also have the 
assistance of archselogical, historical, and 
other societies, while an advisory council 
of the highest authority will superintend 
the preparation of the work. It will in- 
clude the history of the settlement in 
England of alien people ; of the develop- 
ment of art, science, and industries ; and 
of the social life and sports of villages 
and towns. But that which will prove 
especially interesting to Americans will 
be the records of historic and local fami- 
lies, as it is proposed wherever possible to 
trace their descendants in the colonies 
and the United States of America. 

Some supplementary volumes of chart 
pedigrees will also be published. The 
Bishop of Oxford says : ' ' The expansion 
and extension of genealogical study is a 
very remarkable feature of our own 
times ; it is an increasing pursuit both in 
America and in England." It is espec- 
ially interesting to know that this part 
of the history will be in the hands of 
genealogical and heraldric experts, who 
will deal with their subjects in the mod- 
ern spirit. 

The work will be profusely illustrated. 
Among the many thousand subjects de- 
picted will be castles, cathedrals, man- 
or houses, and portraits, some of them col- 
ored ; with the best examples of church 



brasses, colored glass, and monumental 
effigies. Each history will contain arch- 
aeological, geological, and other maps — 
about four hundred in all. A work at 
once so comprehensive and scientific, and 
so remarkable in range has never been 
attempted heretofore. 

After the business meeting at which 
the announcement of this munificent 
gift was made, Judge Simeon E. Bald- 
win of New Haven read a paper on The- 
ophilus Eaton, governor of the New Hav- 
en colony. The latter was born in Buck- 
inghamshire in 1590. He was the son of 
a well-to-do minister of the Church of 
England, and was a schoolmate of John 
Davenport. He became deputy-governor 
of the East Land Trade, and amassed a 
competency. He was a leader in the so- 
cial life of London, and when he and his 
associates came to Quinnipiac, or New 
Haven, they laid out the city and built 
houses in a style beyond the requirements 
of the new land. Eaton's house con- 
tained in 1637, nineteen rooms and fire- 
places, whereas in Boston in 1675, there 
were not twenty houses with as many 
as ten rooms. 



The petition of the New London His- 
torical Society for a memorial to Gov- 
ernor John Winthrop was presented at the 
hearing before the appropriations com- 
mittee of the State Legislature on the af- 
ternoon of March 14th. The resolution 
provides that three commissioners be 
appointed by the governor to secure 
and cause to be placed on a pedestal 
in New London, to be provided by or 
through the New London County Histor- 
ical Society, a bronze statue of John Win- 
throp, governor of the colony from. 1659 to 
1676. The expenditure not to exceed 
110,000. 

Hon. Robert Ooit of New London briefly 
sketched the career of Winthrop, whose 
home was in New London, dwell- 
ing paticurlarly on his success in procur- 
ing a charter for the State. 

Jonathan Trumbull of Norwich, presi- 
dent of the Sons of the American Rev- 
olution, spoke of the amount of work that 
has been carried through by individuals 
and the patriotic societies, work that often 
should have been done by the State — as, 
for instance, the preservation of Trum- 
bull's war office. In speaking of this 
work of the S. A. R. General Hawley once 
said: "Your society has done nobly, but 
this work ought to have been done by the 
State of Connecticut." Mr. Trumbull 
also spoke of Winthrop 's great influence 
on the history of the State. 

Arthur L. Shipman, represCxxting the 
Connecticut Historical Society, decidedly 
favored the resolution, but thought it 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



107 



might be mnch better if tiie statne were 
placed at the Capitol. Mr. Shipman then 
reviewed the important events in Win- 
throp's life. 

The Rev. ^Ir. Saltonstall of Hartford 
♦poke of onr indebtedness to Winthrop 
and said he thonglit it a good thing for 
the State to beautify anv city or part of 
the State — that statues and other memo- 
rials are of great educational valne. 

Other speakers in favor of the memo- 
rial were ex-Speaker Brandegee. ex-^May- 
or Cyrus G. Beckwith 1 representing th? 
John Winthrop Clnbi. and Representa- 
tive Whittelsey. all of Xew London, 
and Representative Htintington of Lyme. 
The latter spoke of Winthrop as the first 
expansionist. Old Lyme, he said, was 
covered by none of the old charters and 
was taken by conqtiest. 



The Xew Haven Colony Historical So- 
ciety of which Edwin S. Lines is presi- 
dent, and Henry T. Blake the secretary. 
held its Jantiary meeting on the 21 inst. 
at S o'clock. 

The Hon. Simeon Baldwin. LL. D.. 
read a paper on " Theophilns Eaton. First 
Governor of the Colony of Xew Haven.*" 

Members of the society and their friends 
were invited to meet as nsnal in the so- 
ciety's rooms after the lecture. 

On Monday evening. Feb. ISth. the mem- 
bers of the society listened to a paper 
read by Mr. Arthtir L. Shipman of Hart- 
ford. *^Ir. Shipman repeated the lecmre 



on 'John Marshal] and Oliver Ells- 
worth." which he gave in the conrse of 
lec-rores in Hartford tinder the anspices 
of the Rnth WyUys Chapter. D. A. R. 
Mr. Shipman is doing much to aronse the 
people of Connecticut to the fact that one 
of the greatest jurists of America was a 
son of this State. Tjliver Ellsworth, when 
chief justice, tinder President Washing- 
ton, was the framer of the statute known 
as the • ■ .Judicial Act, ' ' one of the historic 
documents of the United States. Ju»ige 
Simeon E. Baldwin, president of the In- 
ternational Bar Association, who was 
present at the meeting of the iociexj. 
said. ""To the lawyers and judges of this 
country this Judicial Act stands higher 
in their estimation than the Declaration 
of Independence. In its applied practi- 
cal statesmanship on a different sub- 
ject, it has been since a hundred years 
and more the one authority by which the 
cotirts of the United States have been 
manned and officered and equipped to the 
present time.'" 

After !Mr. Shipman had finished reading 
his piper some relics of Chief Justi<?e 
Ellsworth were shown: among them 
an autograph letter written to Ellsworth 
by G^^neral Washington, a piece of GDbe- 
lin tapestry presented to him by Napoleon 
Bonaparte, and a picture of the old house 
at Windsor which was the home of Ells- 
worth. These relics and others are 
heirlooms in the family of Mrs. Porter. 
wife of Professor Frank C Porter, of 
Yale Universitv. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



At the request of The Connecticut }L'q- 
dzliir. His Excellency, the President of the 
United States, contributes in a letter 
— fotind on another page of this issue — 
his personal acknowledgment of the worth 
and sterling character of his one-time 
secretarv. the Hon. John Addison Porter. 



Tht Connert'h'nt Mano.zinr publishes the 
following letter, because the subject writ- 
ten about is one that should interest all 
dwellers in the Stat-e : for through what- 
ever decision is made in this matter there 
will be established a precedent that is 
likely to afi'ect the interests of people in 
any portion of the commonwealth at va- 
rious times. 
To the Editor of The Comiertirut M,ii}az>'>tr : 

Since the capture of Agninaldo and the 
completed conquest of the Philippines, it 
was hoped that the beligerent attitude of 
our nation would subside and a general 
pacification of all hostilities, abroad or at 



home, would ensue. But that hope was 
vain, for more troops are being sent to the 
Philippines, and right here in old Connect- 
icut a controversy, that has been contin- 
ued longer than otir Asistaic war. is being 
renewed more vigorously than ever. This 
war, though not pursued with yataghan 
or Winchester, but by the more effective 
weapon of diplomacy, is waged for a sim- 
ilar puri)ose — the aciinisition of territory 
to facilitate commerce and traffic. It was 
not to gain a thousand islands, nor even 
one. but a portion of land that must be 
obtained either by conquest, purchase, or 
as an indemnity — according to the ruling 
of our chief officials in the Philippine 
case. The greet contending powers in 
this, however, were the Consolidated and 
the Connecticut Western railroads. The 
latter wanted only 313 feet of territory 
I and for which it would give a fabulous 
priced not including one of its inhabi- 
tants, even at the low price of two dol- 



io8 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



laxB per liead. 

Tlie CkmnecticuT Western wanted this 
land, oar the ri^ht of way through it. 
fer an extension 'which, it had afready 
bnilt up to Springfield. But the huge 
Consolidated wonld not allow this in- 
fringement hy its puny, •would-be com- 
petitors upon the monoi>oly it had held 
for a generation, thaogh a distinguished 
Connecticut stateanan had appealed to 
OUT Uncle Samuel to undertake the triv- 
ial enterprise of excavating the Connect- 
icut river so that a Cunard liner and other 
craft could discharge their cargoes at 
Springfield. It is not known that the Con- 
solidated sent lobbyists to Washington to 
oppose this measure or how far it had pro- 
gr€«sed. However, it must have fotmd 
one common grave with the appropriation 
for rivers and harbors, to the great relief 
of the Consolidated. 

Then the smaller railroad company could 
have recourse to only one of the three 
methods, above referred to. for acquir- 
ing territory. It would forego its claim 
to it as indemnity, though such claim had 
about as just grotinds as that of the great 
powers in China. It could not purchase 
it, for ''the retired literary man." whose 
name is retired, wotild not sell it at any 
priof-. So there remained but one other 
way to obtain it and that was by con- 
quest. AjQd that miLSt be achieved through 
the Legislature by the right of eminent 
domain, which, though it savors of Im- 
X>erialism or Socialism — for extremes often 
meet — is no less less a conquest than as if 
a^jquired by force of arms. 

Then each party trained its batteries 
of argument and persuasion upon the 
Legislature as the arbiter of its fate. 
Distinguished legal talent was employed 
to argue the case before the committee on 
railroads, and many witnesses were ex- 
Eimined. and testified as to the justice or 
expediency of the measure. It was con- 
tended that this extension would injure 
the business interests of Hartford, while 
many of its business men held that it 
would be advantageous to them. 

Ex-G-ovemor Cooke, of Winsted, whose 
sound judgment and integrity are highly 
appreciated, said "'that he would con- 
sider it a moral, political, and indefensi- 
ble condition of affairs if the extension 
was not allowed to be built . . . The 
road was all built excejjt .^X) feet and it 
would be a grievous mistake if the road 
wa?i not grarited permission to comjjlete 
its line. He could see no good reason ofr 
a refusal by the Legislature. CK^er .^.fXX* 
people v-ere interested in the completion 
of the line and it would be most unjust 
not to imxjit the x^tition. '' 

The TfipoTt of the committee will be 
anxiouslv awaited. E. P. C. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTES. 



This issue of Tht Conntctic^'t M'io<i:ii,': 
was set up by the Des Jardins Type Jtisti- 
fier Company on a Thome typesetting ma- 
chine with one of the Des Jardins type 
justifier attachments, as described in the 
Paris Exposition letter which appeared 
in the September-October number. 



The half-tone reproductions of the por- 
traits of the governors that illlustrate 
Frederick Calvin Norton's papers on 
''The Governor's of Connecticut." are 
treasures — from both an historical and 
art standpoint — that the publishers con- 
gratulate themselves on being able to pre- 
sent to the subscribers and readers of Ilu 
Connecticut Mogn-int. The reproductions 
are from the famous collection of por- 
traits in the State Capitol. 

Mr. Norton, who is most ably fitted to 
write these biographies, gives much in- 
teresting State history in connection with 
accounts of the governors that will un- 
doubtedly be new and interesting infor- 
mation to the majority of those that read 
them. 



The publishers announce in the adver- 
tising pages a splendid offer to those in 
this State who wish to attend the Pan- 
American Exposition at Buffalo. 

A round-trip ticket over the Central 
Xew England and Western and the New 
York Central Railroads from Hartford, 
or any point on the Central Xew England 
and Western RailroEid, to Buffalo and re- 
ttim, -^11 be given to all persons sending in 
eighteen Q8) yearly subscriptions to TJif 
Corm^Hi^-'/t Vagazluf. It is possible in 
this way to earn a free ticket in your spare 
moments, and the trip will carry you 
throu^rh the most picturesque part of 
Connecticut. 

K you do not succeed in getting the re- 
quired eighteen subscribers you will be al- 
lowed fifty cents on every subscription 
you do get, and this may go a good ways 
toward the purchase of a ticket,. 

All information will be .supplied by ad- 
dressing The ('onaffiiciit Magaziiif', 7 Cen- 
tral Row, Hartford, Conn. 



The following are a few of the many 
letters of appreciation we are receiving 
each day. It is a satisfaction to the pub- 
lishers to note that the magazine is so 
generally well liked and that the major- 
ity of our readers realize the impossibility 
of i:*roducing such a magazine for the old 
price, $l.fXJ. We have alrearly announced 
the advance in jjrice to $2.fX) per year. 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



109 



De Funiak, Fla. 
Gentlemen : — Enclosed you will find $3 
to pay for my subscription for another 
year. I was mucli pleased with the last 
number. Old Windsor was my heme, and 
where I was born 77 years ago. The mag- 
azine is of great interest to me. 

IVIrs. J. H. Sherman. 

Stafford Springs, Conn. 
Gentlemen : — Your card received telling 
me when my subscription expires. I 
will renew my subscription soon, as I 
think it a very fine magazine. I think it 
well worth the new price — $2, and I have 
always wondered how it could be issued 
at |1 per year. I remain a very constant 
subscriber, Mrs. A. W. Rockwell. 

Camden, N. Y. 
Gentlemen: — I wish to renew my sub- 
scription to your valuable periodical. Have 
every number since its first appearance 
and treasure it as among my most valuable 
books of American history. 

Most sincerely yours, 

Emma S. Frisbie. 

Orange, Orange Co., Cal. 
Gentlemen : — Enclosed find |2 for which, 
send The Connecticut Magazine for one 
year. Also $1 for Vol, II. I had in- 
tended to order Vol. I, but I see by Sept.- 
Oct. number that the whole edition has 
been sold. How many subscribers would 
you need to warrant your printing a sec- 
ond edition? I would like to be one. The 
magazine is very interesting to me and I 
hope to have all the numbers some time. 
Respectfully, Mrs. H. L. Davis. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Gentlemen: — Enclosed find New York 
draft for |2 to renew my subscription to 
The Connecticut Magazine for another year 
I have enjoyed the magazine very much 
and regret that I have not the complete 
numbers. The first two numbers of Vol. I, 
I have never been able to get. I judge 
from your prospectus for the coming year 
that the magazine will be better than ever. 
Was very much- interested in the Windsor 
article. 

With best wishes for success, I remain 
Yours truly, 

George R. Barbour. 

Paola, Kansas. 
Gentlemen : — Herewith I send you New 
York draft for $2, for which please send 
me 21ie Connecticut Magazine for 1901. I 
have taken it since tlie first number of 
the 2d Vol. Though I have never lived in 
Connecticut my ancestors for five gener- 
ations lived in the towns of Scotland, Can- 
terbury ,and Brooklyn, Windham County 
I have visited some of the old homesteads 
and graveyards and I am waiting patient- 
ly for some local historians to write up the 
histories of these towms.I am much pleased 
with the magazine, and with the price, 
which I am pleased to send you. 
RespecftuUy, yours, 

George Kingsley. 



^tna L.ife Insurance Co. 

This well known and successful Con- 
necticut institution began its existence 
at the threshold of the life insurance 
business in this country. In 1820 the 
Aetna (Fire) Insurance Company secured 
an amendment to its charter giving the 
right to grant annuities and insure lives. 
It was not until 1S50 that the directors 
availed of this old and half-forgotten 
•right. At this time it was decided to es- 
tablish a life department to be known as 
the "Aetna Insurance Company Annuity 
Fund." with a capital of $150,0<-»0, the 
management to be entrusted to sevea di- 
rectors, with a vice-president as chair- 
man. Judge E. A. Bulkeley, who was 
vice-president of the Aetna (Fire) In- 
surance Company, was chosen the chair- 
man. The first policy was issued on July 
15, 1850. It was for $5,000 on the life of 
George F. Tyler, a brother of General 
Robert 0. Tyler. The beginning of the 
new enterprise being small, the unpre- 
tentious office at 58 State street provided 
ample room for the care of the business. 
Soon it became desirable to separate the 
Annuity Fund from the parent company, 
so an act was passed by the General As- 
sembly of 1853 amending the Aetna (Fire) 
Insurance Company's charter by in- 
corporating the shareholders of the An- 
nuity Fund as a life insurance company, 
to be known as "The Aetna Life Insurance 
Company." 

Thus the Aetna Life's career as a dis- 
tinct organization began in 1853. The 
first board of directors was composed of 
the following prominent business men 
and citizens of Hartford: E. A. Bulkeley, 
Austin Dunham, Henry Z. Pratt. L. C. 
Ives, Mark Howard, John Warburton, 
Roland Mather, Simeon L. Loomis. John 
W. Seymour, and W. H. D. Callender. 
Judge Bulkeley was elected president. 
During 1850, or rather the last half of 
that year, 528 policies were issued, of 
which ten are still in force, — Daniel Phil- 
lips, of Hartford, now over 91 years of 
age, being one of the ten. The ten years 
between 1850 and 18t>0 was a critical 
period in the country's history financial- 
ly as well as politically, and conditions 
were not conducive to the rapid develop- 
ment of new enterprises. Still the young 
plant was hardy and thrived in spite of 
all difficulties that bestrew its path. The 
State street office soon became too small 
for the increasing operations, and re- 
moval was had to a more roomy one in 
Hungerford & Cone building. In 18(.>7 tLs 
growing business compelled another 
move, this time to a large office in the 
handsome building of the parent com- 
pany. Early in 1888, the Aetna Life 
purchased the beautiful structure next 
door to the Aetna Fire's building, and 
this is now the famous Home office of the 
Aetna Life. 

In 1801 came the first great change in 
the Company's method of doing business. 
Up to that time, all of its insurance had 



no 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



been written on the proprietary, or stock, 
plan, but almost coincident with the out- 
break of the Civil War it began to is- 
sue participating policies. Its plan ever 
since has been to liberalize its policies as 
rapidly and as fully as conditions would 
warrant. The period of extraordinary pros- 
perity during which the Aetna Life laid 
tne foundations of the magnificent struc- 
ture of today, lasted until 1873. From 
then on there extended for some years the 
most trying period ever known by life 
insurance companies. Succeeding the wild 
speculations, begun during the war, there 
came the day of reckoning with a sudden 
shock. The failure Of the famous bank- 
ing house of Jay Cooke & Co., marked the 
beginning of a veritable flood of bank- 
ruptcy. The resumption of specific pay- 
ments in 1879, marked beginning of a new 
era of financial stability. Life insurance 
shared with other lines of business the 
improved conditions. The Aetna Life was 
again in the van, and ever since it has held 
a position second to none. Up to this 
time it has increased its outstanding life, 
term, and endowment insurance to over 
$180,000,000. But this only represents a 
part of the immense business of this pro- 
gressive company, for in 1891 it organ- 
ized an Accident department, which has 
not only proved extremely successful, but 
bids fair to make the Aetna the leading 
company in this line of insurance. An 
idea of the advance made in less than 
ten years may be gathered from the fact 
that in 1900 the total accident premiums 
income will largely exceed $1,000,000. It 
is the superb financial management of 
the vast sums of money entrusted to its 
care that has given this company pre- 
eminence in the commercial and insur- 
ance world. The Aetna Life was the 
pioneer in the making of Western farm 
loans, and its managers have reason to 
be doubly proud of the fact. Not only 
have these loans proved profitable, but 
by their making the Aetna Life has tak- 
en a prominent and honorable part in the 
upbuilding of the most prosperous sec- 
tion of the country. The company's con- 
servative method of making the loans has 
left it free from a heavy load of unpro- 
ductive real estate. Last year it had out 
on real estate loans over $22,000,000, se- 
cured by property valued at over $82,- 
000,000. Notwithstanding the volume of 
loans it has made, it owns at this time 
as the result of foreclosures only $265,- 
000 worth of real estate. A record un- 
paralelled. The company has also in- 
vested largely in bonds of growing West- 
ern cities, which have made almost as 
handsome returns. As the result of this 
wise investment policy the interest in- 
come soon was so much in excess of 
what was demanded by the legal re- 
quirements that generous dividends to 
policy holders were possible. 

The Aetna Life stands today in the 
proud position of one of the soundest and 
most conservative companies in the 
world. With assets of over $55,000,000, a 



great surplus of nearly $6,000,000, and 
insurance in force of over $325,000,000 it 
can look forward to a future development 
of corresponding proportions. Its mag- 
nificent record of the past is attributed to 
the system of a responsible stock man- 
agement. It is impossible to think of the 
Aetna Life's successful career without re- 
curring to the men who made the com- 
pany, and to those who are maintaining 
its high standard. 

The founder and first president. Judge 
E. A. Bulkeley, came of old English 
stock. He was born in Colchester, Conn., 
in 1803, and graduated from Yale in 1824. 
He began the practice of law, and later 
became a prominent business man and 
political leader in Hartford. He was the 
first Republican speaker of the House of 
Representatives, first president of the 
Aetna Bank, first president of the Con- 
necticut Mutual, and first vice-president of 
the Aetna Fire. His keen business in- 
stincts and excellent judgment estab- 
lished the firm position the Aetna Life 
now holds. He was succeeded at his death 
in 1872 by T. O. Enders, who had been 
secretary since 1858. Mr. Enders brought 
to his work ability of a high order. 
Morgan G. Bulkeley, son of the founder, 
succeeded Mr, Enders in 1879. It is inter- 
esting to note here that during the ex- 
istence of the company it has been under 
the direction of the Bulkeley family. 

Ex-Gov. Bulkeley prior to his election 
as president had a fine business training 
which well fitted him for the responsible 
position. He inherited his father's love of 
politics, entering public life as a council- 
man, later was an alderman, and for eight 
consecutive years was Mayor of Hart- 
ford. In 1888 he was elected Governor of 
Connecticut, holding the office for four 
years. His administration of state affairs 
has become historical. Governor Bulkeley 
enjoys wide reputation in the insurance 
world as a man combining, in rare de- 
gree, progressiveness and conservatism. 
He is ably assisted in the management of 
the Aetna Life by Dr. G. W. Russell, 
senior Medical Director, who holds the 
unique distinction of having served the 
company uninterruptedly since 1850. Gen- 
eral W. H. Bulkeley, Auditor, and at 
one time vice-president, has con- 
tributed to the success of the company 
probably more than any other man not 
an executive officer. J. L. English, who 
has held the secretaryship for twenty- 
eight years, is deservedly placed among 
those standing very high in the life in- 
surance profession. H. W. St. John has 
been Actuary since 1867, and has filled 
this important office with marked abil- 
ity. C. E. Gilbert and W. C. Faxon, as- 
sistant secretaries, both able men, are 
administering their respective offices 
with great success. Doctors E. K. Root, 
P. H. Ingalls and W. E. Dickerman are 
able associates of Dr. Russell in the 
Medical Department. 



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12 



INSURANCE COMPANIES, 



twenty years of faithful service, resigned 
Oct. 11, 1880, to take the general manage- 
ment of the Lion and Scottish Union In- 
surance Company. On the 16th of the 
same month J. D. Browne, the present head 
of the company, was elected. Mr. Browne 
became general agent and adjuster for 
The Hartford Fire Insurance Company in 
1867. Three years later he was elected 
secretary of the company, and held the 
position till called to the presidency of 
the Connecticut. Under Mr. Browne's 
administration the company has made 
rapid strides, and today the Connecticut 
Fire is recognized throughout the country 
as one of the strongest and most equit- 
able of American fire insurance com- 
panies. 

Mr. Charles R. Burt, who was elected 
secretary of the company at the same time 
Mr. Bennett was appointed its president, 
still holds the position. Although but in 
the prime of manhood, Mr. Burt is a pa- 
riarch among local underwriters — very- 
few surviving who were active in the 
business when he joined the ranks. 

The company now occupies as its home 
office one of the most substantial structures 
in Hartford. The bunding was completed 
in 1885. It is built of brick, brown stone, 
and terra cotta, after the Byzantine style 
of architecture. The location is at the 
corner of ±*rospect and Grove streets, 
within a block of the City Hall and irost 
Office. 



Phcenix (Fire) Insuiance Company. 

On Jnue 21, 1854, books were opened in 
Hartford for subscriptions to $100,000 
capital stock of The Phoenix (Fire) In- 
surance Company, a company evolved 
from the brain of Henry Kellogg, he hav- 
ing drawn the charter which was granted 
by the Legislature at the May session of 
that year. Such was the confidence placed 
in his judgment that every share was sub- 
scribed for at once, and on the same day 
the subscribers elected the following di- 
rectors: Chester Adams, Nathan M. 
Waterman, John A. Butler, William li'ax- 
on, Erastus Smith, Samuel B Beres- 
ford, Elisha T. Smith, James C. Walkjey, 
Lyman Stockbridge, Edwin T. Pease, Jo- 
seph Merriman, Ralph Cheney and Na- 
thaniel H. Morgan. These gentlemen 
were all prominently identified with busi- 
ness interests, and their influence was of 
great value to the company. Not one of 
them is now living. 

At the first meeting of the stockholders 
it was voted to increase the capital stock 
to .$200,000, and one week later the addi- 
tional shares were subscribed for. Thus 
with the utmost confidence in its success 
was the new company launched. It com- 
menced business in , June, 1854, and its 
first policy was issued to Elihu Geer, a 
gentleman at that time actively interested 
in business in the city of Hartford, and the 
policy covered his household furniture, 
wearing apparel, and library, at 10 and 
12 State street. 

Henry Kellogg took the secretaryship 
with the view of making the development 



of the enterprise the work of his life. As 
a matter of convenience Nathaniel H. 
Morgan consented to act as president tem- 
porarily until a man possessing the neces- 
sary technical knowledge and other need- 
ed qualities could be found. 

June 27, 1855, Simeon L. Loomis was 
elected president. From the Aetna he had 
gone to New York City to organize the 
Home Insurance Company, but gladly ac- 
cepted the invitation to return to Hart- 
ford. Messrs. Loomis and Kellogg, work- 
ing in complete harmony, mapped out the 
policy which the company has since pur- 
sued with great success. On the failure 
of the Protection Insurance Company in 
September, 1854, the Phoenix secured 
some of its best men at the West,and a fair 
share of its business. It was soon deter- 
mined by the president and secretary not 
to confine the operations of the company 
to the Eastern cities and older settle- 
ments, but to occupy the whole field as 
fully as possible, even to press along the 
fringes of our frontiers, and it was the 
first company to plant local agencies on 
the Pacific coast, for up to the time of 
this action all fire insurance business in 
that field was transacted at San Francisco. 

In accordance with the policy thus de- 
termined upon, tne Western department 
of the company was created in 1857 under 
the management of M. Magill, who re- 
signed in 1860, and the department was 
then placed under the management of R. 
H. & H. M. Magill, general agents. In 

1863 R. H. Magill was transferred to the 
Pacific coast to supervise and direct the 
work in that department. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, A. E. Magill, in 
1874, who remained in charge of the de- 
partment until May, 1898, when he re- 
tired on account of broken health. Me 
has since died. 

Ine Western department has been un- 
der the sole and direct charge of H. M. 
Magill from 1863 until the present time, 
After a long, faithful, and most 
efficient service he retired on the first of 
February of this year (1901), and was 
succeeded by Messrs. Lovejoy & Spear, 
managers. 

In June, 1859, the capital stock of the 
company was increased to $400,000; in 

1864 to $600,000. July 1, 1876. it was again 
increased, to $1,000,000, and in 1881 was 
further increased to $2,000,000, and that 
is the present capital of the company. 

Following the death of President Loom- 
is in August, 1863, Mr. Kellogg was elected 
president and William B. Clark was elect- 
ed to succeed him as secretary. Decem- 
ber 1, 1867, Mr. Clark went to the Aetna, 
and was immediately succeeded as secre- 
tary by D. W. C. Skilton. The same day 
.George H. Burdick was elected assistant 
secretary. Asa W. Jillson was maae vice- 
president of the company in April, 1864, 
but owing to enfeebled health, resigned 
in August, 1888. During the same month 
President Kellogg was, at his request, re- 
tired from all active participation in the 
affairs of the company on account of ill 
health, but he remained honorary presi- 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



113 



dent until his death, January 21, 1891. 

D. W. C. Skilton was elected vice-presi- 
dent and acting president August 1, 1888, 
retaining the secretaryship of the com- 
pany until September 11th of that year, 
when George H. Burdick was promoted 
to that position, and J. H. Mitchell was 
elected vice-president. February 2, 1891, 
soon after the death of President Kellogg, 
Mr. Skilton was elected president of the 
company, which office he still holds. He 
was then succeeded by J. H. Mitchell as 
vice-president, and at the same time Mr, 
Charles E. Galacar, who haa been assist- 
ant secretary of the company since March 
10, 1888, was elected second vice-president. 
Mr. Galacar resigned in September, 1896. 
Mr. John B. Knox was elected assistant 
secretary October 1, 1891, 

Mr. Skilton was born at Plymouth Hol- 
low, Conn, (now Thomaston), came to 
Hartford in 1855, and after six years in 
the dry goods trade, entered the office of 
the Hartford Fire, October 24, 1861, as a 
clerk. He was for three years secretary 
of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, seven years vice-president, and 
three years president, and has always been 
a believer in the efficacy of organized 
effort, and has cheerfully given much time 
and thought to the upbuilding of the na- 
tional association. He was selected by 
the New York City association of under- 
writers to represent the Connecticut com- 
panies on the committee which prepared 
the standard polic:^ for fire insurance. 
This form of policy has now been adopted 
by a very large number of States and 
made obligatory. 

Capt. J. H. Mitchell, the vice-president, 
was born in Venango county, Pennsylva- 
nia. He entered the insurance business 
first as a local and later as a special agent, 
joining the special agency corps of the 
Phoenix in 1884, and came to the home 
office of the company as above described. 

Mr. Burdick was born at Granville, N. 
Y., December 17, 1841. At the age of 
nineteen he entered the office of the 
Phoenix, where as a clerk, assistant sec- 
retary, and secretary, he spent the re- 
maining years of his life. He died sud- 
denly at Heidelberg, Germany, July 2, 
1896, having left his home but a month 
l3efore. 

Mr. John B. Knox was born in Hartford, 
April 30, 1857, and after serving for a 
short time in the local insurace business 
entered the office of the Phoenix, Sept. 15, 
1873, serving as clerk, adjuster, and special 
agent until elected assistant secretary of 
the company. 

Mr. Burdick was succeeded as secretary 
"by Edward Milligan, who was elected 
Sept. 15, 1896. Mr. Milligan was born at 
Haddonfield, N. J., June 1, 1862, and had 
quite an extensive experience as an under- 
writer in conection with local agency and 
field work for the Aetna and Phoenix in 
the Middle States' field prior to his coming 
to the home office of the company as sec- 
retary. 

The Phoenix has the record of paying 
the first loss to Chicago claimants after 



the great fire of October 8th and 9th, 1871. 
The aggregate amount paid by the com- 
pany to Chicago loss claimants was ^987,- 
395.96, and to claimants for loss by the 
great Boston fire of November 10, 1872, 
it paid $335,956.18. 

The financial condition of the company 
is as follows: 

Cash capital, $2,000,000; gross assets, 
$5,583,494.25; reserve for losses, $253,- 
062.15; reserve for reinsurance, $2,087,- 
882.17; net surplus, $1,242,549.93. 

The company has three American de- 
partments: the Western, Pacific, and Can- 
adian, and in 1890 established a foreign 
department, and it is believed it is the 
only American company doing business 
in most of the civilized nations of the 
earth. 



The Bartford ILife Insurance Company. 

The special charter under which this 
company was organized was granted by 
the Legislature of Connecticut in 1866, 
its incorporators being among the most 
prominent underwriters and capitalists of 
Hartford. The intent of tnese parties was 
to organize an accident insurance com- 
pany, and indeed, that was the first busi- 
ness carried on after organization, and 
the company was known at that time as 
The Hartford .accident Insurance Com- 
pany. 

By a succeeding Legislature the com- 
pany's charter was amended, changing the 
name to The Hartford Life and Acciuent 
Company, and a year later it dropped the 
accident business entirely, since which 
time it has transacted only a life business. 

In 1880 it adopted what was known as 
its Safety Fund plan, a form of purely 
natural premium insurance, which became 
extremely popular, and was conducted 
very successfully until something over 
two years ago, when it was decided that 
the time was ripe for the company to 
place itself and its business upon a level 
premium standard. 

In re-entering the field of legal reserve 
insurance, the company has been remark- 
ably successful, during its first year doing 
an amount of business nearly equal to that 
of any like period of its existence. 

The first president of the company was 
Mr. Wareham Griswold, at that time at 
the head of one of the largest wholesale 
dry goods houses of the city. He was fol- 
lowed by Mr. 1^. H. Crosby, who was suc- 
ceeded in turn by Mr. Frederick R. Foster, 
and he by Mr. Henry A. Whitman, all 
leading and well-known citizens of Hart- 
ford. In 1893. the controlling interest of 
the company passed into the hands of Mr. 
xi. B. Parker, who became its president 
and remained so until 1S99. when he was 
succeeded by the present incumbent. Gen. 
Geo. E. Keeney. Under Gen. {veeney's 
administration the chnnges in the meth- 
ods of regular business referred to above 
have been made and the company has also 
established a branch department for the 
purpose of carrying on a monthly pre- 
mium insurance along lines practically 



114 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



similar to those of the great industrial 
companies. 

This branch has been received with en- 
couraging success, and we are informed 
that every indication points to a vigorous 
future development. 

During the thirty-three years of its 
existence, the company has paid to bene- 
ficiaries under its policies upwards of 
twenty millions of dollars. It has more 
than 51,000 policy-holders insured for 
eighty millions of dollars. It possesses as- 
sets of $3,125,568, and a surplus of $880,- 
100. 

The company occupies the large and 
handsome building at the corner of Ann 
and Asylum streets, a building which was 
erected during Mr. R. B. Parker's admin- 
istration for its own home office. 

Tne present ofhcers of the company are: 
Hon. Geo. E, Keeney, president; E. C. Hil- 
liard, vice-president; Charles H. Bacall, 
secretary, and Raymond C. Keeney, as- 
sistant secretary. 



National Fire Insurance Company. 

While the youngest of Hartford's great 
fire insurance companies, none has con- 
tributed in a greater degree to the luster 
that shines throughout the pages of Hart- 
ford's history as an underwriting center 
than the National Fire Insurance Com- 
pany. 

Starting directly after the great fire in 
Chicago under that veteran underwriter, 
Mark Howard, the company early estab- 
lished a reputation for conservatism and 
devotion to all correct practices in the 
promotion of its business that gave it 
high standing among financial institutions 
throughout the country and its policies 
were sought as collateral security wher- 
ever tne company was represented. 

After a fiery baptism in the great Boston 
fire of November, 1872, which ruined so 
many larger and older companies, the 
business and infiuence of the young com- 
pany increased steadily until the death 
of President Howard in 1887 when Judge 
James Nichols, who had been secretary 
since the company's organization, was 
elected president and E. G. Richards, the 
New England special agent of the Queen 
Insurance Company of England, became 
secretary. 

Then began the period of rapid devel- 
opment and material prosperity which 
has attracted widespread attention in fire 
underwriting circles and has marked 
President Nichols as one of the most 
successful managers that Hartford has 
produced. Ably assisted by his subordin- 
ate officers he planned and carried out a 
series of brilliant moves for advancing 
the company's interest, including the es- 
tablishing of a Western department at 
Chicago and a Pacific coast department 
at San Francisco, through which the 
business of the company was greatly in- 
creased, and agencies were established in 
nearly every city and town of importance 
throughout the United States and the 
company became what its name had so 
long prophetically announced, a national 



company, standing today among the lead- 
ing American companies, both as to as- 
sets, surplus and premium income. 

In 1893 the company occupied for the 
first time its handsome new office build- 
ing on Pearl street, which is acknowledged 
by all insurance men to be the most com- 
plete and up-to-date fire insurance build- 
ing in America. And it is a still further 
compliment to the officers of the company 
that the system originated by them for 
handling the many details connected with 
the business, and carried out in planning, 
the labor-saving devices of this office 
building, has been since adopted by many 
of the leading fire insurance companies of 
both America and Europe; certainly a 
most eloquent testimony to the sagacity 
and foresight of the company's manage- 
ment. 

During the first year ot the company's 
existence the premiums were $352,070.21, 
while in the year just closed they were 
increased to $2,735,587.12, and the cash 
assets had increased from $742,166.08 to- 
$4,851,789.34. 

We take pleasure in presenting to our 
readers several views of the handsome 
building of this most successful company 
as well as the portraits of the first and 
present officers, and feel sure that they 
will be of special interest to our readers 
as illustrating the history of one of Hart- 
ford's most successful fire insurance com- 
panies. 



Phoenix Mutual Liife Insurance Company.. 

The Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance 
Company of Hartford, Conn., was chart- 
ered originally by the Connecticut I.iegis- 
lature in May, 1851, as the American Tem- 
perance Life Insurance Co. The by-laws, 
provided that no risk should be taken 
by the company upon the lives of persons; 
addicted to the habitual use of intoxicat- 
ing liquors as a beverage, it being argued 
by the promoters of the new concern that 
the company could afford to insure total 
abstainers at a discount from the estab- 
lished rates in regular companies, and it 
was thought that this scheme would at- 
tract to its support a large following 
among those who advocated temperance 
reforms. 

In 1861 the company, by an act of the 
Legislature, changed its name from the 
American Temperance Life Insurance 
Company to that of the Phoenix Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, under which 
name it now conducts business. Under 
the new order of things, the Phoenix Life 
has moved forward with great strides. 

The number of policies written was in- 
creased from 1224 in 1889 to 8,825 in 1900^ 
insuring $14,949,070. And the premium 
receipts, which in 1889 amounted to $650,- 
777, increased in the year 1900 to $2,545,- 
547.88. The gross assets January 1, 1901, 
were $13,278,711.73. 

The company built in 1896 and 1897 a 
large and very handsome building to use 
as its home office at 49 Pearl street. It is 
six stories in height, very ornate in ap- 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



115 



pearance, and splendidly adapted to the 
wants of this growing company. 

Any one interested in life insurance 
would do well to examine the new and at- 
tractive plans of this company, which is- 
sues every form of policy known to mod- 
ern life insurance. 
The officers of the company are: 
Jonathan B, Bunce, president; John M. 
Hoicombe, vice-president; Charles H. 
Lawrence, secretary; William A. Moore, 
assistant secretary; A. A. Welch, actu- 
ary; George S. Miller, superintendent of 
agencies; William D. Morgan, M. D., 
medical director. 



National Assurance Company of Ireland. 

This company is among the older offices 
of the United Kingdom, having been or- 
ganized in 1822, and continuously in busi- 
ness for nearly eighty years. 

It has branches in all parts of the world 
and its principal office for the United 
States is in Hartford, which makes it 
worthy of mention in an article dealing 
with the insurance business of Connecti- 
cut. 

The United States trustees, in whose 
name are the investments of its funds, 
are men well known all over the United 
States for their remarkable success in 
their chosen line of business. They are, 
General Patrick A. Collins, one of the 
most prominent lawyers of Boston, who is 
also counsel for the company; Mr. John 
M. Graham, president of The International 
Trust Company of Boston, and Colonel 
Albert A. x^ope of the Pope Manufacturing 
Company, a man too well known to need 
any introduction to the citizens of Con- 
necticut. With these men in charge of 
its financial affairs, the policy-holders of 
the iNational can rest assured that their 
interests will be well protected. 

Mr. George E. Kendall, the United 
States, manager of the National, began 
his insurance career with The First 
National Fire Insurance Company of 
Worcester, Mass., in 1869. He be- 
came secretary of that company in 
1873, and in 1877 resigned and pur- 
chased one of the old established local 
agencies of Worcester, which he continued 
until he became general agent for New 
England for The Guardian Assurance 
Company of London. With this company 
he remained until just before its retire- 
ment from the United States— then ac- 
cepting a similar position with The New 
Hampshire Fire Insurance Company. He 
was elected secretary of that company in 
1895, and held that office at the time of 
his acceptance of the management of the 
National in July, 1899. 

This training of nearly thirty years in 
the office, the field, and as a local agent, 
has been of great advantage, not only to 
Mr. Kendall, but to all who may repre- 
sent his company; for his intimate knowl- 
edge of the territory, his large acquaint- 
ance with the agents, and his familiarity 
with the detail of the work, greatly fa- 
cilitate the transaction of business with 



the minimum amount of correspondence — 
a fact that his agents are not slow to 
appreciate. 

The selection of headquarters of the 
company for this country required but 
short time for consideration, for the new 
manager recognized at once the very su- 
perior advantages of Hartford as an in- 
surance center, and he realized that the 
officers of the Hartford, fire insurance 
companies were gentlemen of such wide 
experience and broad ideas that his com- 
pany would be largely benefitted by his 
association with them. 

He therefore leased the entire first 
floor of the Putnam Building on Main 
street, where the offices of the United 
States branch are now located. 

The company has a subscribed capital 
of $5,000,000, of which $500,000 is paid in 
and the balance is subject to call of the 
board of directors at any time. Its assets 
in the United States now amount to over 
$600,000 — it does business in twenty 
States,, with about four hundred agents, 
confining its writings to the States of the 
North and Middle West. The National 
is the only company in this country that 
has its head office in Ireland, and is rea- 
sonably sure of a large business from the 
fast growing class of Irish-Americans 
that are rapidly accumulating property in 
this country. 

The board of directors of the National 
comprises some of the most prominent 
men of Ireland — five are also directors in 
the Bank of Ireland, one of the large 
financial institutions of the world, which 
is a reasonable guarantee that the funds 
of this company will be well managed. 



Scottish Union and National and Lion Fire 
Insurance Companies. 

The Scottish Union aind National Insur- 
ance Company, Edinburgh, Scotland, was 
chartered in 1824. It commenced business 
in 1880 in the United States, and does here 
a fire insurance business exclusively. In. 
Great Britain it also insures lives and 
grants annuities. Its assets in the United 
States are $4,312,983.80, its liabilities. $2.- 
088,928.91. Ihe premiums received in the 
United States up to December 31. 1900. 
were $21,320,088. and the losses paid were 
$12,548,820. The United States trustees 
are Messrs. Morgan G. Bulkeley. John R. 
Redfield and Leverett Brainard. Hartford. 
The American representatives of the com- 
pany are: James H. Brewster, manager; 
John A. Kelly, superintendent of agencies; 
T. J. A. Tie<^emann, manager Pacific coast 
department. 

The Lion Fire Insurance Company. Lon- 
don, Bug., was organized in 1S79. and be- 
gan business in the United States in ISSO, 
in connection with the Scottish Union and 
National. The company has received in 
premiums in this country since its admis- 
sion. $9,586,404, and has paid in losses, 
$5,910,286. The United States tru^^ees are 
Francis B. Cooley. Morgan G. Bulkeley 
and John R. Redfield. James H. Brewster 
is United States manager. 



ii6 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



Ninety years of successful fire insurance 
business is the record of The Albany In- 
surance Company of Albany, N. Y. The 
company was chartered in 1811, and in all 
its career has enjoyed an enviable r?pu- 
tation for equitable dealing. It is a strong 
and well managed company and carries a 
good volume of business throughout Con- 
necticut. Its Hartford representative is 
"William Richard Griffith, well known in 
business and political life. Mr. GriiOflth 




WILLIAM RICHARD GRIFFITH. 

does an extensive real estate business in 
connection with his fire insurance and 
has consummated some of the largest real 
estate deals Hartford has seen in recent 
years. He has represented the Tenth 
ward in the Hartford City Council for two 
years and is at present senior councilman 
from this ward. Mr. Griffith is also a 
member of the well-known Clef Male 
Quartet, and acts as its business manager. 



An immense quantity of ink is consumed 
yearly by the great insurance corporations 
of the State. Every department in these 
great offices requires an abundance of the 
writing fluid to keep its immense interests 
in action. There are many makes of ink 
on the market, but perhaps none are more 
extensively used than those of The Barber 
Ink Company of Hartford. It is interest- 
ing to note that the writing fluid manu- 
factured by this company has been offici- 
ally accepted for use throughout Connec- 
ticut in all the public offices of the State. 
The company has had its inks on the mar- 
ket for twenty-five years and is also en- 
gaged in the manufacture of mucilage, 
white paste, ammonia and bluing. In 
every department of business and domestic 
life The Barber ink Company's goods find 
a ready market. 



■surance company chartered by the State 
of Massachusetts, but its assets exceed 
the combined assets of the other four 
Massachusetts stocK companies. Its rec- 
ord of fifty years' business is an honorable 
one and its management along what are 
known as "Hartford lines' gives it a 
rank and popularity quite equal to that 
of our home companies. 



The remarkable growth of the Fidelity 
and Deposit Company of Maryland, whose 
general manager for Connecticut is E. S. 
Cowles, with office at 25 Peari street, Flart- 
ford. Conn., lurnishes an example of what 
sound business judgment can accomplish 
and is also a testimony to the growing 
necessities of nearly all lines of business 
of today. 

Protection is the keynote to this line ol 
business, and it has been demonstrated 
that large resources are very necessary to 
do a surety business. This company has 
recently increased its capital from $1,500,- 
000 to $2,000,000 and added $700,000 to its 
net surplus, making this item n,ow $2,500,- 
000. In addition to this the company car- 
ries its legal reserve of about $700,000 
more. 

The Fidelity and Deposit Company be- 
comes sole surety on all bonds desired by 
an individual or corporation; among the 
more prominent being for executors, trus- 
tees, administrators, guardians, receivers, 
assignees in replevin and attachment 
cases, contractors. United States officials, 
State, county or municipal officials, officers 
of fraternal societies, employees of banks, 
corporations and mercantile establish- 
ments. 

This business supplies a long-felt want, 
as it relieves individuals from giving or 
accepting personal surety which is liable 
to lead to personal embarrassment and 
grievances. 

The Fidelity and Deposit Company fur- 
nishes the strongest and best bond on the 
market, and its rates are entirely reason- 
able. 

It is a matter of common remark that 
Hartford insurance men are generally well 
aressed — and why? The majority of in- 
surance clerks in Hartford draw good 
salaries and are able to dress becomingly 
d,nd to keep pace with the changing styles. 
But the salary alone is not accountable for 
the dress. The men who design the dress 
are in a great measure responsible for the 
nobby appearance of Hartford's insurance 
men. It is a generally accepted fact ihat 
Toothacre Brothers, the men's tailors in 
the Sage-Allen building, are largely identi- 
fied with the good taste and good clothes 
that characterize Hartford as one of the 
dressiest cities in New England. 



Our neighbor just over the State line. 
The Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company, is not only the largest fire in- 



George N. Olmsted, the popular dealer 
in bicycles and sundries, has disposed of 
his business to O. W. Olmsted and Walter 
J. Ziegler, who will conduct the business 
hereafter as Olmsted & Zeigler. Mr, 
George N. Olmsted will remain as manager 
for the season at the old location, 182 
Pearl street. 



New England Mutual Life Insurance Co, 

OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. 
Oldest, Largest and Strongest Massachusetts Company. 



<L 



THE 
OLDEST 

Purely Mutual 
Old -Line Life 
Insurance Com- 
pany in the 
UNITED STATES 

Incorporated 1835. 



? ^ *«' 







The Limit for 
Insurance on 
Acceptable Lives. 

Ages 20 to 55, $50,000 
Ages 55 to 60, 30,000 
Ages 60 to 65, 10,000 



HOME OFFICE, POST OFFICE SQUARE, BOSTON. 

^-SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION this Company has received from policy-holders $94,580 344.56, 
and has paid back for death losses, endowments, surrendered policies, and returns of surplus, 
$79,2I6,72a79. It had on January I, I90I, $30,924,972.41 with which to meet all claims. This shows 
that the judicious investments made by the Company have earned profit enough to pay all running 
expenses, and $15,561,348.64 besides. 

Of the amount paid to policy-holders, $18,769,524.60 were in returns of surplus. 



HASTINGS & FOLSOM, General Agents for Rhode Island and Connecticut, 

741-742-743 Banigan Building, PROVIDENCE, R, L 

and 1-2 Odd Fellows Building, WATERBURY, CONN. 



R. B. GREENWOOD, Cashier, Rhode Island and Connecticut Agencies. 
C. F. MORWAY, Ass't Manager, Rhode Island and Connecticut Agencies, 



CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT. 



DISTRICT MANAGERS. 
Chas. E. Hoadley, Waterbury. 
Reginald Birney, Hartford. 
D wight E. Rogers, Danbury. 
F, D. Hastings, New Britain, 



SPECIAL AGENTS. 
E, N. Lewis, Bridgeport. 
G. A. "Whitmore, New Haven. 
E. L, Root, Waterbury. 
J, C. Cowles, Eastern, Conn. 



A successful Agency ativays has room for acti've l;t>orkers, 
EXCLUSIVE TERRITORY, LIBERAL RENEWAL CONTRACTS. 



Please mention The Connecticut INIagazine when writing advertisers. 



American Service Union. 

Our genial friends, Mr. W. H. Arms and 
Mr. F. W. Elsdon, who have located at 
9 Asylum street, in Hartford, have just 
called our attention lo the contracts of 
the American Service Union which they 
write in conjunction with life insurance in 
fraternal orders, and it sems to fill a 
want whicn has long been desired for 
some institution whose method was un- 
questioned and in whom the fullest con- 
fidence could be reposed, which would as- 
sume the payment of the assessments and 
dues to relieve the individual member of 
the various societies from the worry and 
annoyance of meting his obligations 
promptly to avoid suspension. This con- 
dition seems to be fully met by the plan of 
the American Service Union, as evidenced 
by the thousands who avail themselves of 
its service, and in addition they have 
made their fraternal insurance practically 
an endowment. The plan is unique and 
comfortable, and is certainly a Dig money- 
saver in the end. 

Their contracts are written for a period 
of eitner twelve, fifteen or twenty years, 
and at maturity they agree to pay to the 
contract-holder the principal sum of the 
contract together with any surplus earn- 
ings. By way of explanation, take a man 
belonging to a society in which he pays 
$35 annually. A twenty-year $1,000 contract 
requires him to pay $65 annually, out of 
which the Union pays his dues and assess- 
ments and sends him a receipt, and tne 
balance goes into the reserve fund, and 
at the end of twenty years the contract- 
holder would receive $1,000 together with 
any surplus earnings as against the $600 
paid in. This is not only a fair profit, 
but virtually saves the cost of insurance 
and at the same time leaves the insurance 
in force. And if at any time during the 
life of the contract the holder should be 
so unfortunate as to be unable to con- 
tinue the payment he has the option of 
having his accumulations used to main- 
tain his fraternal insurance, or he can 
take a paid-up contract and cash it at any 
anniversary. The whole system, in fact, 
gives accumulation by investment, and 
protection by insurance. 



The New England Mutual L,ife Insurance Co. 

Nearly all the great insurance corpora- 
tions of the United States are represented 
in Connecticut, and among the leaders can 
be counted the New England of Boston, 
which is the oldest, largest, and strongest 
of the Massachusetts companies. 

This company's popularity in Connec- 
ticut is attested by the fact that in three 
years, since Messrs. Hasting and Polsom 
were appointed general agents, the com- 
pany has gained more than a million dol- 
lars of insurance in force in the State and 
increased its premium income in Connec- 
ticut from $2,143 in 1897 to $48,386 in 1900. 

Being intimately familiar with the prin- 
ciples of life insurance and of large in- 
formation as to the standing and working 



of other companies as well as their own,, 
these gentlemen have been successful in 
securing co-workers; and their agency is 
a literal fulfillment of the old saying that 
nothing succeeds like success. 



Everyone has heard of the famous New 
England Primer. After reading, every- 
one is interested in owning a copy. The 
Bargain Bookery, Hartford, sells an ex- 
cellent facsimile edition, for 25 cents. 
See advertisement. 



There is more Catarrh in this section of the country 
than all other diseases put together, and until the last 
few years was supposed to be incurable. For a great 
many years doctors pronounced it a local disease, and 
prescribed local remedies, and by constantly failing 
to cure with local treatment, pronounced it incurable. 
Science has proven catarrh to be a constitutional 
disease, and, therefore, requires constitutional] treat- 
ment. Hall's Catarrh Cure, manufactured by F.I J. 
Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio, is the onlj' constitutional 
cure on the market. It is taken internally in doses 
from lo drops to a teaspoonful. It acts directly on the 
blood and mucous surfaces of the system. They offer 
one hundred dollars for any case it fails to cure. Send 
for circulars and testimonial*. Address 

F. J. CHF^NFJY & CO., Toledo, O. 
4®^Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Hall's Family Pills are the best. 



TO CURE A COLD IN ONE DAY. 

Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. 
All druggists refund the money if it fails to 
cure. 25 cents. 



LADIES 

The old adage that " Beauty is only skin deep" Is a trite, 
though doubtless a true saying. However this may be, it is 
an absolute-certainty that 

FOWLER'S 

Tryphena Toilet Cream 

gives a skin of child-like purity. It feeds and nourishes im- 
poverished; shrunken skin and cellular tissues. Ensures a 
perfect complexion. Banishes all imperfections. Cures all 
skin diseases. A dainty toilet necessity of surpassing lux- 
ury and incomparable richness. 

A Skin Corrective. A Skin Tonic. A Skin Food. 
A Skin Beautifier. 

The Most Astonishing Transformations in Personal Ap- 
pearance are Brought About by its Steady Use. 

It speedily banishes Pimples, Freckles, Blackheads, Yel- 
low or Muddy Skin, Moth Patches, Liver Spots, Sallowness, 
Eczema, Redness, Roughness, Oiliness, Eruptions, Tan, Sun- 
burn, Moth Spots, Discolorations and Wrinkles. 

It is also particularly recommended for Chapped Hands, 
Face and Lips, Scaly Eruptions,Hives,Ringworni, Ivy Poison, 
Herpes, Tetter, Bee Stings, Mosquito and other Insect Bites, 
Dandruff and other irritations and affections of the Scalp, 
Cold Sores, Ulcers, Blisters, Felons, Erysipelas,Burns,Scalds, 
Flesh Wounds, Chafing, the nursery (where the tender skin 
of baby proves its true worth). Itching, Nettle Rash, Salt 
Rheum, and all affections of the skin, etc., in general. 

Its effect is not to cover up imperfections, but to so cor- 
rect them and their cause by its purifying and emolient pro- 
perties as to leave the skin exquisitely soft, smooth, pure, 
and in its natural healthy condition. It imparts the tint of 
the lily and blush of the rose to the plainest face. It is the 
skin food which gets to the very root of all skin diflaculties. 
All possible objections in skin foods have been eliminated 
and every possible virtue added. In fact, it is the daintiest 
toilet requisite that ever graced "my lady's " dressing-table. 
For sale by Druggists and dealers in toilet articles generally, 
throughout the U. S. and Canada. Price fiftv cents per large 
sized bottle. SAMPLE BOTTLE SENT FREE. Address, 

FOWLER, Manufacturing Chemist, Moodus, Conn. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers 



WALLACE'S NEW ROSE CATALOCUE-A gem among illus 
trated catalogues, a veritable art treasure — is the handsome thirty-two page cata- 
logue just issued by W. E. Wallace, the nurseryman, who has for years been 
engaged in the raising of hardy rose plants, rhododendrons, azaleas, ornamental 
and fruit trees, shrubs, vines, evergreens, etc. The catalogue contains no less 
than twenty-six beautiful photo-engravings that are even good enough to frame. 
Mr. Wallace offers to give one of these catalogues free of charge to any person 
who is sufficiently interested to write him or to call at his nurseries at 785 
Farmington avenue, West Hartford, Conn. The trolley cars of the West Hartford 
line pass directly by the nurseries, which affords an excellent opportunity to visit 
the grounds. Inquiries can be addressed to W. E. Wallace, P. O. Box 378, 
Hartford, Conn. 



IT'S FREE. 




YOUNG MAN ASK INTO FOR 
A BONO AS A FAVOR 



FIDELITY & DEPOSIT COMPANY OF MARYLAND, 

Branch Office : 

25 PEARIy STREET, HARTFORD, CONN. 

E. S. COWLES, General Manager. 

All bonds executed promptly. 




YOUN6 MAN ASKIN6 FOR A BONO 
ASABUSINES5 PROPOSITION 



JiLOO 

/?. S. PECK 6i 



\NILL BUY THE "UNIVERSITY" GOLD FOUN- 

TAIN PEN. GUARANTEED 14K. 

PARA RUBBER HOLDER-WITH FILLER— 
IN BOX— BY MAIL— POSTPAID. ^ ^ ^ 

GCf PRINTERS, ENGRAVERS, STATIONERS. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



CAMERAS, 

PHOTO, 

AND 

ARTIST MATERIALS 



The BONNER-PRESTON CO., 

843 Main St., Hartford. 



WALL PAPERS, 

PAINTS 

AND 

DECORATIONS 




Tk GREATEST WATCH of the AGE for tlie PRf CE. 



This watch is one of our leading tinio-keepers and is ujcd by many of 
our best business men. We have just contracted for the whole output of the 
factory for three months. Therefore we can make vou this valuable and 
unreasonable offer. This is a dust-proof solid nickel silver case, with a good 
movement, stem wind and stem set, sunk second>. a perfect timekt>eper, and 
is guaranteed for five years. We are selling these watches with only slight 
advance over cost, in order to make a customer of you. We are shipping 
thousands of them daily, and have as yet to receive a complaint, and can 
send you thousands of credentials as to their merit as a timepiece. 

This watch is not the dummy, cheap affair which has been sold tor the 
last few years, but it is a neat, clean watch. It you do not ;lnd it as repre- 
sented, say so, and we will cheerfully refund your mor.ey. 

We will send this watch upon receipt of $1.45 postage paid, direct to 
you at your post-office address. 

TT''DT7"C I Every order will be numbered, and every tilth order received 
•TIvllXl * ^yjii^ in addition, get a dne tleit's Gold Plated I'hain and 
Charm. Send your order to-day and you may be one of the lucky ones. 
Address : 

HOME NOVELTY SUPPLY CO.. 

(Dept. 152X.) Box 51S CHIC.\GO. ILL. 



Stem Wind and Set. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



K oyal—Pe n n sylvan ia . 

A history of the fire insurance interests 
of Connecticut would hardly be complete 
without including among the large cor- 
porations which have become localized 
there to a great extent, the Royal Insur- 
ance Company, of Liverpool, and the 
Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, of 
Philadelphia. 

The Royal is one of the great insurance 
corporations of England, and has the larg- 
est net surplus of any fire insurance com- 




GEORGE P. FIELD. 

pany in the world. Its surplus represents 
an agrgegate of investments greater than 
the assets of any American fire insurance 
company, and in its long career has earned 
a reputation for honorable dealing that 
any company may well envy. 

The Pennsylvania is one of the old in- 
stitutions of the Quaker City, Philadel- 
phia, organized in 1825, and has a surplus 
to policy-holders above all its liabilities 
of $2,500,000. Its reputation and stand- 
ing with the insurance public is not ex- 




EDMUND E. CO'WLES. 

-celled by any company doing business 
and it has been associated with the Royal 
in New England for more than a quarter 
of a century, both companies being under 
the management of Field & Cowles of Bos- 
ton. This firm, composed of George P. 
Field and Edmund B. Cowles, in point of 
business transacted and territory covered, 
stands at the head of the insurance agen- 
cies of New England. Their offices in 
Boston, employing a very large staff, are 



The 

" Old Northwest " 

Genealogical Quarterly 

is the organ of The '' Old 
Northwest" Genealogical Soci- 
ety and is now entering upon 
the fourth year of its publi- 
cation. 

PRICE, $3.00 per annum. 

85 cents per Number. 

Vols. I, II and III, in paper. $3,00; Cloth, $4.00; 
Half Morocco, $4.50. 

ADDRESS, 

DR. L. C. HERRICK. Secretary. 
106 East Broad St., Columbus, Ohio. 



OLMSTED & ZIEGLER, 

Bicycles and Sundries. 

BARNES, MONARCH, TRINITY, ANDRAE, 

CARROLL, ECLIPSE, LINDHURST, 

PRICES, «30 to S75. 

Afirents foi the famous 
E. K. THOMAS MOTOR CYCLES. 

Motors Furnished or Fitted to Machines. Special attention given 
to Repaiirs. All Work Guaranteed. 



182 Pearl St., 



Hartford, Conn. 



The Randall Studios. 

Hig:h Class 
Portraiture. 



Hartford, New Haven, Ann Arbor, 
Michigfan. 

FIRST AWARDS IN U, S. AND EUROPE. 

Twenty years of success. 



Please mention Thk Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



i849 



1901 



Largest Fire Insurance Company 

Chartered by the State of Massachusetts. 



SPRINGFIELD 
Fire and Marine Insurance Co., 



Cash Capital, 

Assets, 



OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

$1,500,000.00 Liabilities Except Capital, 
5,159,623.00 Surplus to Policy Holders, 
Losses Paid Since Organization, $27,459,196.4U 



$1,844,480.00 
3,319,143.00 



A. W. DAMON, President CHAS. E. GALACAR, Vice Preset 

W. J. MACKAY, Secretary R H. WILLIAMS, Treasurer. 



Agencies in all the Prominent Localities Throughout the United States. 



THE BARBER INK CO., 

Manufacturers of 

'^ Standard" 

INKS AND MUCILAGE. 

INK EXTRACTS, WHITE PASTE, AMMONIA and BLUEING. 



Our writing Fluid 


HHH 


PH 


^^HH 


Bm^^H 


has been officially ac- 


H^^^l^^l 




BW^ 


|p^M| 


cepted for use through- 


H^^H^pipr 


N^ 


f:,/^'. 


i wH 


out Connecticut in all 
the Public Offices of 


HIr ^ 




the state. 


Kb 




r . -^^^U 


Business Men like 
it. 




1/ -- < / 


y "'\ "^-^"'t^^^H 


Just right for the 






Home. 


^^^^^^^1 


^Bl^" 




^^^■^^1 


All kinds and colors 


^H 


L 


'^^ 


^^^^^H 


and in any quantity. 


IHBHH 


■■■HH 



The Barber Ink 
K.vtrticts. 

These ink> liavo b^en 
in use anil adopted by 
tbe leadini: Insiirnnc«> 
and liankinc urtloes of 
tlie I'oiintry for the last 
t vventy-rtvo years. We 
send them out in dry 
form and ujako Scar- 
let (the most i>rilli.int 
and duraMe known), 
Klue, iireeii, Vio- 
let and Klark. A 
trial will cMivir.oo the 
most skeptii-al as to 
tliclr merits. 



GROCERS. 



We manufacture High Test AMMONIA (any degree), and Brilliant Laundry BLUEEXG, 
If you do not have our goods in stock, it would be for your interest to do so, as the goods 

and prices are up to the hour. 

If your dealer does not carry our line in stock Telephone or drop us a postal, or better yet come up and 

see us. We are on the top floor, but our goods are on top of all others 



We can save vou mone\ 



THE BARBER INK COMPANY, 



MANUFACTORY AND OFFICE. 



116 Pearl St. 



Hartford, Conn. 



Please mention Thr Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



located at 85 Water street, and are without 
doubt the finest and most complete in that 
city. Mr. Field has been connected with 
the companies some thirty years, and Mr. 
Cowles since 1892; the latter was born in 
Connecticut, and was a resident of the 
State up to that date, and for twenty years 
manager of The Meriden Fire Insurance 
Company. The adjustment of losses and 
the general supervision of the agency sys- 
tem of the State has been for several years 
in the hands of Mr. Irving L. Holt, of 




IRVING L. HOLT. 

Meriden, Conn. How well he has per- 
formed his duties is shown by the stand- 
ing of the companies among the large 
number of their agents, who are located 
in every town of any importance in the 
State. His popularity among the agents 
has helped to a great extent in placing 
the companies among the leaders in point 
of business. 

About a year ago Messrs. Field & 'Cowles 
felt that their large interests at Hartford 
and vicinity demanded the establishment 




WALTER L. WAKEFIELD. 

of a branch oflace in that city in order to 
give better facilities for the prompt trans- 
action of business, and a department was 
created, known as the Hartford depart- 
ment. Mr. W. L. Wakefield, who had rep- 
resented them so satisfactorily for many 
years, was placed in charge of the office 
as general agent. His success in the field 
in which there are so many competing 
local interests has justified the selection, 
and he has the confidence and strongest 
support of the managers. 



FAT REDUCTION 

Mrs. M. Dumar studied the reduction of human fat for 
over 20 years with the greatest specialists in Europe and 
America. Over 10,000 grateful patients attest her success. 
Her treatment is not "Banting" nor starvation diet. She 
protests agninst the "Free Trial Treatment" Fraud, so often 
advertised. Her's is no "Monthly I'ayment" scheme, Mrs. 
Dumar"s treatment is endorsed by the Colleges ot Physicians 
and by "The United States Health Keport." Her total 
charge is $1, which pays for prescription, lor medicine sold 
in all tirst-class drug stores, full instructions as to the treat- 
ment, and everything necessary to reduce one pound or more 
a day. No extra charges. No wrinkles and no iiilury to 
health. 

FROW NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS. 

The patients of Mrs. Dumar are legion, and all of them 
are her friends. — Weekly Tribune and Star. 

Twentv-odd years she has spent in serving her sister- 
sulferers, and all have benefited by her treatment.— Family 
Physician Magazine, N. Y. 

For many years this successful specialist has been curing 
excessive fat, and we (acknowledged tcj be the highest 
American authority on all matters pertaining to health, sani- 
tation, and hygiene) feel authorized to recommend this treat- 
ment.— United States Health Eeport. 

If you find this treatment not based on common sense, 
and find it doesn't work, she will send your $1 back. If you 
question the value of this treatment, ask any proprietor of a 
first-class newspaper. They all know Mrs. Dumar and what 
she has done. She has not published a testimonial in years. 
She does not need to. Her work is too well known. 

If you are interested in reducing flesh and believe that a 
sure, guaranteed reduction (as promised above) is worth $1 
to you, mail that sum in bill, stamps or money order to 

MRS. M. DUMAR, 15 West 28th St., New York. 



ON'T SET HENS '"Vo'll.., 

The Nat'l Hen Incubator beats the old 
plan 3 to 1. Little in price but a big- money' 
maker. Agents wanted. Send rkrip PrOO 
for catalog- telling how to g^et UIIC F I CC 
Natural Hen Incubator Co., B 31 Columbus, Neb. 




Save 
;Your 
tyes 



; 



—concentrate tho 
rays of light where 
light is needed— by- 
using an 



Yfe will Bend this aajust&ble table lamp 
to any address in the U.S., express pre- 
paid, upon leceipt cf $3. 95 

Espersen 
Adjustable Shade Lamp 

Adapted to use at any desk, table, piano, type- 
writer, bench, etc., where incandescent electric 
light is obtainable. Increases light 50 per cent. 
Adjustable to any position. Completely shades 
the eyes. Handsome 
illustrated cata- 
logue and price 
list free. Good 
agents desired in 
each city. Address 

PACIFIC 

ELECTRIC 

CO., 

Clifl Ave. 
La Crosse, 

llf- 11 C A "^^^^ complete lamp express prepaid to any 

WIS., U . d. A. address in the U.S.,upoD receipt of $8.26 



' y fri«>f «» • w. »»• »uaieas m lue u.o.,upon receipt 

/////////////////////// 




Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



Endowment Life Insurance. 
To Obtain the Best Results. 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association issues 
a combination of " Old Line " Term insurance with its 
profitable investment contracts, and on a ten-year term, for 
instance, produces resuhs that no life insurance company- 
can hope to approach. You see, life insurance profits are 
calculated upon a 3 1-2 or 4 per cent, basis, while in more 
than half a century no building and loan association of any 
consequence has paid, less than six per cent, per annum on 
its installment contracts — soms have even declared as 
, high as 1 per cent, and \ 2 per cent. 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 

252 Asylum St., Hartford, Conn. 
Assets, over - - - $1,250,000.00 
Guarantee Fund, j ^^sh" i I00»000'00 



SAVE TIME AND MONEY 

BY USING 

BURR'S 

Patent Combination Index. 

THE BEST IN THE WORLD 

FOR 

INDEXING LEDGERS, LETTER BOOKS, COMMER- 
CIAL REPORTS AND RECORDS OF ALL KINDS. . . 

All names are indexed by the first Two and Three letters of the surname; Giving from 
. 400 to 4000 divisions of the Alphabet, printed in Notches or Thumb- 
holes cut in the edges of the leaves. 

Opened Instantly at any Combination by the use of one hand. 

PRACTICAL AND SIMPLE. SAVES TIME AND LABOR. 

GIVE IT A TRIAL. 

THE BURR INDEX CO., Sole Manufacturers, Head Office, Hartford, Conn. 

. SEND FOR IIvIyUSTRATKD CATAI^OGUE. 

Ask Your Stationer to Show You Burr's Index. 
Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing: advertisers. 



state Mutual Lite Assurauce Coiupany. 

Mr. Prank G. Burnliam, whose portrait 
we herewith reproduce, has been identi- 
fied with insurance matters for over te^i 
years. 

On graduation from the Hartford High 
school he became associated with The 
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance com- 
pany at its home office. After four year,3 
of conscientious work with this company 
he took up field work for The • Mutual 
Benefit Life Insurance Company of New- 
ark, N. J. His efforts for the Mutual Ben- 
efit were so successful that his ability was 
soon recognized throughout the State, and 
in February, 1900, the well-known State 
Mutual Life Assurance Company of Wor- 
cester appointed him their general agent 
for Connecticut, with handsome liead- 
quarters at Hartford, Conn , in the Sage- 
Allen building. 




FRANK G. BURNHAM. 



The state Mutual Life Assurance Com- 
pany, which Mr. Burnham represents, is a 
purely mutual company, incorporated in 
1844 under the laws of Massachusetts, 
which are the most rigid of any in the 
United States. The policy-holders are the 
stockholders, to whom all profits are re- 
turned. 

This company has been a leader among 
Massachusetts companies in the past, and 
is now writing some of the most attrac- 
tive policies on the market. Tne record 
of the company, in regard to dividends, 
which is the direct result of economical 
management, speaks for itself. 

Taking everything into consideration, 
the State Mutual is an up-to-date and 
progressive company and well deserves 
the success it is achieving. 

The company is fortunate in having 
such a well-known and well-lil^ed repre- 
sentative in Connecticut. Mr. Burnham's 
vocal abilities have introduced him into 
all parts of the State. 




A NEW PACKAGE 

25 Sheets 'Zi 



All our Typewriter Carbons are now 
put up in boxes of 25 sheets each. A 
Neat, Convenient and Economical 
Package, as well as in regular 100 
sheet boxes. 

Ask your dealer or send $1.00 
for trial box post paid. 

Carbon Papers 

FOR PEN, PENCIL AND STYLUS. 

The very best Typewriter 
Ribbons made, Record, Copy or 
Combination, all colors for all 
machines. Sample Ribbons in tin 
box 75 cents post paid 




Special Quotations to Large Buyers. 

EXCELSIOR CARBON PAPER 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

265 BROADWAY, 
NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

Write us, mention Room 12. 



Please mention The Connecticut MA'Gazine when writing advertisers. 




YOUNG MAN ASKING FOR 
BOND AS A FAVOR 



If you are required to give a bond, go to the 
Company giving you the strongest bond and 
lowest rate. All bonds executed promptly. 

FIDELITY &. DEPOSIT COMPANY OF MARYLAND, 
E. S. COWLES, Qeuaral Agent. 

25 PEARI, STREET, HARTFORD, CONN. 




THE 

Y0UN6 MAN ASKING FOR A BONO 

AS A BUSINESS PROPOSmOH 



'he Leading Fire Insurance Company of America . ' ' 




WM. B. CLARK, President. 

H. KING, Secretaiy. E. O. WEEKS, Vice-President. 
C. ADAMS, HENRY E. REES, Assistant Secretaries. 







TAffS ELEVATOff. 



HALF-TONE ^ PHOTO ^ WOOD 

ENGRAVING 

ELEGTROTYPING> 

All Done on the Premises. 
A. MUGFORD, U? Asylum St., 
^JlTFORD, \' V •/ CONN. 



The pen is mightier than the sword.' 



BCSTOR '^S 
GOLDEN BANKJiENk 



iSEND25cts. 



^^ 



BESTOR'S 
GOLDEN QUILL STUB., 



"BESTOR'SS 

LADIES 

-.G0UiEN=POfc 



For one dozen sample 
, box of Bestor's Pens. 

Agents Wanted. 

BESTOR PEN CO.. 

Hartford, Conn. 



^£^jr GAME 

For Solitaire or Two or 

More Players. 
ice, = - = 25 cts. 



NUMERICA 



Ask your dealer for it or 

write to 

THOMAS J. GRIFFITHS, 

Utica, N. Y 

Price, - - - 25 cts. 



RREE 



To every young wife brooding over that first 
tiff caused by the morning coffee : 
To everybody who has tried so many different 
kinds and found none to suit, 



WE OFFER THIS REMEDY: 



iLWAYs USE EMPRESS COFFEE. 

25, 33 and 38 Cents. 

SOLD ONLY IN DEPARTMENT STOKES OK 10 LB., 25 LB. OK 50 LB. 
AIRTIGHT CANS WILL BE SUPPLIED DIRECT. 

EUGENE ROSEDALE & CO., Growers, Importers and Sole Proprietors, 

181 FRONT STREET, NEW YORK. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers 



If You are a Mayflower 
Descendant 

Or a student of Colonial History, write 
for our new catalogue, mentioning 
which branch of the Mayflower family 
you represent. 
BREWSTEK, BRADFORD CO., 

HANNIBAI., N. Y. 



C AI^DS 



^^Grey Towers^' 



Engraved Cards I1.25 per 100 with Plate. 

Fine Printed Calling and Business Cards, 

50 cents per 100. 

H. M. BLAKESLEY CARD AGENCY, 

Box 386. HARTFOKD. CONN. 

(Write for Samples.) 

ft STAMFORD, 
CONN. 

(50 minutes from New York City.) 

POR MENTAL AND 

NERVOUS DISEASES. 

With a separate detached department for ALCOHOLIC and 
DRUG HABITUES. Under new management of experi- 
enced competent alienists Splendid location, overlooking the 
Sound and city. Rates reasonable for excellent accommoda- 
tions. Alcoholic and drug habitues can commit themselves, or 
be legally committed, for one year or less. 

For terms and information, apply to 

DR. F. H. BARNES, Stamford, Conn. 

New York City office: Care of Dr. W. H. Goodwille, 154 
West 34th St. Office hours from 10 to 12 a m. daily. 
New York City Telephone : sSos-sSth St. 
Stamford Telephone: 104-4. 

A GKNCY wanted for anything that vi^ill selL Send 
samples and terras to agents. Correspondence 
solicited. W. M. HILL, Pollock, La. 

SUFFERERS from NERVOUS DISEASES 

FIND THIS 
AN 
IDEALHOME. 




The latest scientific and most approved methods are used. 

The large, handsome house is very cheerful, airy, newly 
furnished throughout; and there are spacious verandas on the 
iirst and second stories. The Farmington River winds through 
the grounds, and on all sides are beauty and quiet. The pure 
■spring water is plentiful, and the air invigorating. The drives 
in all directions are unsurpassed. References from patients 
cured and other information will be cheerfully given on re- 
quest. Address DR. P. D. PELTIER, Hartford, Conn. 



JL^en.'ts Here's a Seller that beats all records. 
NINE USEFUL ARTICLES IN ONE. 

i AND BOTTLE FILLKR. OOAKSE AND FINE. 






OMBINATION DIPPE 



R 



[Strainer, Funnel, Heating Food over lamp or 
baking small cakes or pudding. To 
poach or boil eggs. Four measures. One' 
agent sold 72 in one day. Sample, 35 cts.; i dozen, $1.75; 

I gross, $18 00. 
Home Novelty Mg. Co. Dept. 1528. Box 518. Chicago. 




00 BOX Rain Coat 

This Regular $5.00 Waterproof 
MACKINTOSH tor $2.75. 

Send no money. SrsS^fer 

state your height, weight, state 
number ot inches around body taken 
over vest, under coat, close up under 
arms, and we will send you this coat 
by express C. O. D., subject to ex- 
amination. Examine it at your near- 
est express office and if exactly as 
represented, the most wonderful 
bargain you ever saw or heard of, 
and equal to any $5.00 coat on the 
market, pay the agent our special 
manufacturers' price $2.75 and 
express charges. ' 

THIS MACKINTOSH is the latest 
style, easy fitting, made from heavy 
waterproof, tan color, genuine Davis 
covert cloth; full length, double 
breasted, Sager velvet collar, fancy 
plaid lining, -waterproof, sewed 
and cemented seams, and 
guaranteed waterproof. Suit- 
able for both rain or overcoat 
and guaranteed the greatest 
bargain ever offered by us or 
any other house. Write for free samples of Men's 
Mackintoshes, from $1.50 up, and guaranteed bicycle 
tires, from $3.95 up. We can save you money. Address 

H. S. DILLER & CO., 305 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

(H. S. Diller & Co. are thoroughly reliable)— Editor. 

RlliRniAN ANCEL. Souls Awakening. 

UUnnUlnll The two most beautiful colored pic- 
tures, 16x22 in. Fast sellers. Agents delighted. Sam- 
ple and terms, 25 cts. 2 for 35 cts. $ J.75 per doz. 

HOME NOVELTY MFG. CO., 

Dept. 1.52D. Box .518, Chicago. 

FAC-SIMILE Edition of the 
Famous NBW ENGLAND PRIMER. 

Mailed prepaid for 25 Cents (silver.) 

Address. THE BARGAIN BOOKERY, 

Hartford, Conn* 

Hygienic Water -Seal 

COMMODE 

IN SUBURBAN HOMES 

where modern bath- 
room facilities are 
denled,the Hygien- 
ic Water-Seal 
Commode is an ab- 
solute necessity for 
comfort and sanita- 
tation. 

IN SICKNESS, 

especially in Conta- 
gious Diseases, 
the Commode is in- 
dispensable in every ^ , ,, ^^^, 
home, as the WATER SEAT, prevents escape of all germs 
and odors. It is light aud portable ; made of best galvanized 
iron : will last a life time. Provided with disinfectant recep- 
tacle! Indorsed by leading physicians and nurses. Not onlj 
private homes, but all Hospitals, Sanitariums, summer and win- 
ter resort hotels and cottages, schools and colleges, need a sup* 
ply of HYGIENIC WATEM-SEAL COMMODES. . 

Ty*»\r'a. Co f\t\ Purchaser pays express charges. 

rilCc* ttP^.iiU. Send for Illustrated Circular. 

HYGIENIC WATER-SEAL COMMODE CC^gmcSo^ :' 
12 Pieces Sheet Music Free. 

25 cts. Join our Music Club. 25 Cts. 

Twenty-five cents pays for One Year's Membership. You re- 
|3lve one piece of New Sheet Music each month (12 pieces InallJ 
which sel' for 40 lo 50 cents each, mailed post paid. Also, yoj 
ifjceive a $1 OO Magazine one year free. Address . 

MUSIC CLUB, 323 Dearborn St., Chicago. III. 




Inside View and Cover. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



A 

SAFE, 
PROFITABLE 

AND 
PERMANENT 



50 YEARS' INVESTMENT. 



QATjc i PROFITABLE _ 

SAFE L , PERMANENT 

Because the quartz is very Jrni^^iViriiNLiiN i 

Because raw material exists ^.j^j^ ^^^ ^^^ ^j^j^ j^^ ^j^j_ Because the ore supply is 

in abundance, consisting of ^^^^^ ^^^^ j^^ ^^ j^-^^^^ inexhaustible, 
free milling gold ore. ^ p^^. ^^^^^ ^ 

CAPITAL STOCK $I,000,000.00^ 

Full paid and non-assessable shares of the par 
value of One Dollar of which one hundred thou- 
sand shares are offered for sale 

Photographs of the property and mineral from the lode are at the Company's office for 
the inspection of parties interested. Also full information and references. 



WRITE OR CAIvIv AT OFFICE. 

THE GUADALUPE MINING & MILLING CO-, 

Room 5t, SAGE-ALLEN BLDG, 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

Edward A. Meysenburg, President. A. E. IvAne, Secretary. 

Geo. U. Ingkrsoi.1., Vice-President. H. M. Andrews, Treasurer. 

Chari,es D. Norton, Director. 

REFERENCES. \ 

H. M. ANDREWS, of Andrews & Peck, Hartford, Conn. | 

WM. H. WATROUS, Hartford, Conn. GEQRGE W. HODGE, Ex-Treasurer of State of Conn. i 

BANKS & HICKS, Counsellors-at-I.aw, Bridgeport, Conn. < 

H........^.™ ^. .-._ ......-^.._...........__ ._c^; 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advettisers. 



i^The Growth of Great Cities. 



^9 




HE recent Census has revealed some very interesting facts. There are now in 
this country more than thirty cities having a population of 100,000 or more, 
each ; six of which have a population of more than 500,000 ; and three, 
namely, New York, Chicago and Philadelphia, which have a population of 
over 1,000,000 each. New York, the largest city in the country, has a 
population of more than double that of Chicago, the next largest city. New 
York's population being 3,437,262 is an increase of 37.12 per cent, over the Census of 1890. 
One remarkable fact regarding the growth of New York during the past ten years is 
worthy of special comment. The percentage of increase by boroughs has been as follows ; 
Manhattan, 29.02 ; Richmond, 29.65 ; Brooklyn, 39.12 ; Queens, 75.76 and Bronx, 127.70; 
thus showing that the greatest growth of this city has been in that section lying north of the 
Harlem river, called the Borough of the Bronx. 

The line of New York's greatest growth for physical and geographical reasons has 
always been north and south. For the same reason its expansion must continue, most 
certainly, upon these identical lines. 

Here are the lines of 
its elevated roads, of its 
great surface railroad 
systems, of its immense 
shopping districts, of its 
theatres and places of 
amusement. Here also 
will be the great under- 
ground railroad, which is 
now being built at a cost 
of $35,000,000. 

Increased population 
always brings an increase 
in realty values. The 
stability of New York real 
estate as a means of in- 
vestment was never more 
fully realized than it is to- 
day, andr it is being taken 
advantage of more and 

more by those who have money to invest. Some of the multi-millionaires have made the 
greater part of their fortunes in transactions in real estate in New York, and it is conceded 
that the opportunities for the accumulation of wealth in this line are as great now as ever. 
Recognizing the safety and profit of this method of investing money, the American Real 
Estate Company was organized in 1888, for the purpose of offering to persons of moderate 
means, an opportunity to invest small sums in New York real estate, and reap the same 
profit the capitalist enjoys. Investments are made solely m selected city property in New 
York, bought to improve and develop, the most conservative, non-speculative and profitable 
business, in which money can be engaged. 

The Company is incorporated under a special charter, and has a thirteen years success- 
ful record, has thousands of investors the country over, and has a thoroughly established 
business. Its guaranteed capital is full paid and invested in real estate, and earns profits 
pro rata only with other investors. It has accumulated a large surplus in real estate as an 
additional guarantee fund. 

It issues investment certificates and invests the funds received therefrom, in addition 
to its own foundation capital, in its business. These certificates are for any desired amount, 
and may be purchased for cash, or by installment payments, during a term of years, and 
afford small investors superior advantages as a medium for accumulative investment. They 
are guaranteed by the Corporation — principal and interest — and share pro rata in the 
profits, thus combining unequalled security and profit. American Real Estate Co., 290 
Broadway, New York. E. B. Boynton, Manager Hartford Office, Room 80, Sage-Allen Bldg. 




PARK HIIvI. ON THE HUDSON, NKW YORK'S MOST BKAUTIFUI. 

SUBURB. OWNED BY THE AMERICAN REAL ESTATE 

COMPANY. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



WILL YOU BE OUR QUEST 



AT THE GREAT 



Pan-American Exposition 

AT BUFFALO 

and NIAGARA FALLS next summer? 



We will furnish you transportation to Buffalo 
and Niagara Falls, hotel accommoda- 
tions and a gate admission ticket 
good every day of stay in return for 



W/* 



A LITTLE OF YOUR TIME. 



You may work during your leisure hours 

^ suiting your own time and conven- 

fW* ience. For full particulars address 

^- with 25 cents in stamps for three 

months subscription to 



MODERN CULTURE HAQAZINE 

Circulation Dept., Caxton Building, 
Cleveland Ohio. 



MODERN CULTURE is distinctively the Magazine of the Century, 

"(Good wishes for the success of your Magazine, and congratulations upon your skill 
in keeping every vestige of the ' cheap publication ' away from v^'hat I consider the best 
dollar Magazine in the Country." 

MARION HARLAND. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 




What Are.... 

.THE CLUB 

C0CKTAIL5? 

Drinks that are famous the world 
over. Made from the best of liquors 
and used by thousands of men and 
women in their own homes in place of 
tonics, whose composition is unknown. 

Are they on your sideboard ? 

Would not such a drink put new 
life into the tired woman who has 
shopped all day ? Would it not be the 
drink to offer to the husband when he 
returns home after his day's business? 

Choice of Manhattan, Martini, Tom 
or Holland Gin, Vermouth, York or 
. Whiskey is offered. ' 



Hartford, Conn. 



^_,^- For Sale by all Fancy Grocers and Deafers 

generally, or write to.... 

Q. F. HEUBLEIN & jBRO., 

39? Broadway, New York. 20 Ffccadilly, W. London, Eng, 



I 



©FFieE FURNITURE. 

FLAT AND ROLL TOP DESKS. 

LETTER-PRESS STANDS, 
TYPEWRITER DESKS. 
BOOK CASES. TABLES. 
STANDING DESKS. 
CHAIRS. SETTEES. 
STOOLS. FILING CASES. 

LINUS T. FENN, 

64J-653 MAIN STREET, The Furniture Man. 

OPPOSITE AETNA BUILDING. M. Xk^ AumiVMiw 




Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



LAUGHLIN 

FOUNTAIN 
PEN 

The Best at Any Price 



_ A Christmas Suggestion— A 

^ gift of never ending usefulness 

111 and a constant pleasant re- 

^^ minder of the giver. 

Your choice of ihese popu- 
lar styles, superior to the 

$3.00 STYLES 

of other makes, for only 



Try It a week. If not suited 
we buy it back, and ofifer you 
$1.10. We arewillingtotalce 
cliances on you wanting to sell. 
we know pen values, you will 
when you own one of these. 

Finest quality hard rubber 
holder, 14k. Diamond Point 
GoldPen,anydesiredflexibility 
in fine, medium or stub, and 
the only perfect ink feed. 

One Pen Only tooneaddress 
on this special offer, by mail, 
postpaid on receipt of $1.00, 
(rsgistrrtion 8c. extra.) 

Ask your dealer to show you 
ihos pen, if he has not- or won't 
get it for you (do not let him 
substitute an imitation, on 
which he can make more profit) 
send his -name and your order 
to us, and receive free of 
charge one of o.ur Safety 
Pocket Pen Holders. 

Remember — There is no 
"Just as good" as the Laughliiii 
insist on it, take no chances* 

Address— 

LAUGHLIN MFG. CO. 

355 Laughiin Block, 
'tlTROlt, - MICHIGAN. 



lOUNTAItff 
"EH 




iTHE BEST COIN WRAPPERS 




TIIK "EIREKA"— Made of heavy pressed paper, with self- 
sealing flap. 
THE CHEAPEST, as time is saved in applying, and this more 

than offsets the difference in cost over flat paper ones. 
ENDS ARE SMOOTH, hence prevent sniaUcoins from catching 

in them and so throw your cash out of balance. 
CANNOT BE "TAMPERED" WITH, when once sealed, without 

showing it. Other styles do not have this advantage. 
RETAIN THEIR SHAPE in warm or damp climates, and make 

a neat looking and close-packing roll. 
WON'T SCRATCH your fingers or desk, or get rusty, nor unroll 

when once sealed. They hold all coins severely. 
CAN BE WRITTEN ON with either pen or pencil or rubber 

stamp, or, with a little extra cost, you can have your name 

and place printed on them when made. 
MADE IN 9 SIZES to fit U. S. coin, though we sell many 

thousands in the Canadas, as they fit most of that coin. n> 
MILLIONS ARE I'SED ANNUALLY by large handlers of coin, S 

as Banks, Street Railways, Ferries, etc. N 

PRICES— $2.00 per M ; in 10,000 lots $1.50 per M, assorted ^ 

sizes, 1,000 in a carton. t 

SAMPLES FREE. Sold by Leading Stationers. '? 

~ COIN BAGS, s 

The "EIREKA" don't rip — ^ 
because double stitched — last S 
sewing is through 4 thick- S^ 
nesses of cloth. We make ^ 
20 sizes. k^ 

S 




e-HOLE COIN CARDS, like cut, 10c 
doz. pp.; 100, postpaid, 75c.; 1,000, any 
printing you wish, $4. 1-HOLE CARDS, 
any printing, $3 per thousand. 

LTHE STATIONERS' MFC. CO., 
DETROIT, MICH. 




js::-E-.jE:^^^,As^.j^.j^i^^^^fi. 




especially insurance men can save trouble, time and 
bought. All the information now scattered about 
your desk and office can be arranged and classified so 
it may be found instauth' In- using the 



Shaw-Walker Card System. 




Write now for catalog. — 

Or better still, send us lour 
•2-eent stamps and reoeivo 
three months" sul)soription to 
"Systoni." It teaches and 
encoiirases system. It illus- 
trates and explnius methods 
aetuallv in use by suoeesst"kil 
busltiess and professional men. 
— .V Hum h ot' Sample Cards 
showini: forms partieularly 
suited 10 your work. 
-.V. Letter of Information tell- 
ing lunv You can use the sys- 
tem to the greatest advantage. 

IHf 5HAW-WALKFR CO., 

Muskegon, Michigan, 

The I.arjrest Exeliisive 

Makers ot Card Systems. 

in the World. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



Insure 



perfect satisfaction by 
doing your writing 
with Waterman's 
Ideal Fountain Pen* 
Absolutely guaran- 
teed; '^always all 
write/' 

A perfect manifolding pen. 
Assorted points for en- 
grossing. 

L. E. Waterman Co,, N* Y. 
Largest manufacttifcrs in the "world. 



A full assortment always on 
hand at Marwick's, 377 Asylum 
St. , and at new store cor. Asylum 
and Main Sts. Hartford, Conn. 



MELVILLE E. MEAD, 

Coxamisaioner for Conn, in New York, 

INSCTRANCE, 

Fire, Life, Accident, Marine and all 

Legitimate Branches. 

Xiocal Agent for best companies in Connecticut. 

Large and Small Lines placed in New York, 

Connecticut and other States, 

Also in Latin Republics. 

lioans and Real Estate. 

45, 4] & 49 Cetar Street, New Yort City, 




BUReH 

9 1 Asylum St. 

RUBBER STAMPS 

Steel Stamps, Stencils. 

Dating Stamps. Numberers, 
Check I'unclies, etc. 

Mail orders promptly filled. Catalogue 
free. Telephone Connection. 



HIRAM K. SCOTT, 

Ridgefield, Conn. 

AGENT FOR 

The "Continental" and "Home" Insurance Companies 

of New York. 

The " Northern Assurance " of Aberdeen and L,ondon. 

The "Royal" of Liverpool and the " Albany " 

of Albany, New York. 




MARSH 

READING STAND akd 
REVOLVING BOOK-CASE 

Shelve?, . 15x15 inches. 
Adjustable Top, 14x18 " 
Between Shelve?, 12 "■ 
Heiarht from Floor, 12 " 
Height Over All, 34 " 

All Hard Wood Well Finished. 

Shelf room 6 ft. Recognized all 
over the Civilized World un- 
equalled .Ts an Office or Librart 
article. Over 50,000 noAv used by 
editors, bankers, officials, the pro- 
fession and business men. 

To responsible parties one of 
these stands will be sent at whole- 
sale price on approval. 

MARSH MFG. CO., 

542 West Lake Street, Chicago 



PRESERVE 

YOUR e^ «^ 



Quarterlies 



They will make a valuable addition to 
your library when they are bound. 

WE BIND THEM in Russia Back and Corners, 

Raised Bands, with Marble Paper Sides, |i.oo 

Per Volume of one year. 

In Turkey Morocco Back and Corners, as above, $1.25. 

All kinds and qualities of Magazine Binding'. 

Blank Books of every description 

with fiat opening backs. 

The Case, Lock wood & Brainard Co., 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



POCKET 
BOOKS 



WE ^how in our GROUND FLOOR 
OFFICE, 26 and 28 High Street, a 
new and choice line of L/dwUlCS 

and Gentlemen's Money Purses, 
Pocket Booky, Bill Book^, 
Safety Purses, Wewllets, Ca^rd 
Cd^ses, Specie Purses, etc., in aii 

the fancy and standard Lea.ther^. The stock 
ij- new, !vnd thus the most fa^shionable styles 
are ^hown. 

R. S. Peck 6 Co. 

Designers, Engravers, 
Printer./- and Stationers. 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



Below are pictured workmen 
in the process of laying 




WRITE FOR SAMPLE TO 

JOKN^ S. CIuiLPP & SON^, 



NO 
LEAKY ROOFS 

from 

Winter Storms 

if you use Carey's 

Cement Roofing. 

It is a non-conductor of 
heat and cold, and is abso- 
lutely water-proof and fire- 
proof. It is very easily 
applied, as the illustration 
shows. 

WITHSTANDS 

ALL THE 

ELEHENTS. 

FREE SAMPLES TO 
PROPERTY OWNERS. 

61 MARKET STREET, 

HARTFORD. CONN. 



WE 
BUY, 
SELL, 
RENT, 

MOVE, 
REPAIR, 

EXCHANGE, 

^^^ t^^ ^^r^ 



^^^ 



SAFES 

and 

VAULT 

DOORS. 



BILL BROTHERS, 

SALESROOM, 
46 ANN STREET, HARTFORD. CT. 



Please mention Thr Connkcticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



Boer'British War Pictures! 

The end of the war is now in sight. Everybody will now want pictures illustrating the various battles fought 
in South Africa. "We have at great expense published nine large and beautiful pictures, on heavy, superfine, calen- 
dered paper. "Battle of Belmont," ••Charging: the Boer Guns at Elandslaaste," "Attack of Royal 
Canadians at Paardeberg:," "Charge of Gen. French's Cavalry on the Betreating Gen. Cronje's 
Army." These pictures are 20x24 in. Sample and terms, 25 cts. each ; all four for 80 cts.; SI. 75 per doz.; 25 
for $3.35; 50 for $6.00; $11.00 per 100. "Battle of Tugala Kiver," "Battle of Spion Kop," 
*' Gordon Highlanders at Battle of Belmont," "Battle of Magersfontein," " Surrender of Gen. 
Cronje at Paardeberg." These pictures are 22x28 in. Sample and terms, 40 cts. each; all five for $1.60; 
$3 per doz.; $6 per 25 ; $13 per 50 ; $34 per 100. Very handsome ; printed in 6 to 14 colors. 

M ^\ p mm ^p ^% coin money. Big profit. Enormous success. The pictures are KEU HOT SELLERS, 
^^%\4i&l^ I C9 Veritable mortgage raisers. One agent sold 68 in one day. We will send a complete 
outfit, consisting of all the nine diflPerent pictures, for only $3. This sum you may deduct when you have 
ordered for $20 worth. Absolutely no pictures sent free. Don't waste time and postage in "writing for 
lo"wer prices. "We pay all charges. We take back all unsold pictures and refund your money. Cut this out and 
send to-day and begin to make monej. Address, 

HOME NOVELTY MFG. CO., 

Depr. 153H. P. O. Box ol8, CHICAGO. 




Pronounced Ri-ter, and is righter than all other Fountain Pens. It is 
jointless, having no old-fashioned screw joints to get stuck, leak or 
break. Holdsmoreink than any other pen of its size. You never have 
soiled fingers from using the The Ruyter Jointless Pountain Pen. 
It always writes and does not blot. Is a favorite with stenographers. 

The barrels a^re^belutifuHy ?hased^and"a7e SENT ON 30 DAYS TRIAL 

fitted with the finest quality of gold pens. Send $2.00 for Ladies' size, or $2.50 
for Gents' size. Use it for 30 days, an*d if you do not find it perfectly satisfactory 
either exchange it or get your money back. The publisher of this paper will vouch 
for our reliability. Send for booklet or write for simple plan by which steno- 
graphers, bookkeepers and office managers can secure The Ruyter Pen free. 




RUYTER MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



MAKERS OF RUYTER FOUNTAIN PENS, WRITING INKS AND TYPE- 
WRITER RIBBONS 337TIMES BUILDING, CHICAGO 



FAMILY RECORD AGENTS make $25 OO a day 

$1.00 Piclure for only 25 cents. A $2.50 Frame foi;.only $1.15. 



A HANDSOME WATCH and CHAIN 



GIVEN FREE to every person ordering 200 
Records. You need not order all at one time. 



Upon a background of pure solid gold rests the Family Record in the shape of a handsome volume with 
gold clasps upon a cushion of crimson velvet with a beautiml gold tassel. On the page under tlie different 
headings are spaces in which to wiite the name and date of birth of each member of the family'. Upon either side is 
a beautiful scroll (surmounted by lovely flowers), on which to register marriages and deaths. At the top of the picture 
arc the words " Family Record," in the richest and choicest lettering known to the printer's art. Under this ate 
two spaces for father's and mother's pictures. Enclosed in these spaces are lovely bluebells and morning-glories. In 
the lower part of the piclure is a beautiful home scene in colors. The dear old grandparents, the hand- 
some, stalwart husband and happy young wife, the loving daughter and the baby boy— the idolized 
grandchild— are all gathered around the table while grandfather reads a portion ot God's Holy Word. A truly 
delightful scene. Undernea'h are the words in rich lettering, ''God Blens Our Family." A.round the 
picture are arranged eight spaces for pliotograph of the other members of the family, each space enclosing a little gem 
flower piece. Klsewhere on the picture are scattered creeping vines, buds and blossoms rich profusion, the whole 
resting on and thrown into bold relief by the gorgeous background of solid gold, which produces a picture of 
dazzling beauty. 

A (^ TTlVn^Q Mark Ilagle, Ubly. Mich., has sold over 5,000 pictures; Wm. D. Woosher, West Salem. 111., 

./iLVjrniN 1 O has sold over 1,0(0 frames. H. C. Jackson, Filmore City, Utah, bought 375 Records for 
$41.25; sold them at half price, 25c. each, making $25.50 clear profit. If you take orders for twelve framed pictures 
your profit will be over $25. 50 st. X>£t,y. 

Can you do better? We have over 5,000 testimonials, and we want yours. We will mail a aamole for aSc, 6 
for $1.00, 25 for S3.33, 50 for $6.00, 100 for $11.00. Sample frame made of beautiful gilt moulding nearly 4 
inches wide, «1.15. One dozen frames, $11.50, glass and backs included. We will send A PRESENT FREE WITH 
EVERY ORDER if you will cut out and return this advertisement. 



Dipt. 152 A. 



home: kovelty mfg. co., p. o. 518, ciiirAGO. 



DRUNKENNESS 



CJLVT be: 

CXJXtE:D. 

IS YOUK HU&BAND, BROTHER, FATHER, 
or any one of your relatives afflicted with the 
dieease of Drunkenness? We have a sure cure 
v.h'ch can be given with or without the knowledge 
of the rati. nt. Seijd for particulars, enclosing 2c 
stamp for reply Address Dr. W. M. Saunders 
& Co., Station C, Chicago, III. »^3S2 




SURE POP 



Powder 
Insect 

is guaranteed to kill Cock- 
roaches, Water Bugs, etc. 
Prepaid to any address on 
receipt of 25 cents. 
Adolph Isaacsen & Soa, 
64 Fulton St., New York. 




■■ 1% ■■ ■■ This Elegant ^^atch 
|_ [J |~ |~ GIVEIV AWAY for 

■1 K ■■ ■■ sellinsj fi.8o worth of our 
I II 1^ 1 Perfume, or a large 
■ B B ■■ ^* cash commission, if de- 
sired. We are doing this to introduce our 
goods. UTo Money Wanted until goods 
are sold. Send your name and address and 
we will send perfume prepaid by mail, and 
when sold send us the money and we will 
send watch. You can also earn -Tea Sets, 
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..TAPESTRY PAINTINGS.. 

2000 Tapestry Paintings to Choose From. 30 Artists 
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TVT can show you effects NEVER before thought "VX/trxr l^^"^'^ your house decorated and painted by 
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In order that we may introduce this line of NEW ART GOODS, we will send one 
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ou have a perfect means 
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IJT ^irOU OWN Jl 




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CHAIN LESS BICYCLE 




HERE is no vehicle so useful and no means of exercise so enjoyable, 
so healthful, so thoroughly within reach of all, as the Bicycle. 
^ Riders of the 

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tell you that no other is so easy to propel, so perfectly adapted to all conditions of riding. 

ideis for 1901, $75. Columbia Chain Models for 1901, $50. 

Columbia Cushion Frame, $5.00 additioual. 

Columbia Hub or Tire Coaster Brake, $5.00 additional. 

ilogue of Dealers or by mail from us. 

^LUMBIA SALES DEPARTMENT, 436 Capitol Ave., Hartford, Conn. 



ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY 

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Has the largest surplus of any Fire Insurance Co. in the worlds 



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Liabilities, 12,771,039. 



Surplus to policy holders, $2,563,884.1 



FIELD & COWLES, Managers, 

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W. L. WAKEFIELD, General Agent, 

HARTFORD DEPARTMENT. 
OFFICE 720 MAIN ST., HARTFORD, CONN. 



PRISCILLA EMBROIDERY SETS. 




Our Sets consist of one 
Hoop Holder and special 
yoke for large hoops, 
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in embroidering large 
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Catalogue of Embroidery Novelties and the "Story 
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Priscilla Mfg. Co. 

41-43 Kinsley St. 
P. O. Box, 51. HARTFORD. CONN. 



OMO DRESS SHIELD 




THE PERFECT DRESS SHIELD. | 

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Vol. VII. 




No. 2. .. 



o o 
'n - 

iri 

g 3 « 
?? 2 s 

o ^ *» 
^ 2 ^ 

5'° o 



S CO 

o 



JULY 



XHE 



AUG. 



CONNECTICUT 
MAGAZINE 



'm;<iyy-<AV-;:'A: 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^L 



ARTICLES IN THIS 
NUMBER 



SKETCH OF EARLY 
WATERBURY 

WATERBURY: ITS PROMI- 
NENT INTERESTS AND 
PEOPLE 

TIMES FOR HOLDING THE 
ANNUAL TOWN MEETING OF 
ELECTION IN CONNECTICUT 

NOAH WEBSTER 

THE BIRTH OF A COMMON- 
WEALTH 

BIOGRAPHIES OF THE 
GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



^ 
S 



fit ff/^ 



AN ILLUSTRATED BLAONTHLY Published 
in the IMTEREST oE the People oEthe State 
oE CONNECTICUT A Popul^i^ Historic nl An^^azino 



O 9 

^ 5 
5^ SB 

•2g 









P 3 

§'^ 
>» o 

f, 2. 

» to 

is 

O 3 



3-3 



^2.00 a Year. HARTFORD, CONN. 35 cts. the Copy. 



3* 3 

o 7q 



THE 

eief Male Quartet 

CAN BE SECURED FOR 

CONCERTS, SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENTS, RELIGIOUS 
EXERCISES, FUNERALS, and vork for CLUBS and 
FRATERNAL ORDERS. ^ j^ ^ ^ ^ 




Charles D. Crocker, ist Tenor. David Parsons Goodrich, Baritone. 

Edwakd B. Baton, 2nd Tenor. Wm. Richard Griffith, Basso. 



IS- 



WHAT THE PRESS SAYS. 

The entertainment was a delightful musical treat, and the audience showed its appreciation 
of the work by frequent and enthusiastic applause. The Quartet sang in good voice and harmon}' a 
number of pleasing selections, including "Annie lyaurie" which received a double encore, and "lyittle 
Alabama Coon." — Hartford Times. 

The second in the series known as the Village Improvement course of entertainments was 
given last evening at the Congregational Church by the Clef Male Quartet of Hartford, before a good 
sized audience. The program was one of the best of the kind that has been rendered here for years. 
The singing of the quartet was excellent and the audience showed its appreciation by frequent and 
enthusiastic applause, encores being very numerous.— //rtr//<?r^ Post. 

The Clef Male Quartet won immediate favor on the rendition of the opening number "At 
Early Morning" by Abt, and before the evening was over was safely established as favorites with 
the audience. The quartet is meeting with marked success this season, having sung in a number of 

towns in Connecticut.— f/^r^r^ Courant 

The several selections by the Clef Male Quartet met with prolonged applause so that fre- 
quent encores were verv freely responded to. Their singing of "lyittle Alabama Coon" was one of the 
sweetest selections ever given at the Opera House. Their coming again will mean another crowded 
house. — Middletowii Peiuty Press. 

The Clef Male Quartet gave us some excel Itnt music. We can but echo the universal verdict 
of those present in saying that the music was first class. No better proof of the popularity of the 
entertainers can be Riven than the fact that while the program called for ten numbers, the audience 
called mostinsistently for enough more to practically double its length.- //awj ^/w^^r^j^. (Organ of 
the Y. M. C. A.. Hartford. Conn.) 

The musical portion cf the evening's entertainment was furnished by the Clef Male Quartet, 
and was of a nature to reflect great credit upon the organization. The audience testified to its 
approval by frequent encores. — Hartford Telegram. 



FOR TERMS AND DATES ADDRESS 

WILLIAM RICHARD GRIFFITH, 

Courant Building, d^ State St., HARTFORD, CONN^ 



THE 

Connecticut magazine 



AN ILLUSTRATED BI-MONTHLY. 

Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History^ Literature, 
Picturesque Features, Science, Art and Industries. 



JULY-AUGUST, J90J. 



Vol. VII. CONTENTS. No. 2. 



The Natjgatuck River near Waterbury* (Frontispiece.) 

Sketch of Early Waterbury. Illustrated. U. G. Church. 119 

Dusk and Dawn. Poem. Edith Gray Pope. 132 
■^aterbury: Its Prominent Interests and People. 

Illustrated. Florence West. 133 
Times for Holding the Annual Town Meeting 

of Election in Connecticut. Edwin Stanley Welles, 146 

East Rock. • Poem. Zephine Humphrey. 149 

Noah Webster. Illustrated. Wilbur Webster Judd. 150 

The "Wind Flower. Poem. Agnes E. Blanchard. 161 

The Birth Of a Commonwealth. Anna L. Wetmore Smith. 162 

The Old Stone Chimney. Poem. IWusiratedi. Alary E. Averill. 169 
Biographies of the Governors of Connecticut. 

(second paper) Illustrated. Frederic Calvin Norton. 170 

Under the Greenwood Tree. Poem. Illustrated. M. T. Maltby. 194 
Departments : 

Genbalogia. The Diary of Rev. Stephen Mix of Wethersfield. 

Conducted by Edwin Stanley Welles. 185 

Patriotic Societies Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 195 

HiSTORiCAi, Notes. Conducted by Mabel Ward Cameron. 200 

Editorial, Notes. 204 

Book Notes and Reviews. 206 
The Home. The Art of Right Living. Conducted by Rev. Magee 



All communications shoud be addressed to The Connecticut M.'VGazine, Hartford, Conn. 
Remittances should be by check, express order, P. O. money order, or registered letter. Money 
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ilOME. Tne Art oi ±cigni i^iving. v^onuuciea oy i^ev. magce ji 

Pratt. --209 5^ 

PUBI.ISHERS' Notes. -10 "■ 



nj Published at 7 Central Row, Hartford, Conn., by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

nj Edward B. Eaton, President. 

[3 COPYRIGHT 1900, BY THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE CO. [j{ 

Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 



WEBSTER'S INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY 



WEBSTER'S 

INTERNAriONAL , 

DICTIONARY 



NEW EDITION. 25,000 ?^7.7.t!il 



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New Plates Throughout. Rich Bindings.2364 Pages. 5000 Illustrations. 

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THE CONTINUOUS FAxMIlY UENEALOGY, | 

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This is an age oi education* Ho other nation on the 
face of the globe is so intelligent as ours, and 
intelligence makes a nation prosperous and 
happy. Education gives a young man the best 
chance in life. The easiest and cheapest way to 
educate yourself and your children, irrespective of 
the schools and colleges, is by having the best 
current reading in your house. 



THE GREATEST FAMILY NEWSPAPER IS 

Leslie's Illustrated Weekly. 

It tells the story of contemporaneous events and illustrates it with the most 
artistic pictures. He who reads it every week learns to recognize the counte- 
nances of the noblest men and women in public and 
in private life; the appearance of the w^orld^s most 
famous places, and the scenes of the greatest historic 
interest. 

LESLIE'S WEEKLY is a paper to keep on the 
library table, and to read and reread, and to file away 
for useful reference. It is read by more families of 
culture and refinement among the masses than any 
other paper of its class in the world. It is the greatest, 
best, most attractive and cheapest of all American 
educators. 

It is for sale everywhere — on the stands, in the 
bookstores, on all trains, at ID cents per copy. 

LESLIE'S WEEKLY, no Fifth Avenue, New York. 




A BOOK for People Interested in 
the History of Connecticut, J, j, j. 



COLONIAL 

DAYS AND WAYS 



AS GATHERED FROM FAMILY PAPERS BY 

HELEN EVERTSON SMITH, 
Of Sharont Conn. 

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The Connecticut Magazine 



Vol. 7. 




No. 2. 




SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



BY U. G. CHURCH 




ATERBURY, 

world -known to- 
day as the center of 
the brass manufac- 
Inring industry of 
the country, and 
therefore sometimes called the Brass City, 
dates its history from a well-planned and 
carefully-executed settlement made by 
some thirty men of Farmington in 1074. At 
the time of their immigration Farmington 
itself was but a frontier town of 
less ttan forty years' planting, and 
that portion of the Naugatuck valley 
to which they came was in the midst 
of the Connecticut wilderness, far re- 
moved from the settlements of the 
119 



white men. Two Indian tribes, the 
Tunxis and the Paugasuck, were the 
ordinal holders of the land. The terri- 
tory now within the tovvn limits of Water- 
bury was then a portion of a larger tract 
extending for several miles over the valley 
and upland on both sides of the Naugatuck 
river. The Indians called this small wil- 
derness empire of theirs and the stream 
ticnving through it, Mattatuck — a beau- 
tiful Indian name which still lingers in 
restricted use in the Waterbury of the 
present, though it was early torn from 
both land and stream. 

With these lirst owners of Mattatuck 
the white colonists dealt wisely if not 
generously. The authorities of the Con- 



120 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



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ARTICLES OF AGKEEMENT. 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



121 




A DOOKWAY OF 1760. 

necticut colony at Hartford, on whom fell 
the fiuty of negotiating with the sover- 
eign Tunxis and Paugahuclis, easily scored 
a diplomatic victory by virtue of which 
the Indians gave to the white men deeds 
of Mattatuck and received in consider- 
ation therefor certain of the white men's 
personal effects, the exact val- 
ue and nature of which do 
not appear on record. Long 
after the land of their fathers 
had passed under the English 
law the scattered people of 
the Tunxis and Paugasucks 
continued to supply their sim- 
ple wants from the country 
as they had been accustomed 
to before the settlement. The 
deeds, no doubt, kept the In- 
dians friendly with the set- 
tlers and secured their peace- 
able disposition toward the 
new settlement. This alone 
was a great advantage. Iq 
time the Indians vanished 
from Mattatuck and ceased 
to be a factor in its history. 

The settlement of 1674 ap- 
pears to have been suggested 



by an early mining project in which 
some of the settlers had been inter- 
ested. A curious Indian deed of Feb- 
ruary 8, 1657, which is recorded in 
the Farmington land records and is the 
earliest conveyance of Mattatuck land, 
purports to convey to William I<ewis and 
Samuel Steele, both of Farmington, "a 
psell or a trackt of Land called mateta- 
coke that is to Say the hill from whence 
John Stnadley and John Andrews brought 
the black lead and all the Land within 
eight Mylle of that on e^ery side : to dig : 
and carry away what they will and to 
build on yt for ye Use of them that La- 
bor there and not otherwise to improve 
ye Land." 

Waterbury, however, was not destined 
to begin as a mining camp, and the com- 
pany of Farmington men, who are sup- 
posed by some to have been back of Lewis 
and Steele in the mining speculation, 
tinding that the venture was likely to 
result in little profit to them, gave it up. 
So it came about that the bounds were 
never set to that circular township of an 
eight -mile radius and the one given point 
of the grant, the hill, cannot today be 
definitely located. "Matetacoke," as it 
appears in this early deed, shared in the 
improved spelling of English words in 
later years and has long been spelt Mat- 




SF.OOND ACAD KM Y 
(Built in 1825.) 



122 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 




CENTER SQUARE, 1857. 
tdtvcJ:. 

If the Farmington men soon gave up 
their mining schemes they did not forgat 
that there were cheap farming -lands in 
this same wilderness. Several years later 
a company of them tixed upon a site for a 
township, probably several miles removed 
from their valueless lead mountain, and on 
October 9, 1673, humbly petitioned the co- 
lonial authorities that they "take cogni- 
zance of our state who want Land to La- 
bor upon ; for our subsistence & now hav- 
ing found a track at a place called by ye 
Indians matitacoocke : which we apri- 
hend may sufficiently acomidate to make 
a small plantation : we are therefore bould 
hereby to petition your honors to grant us 
ye liberty of planting ye same with as 
many others as yt may be comfortably to 
entertain.'' 

The General Court appointed a com- 
mittee that same October to view the 
Mattatuck lands and report to the court 
the following May. This committee, con- 
sisting of Thomas Bull, Nicholas Olm- 
stead, and Robert Webster, acting under 
their legislative commission, visited 
Mattatuck during April 6th, 7th, 8th, 
and 9th, 1674. Thus, at the outset, Mat- 
tatuck affairs were brought under the 
control of the colony's legif^lature — a 
control which succeeding legislatures 
have sometimes too scrupulously exer- 
cised. In their report to the General 
Court, in May, the committee said, 
' ' We do apprehend that there is about 



six hundred acres of mead- 
ow & plowing land lying on 
both sides of ye river besides 
upland convenient for a 
town plot, with a suitable 
outlet into ye woods on ye 
west of ye river and good 
feeding lands forcattell." 

On this favorable report 
of the committee the Gen- 
eral Court granted the peti- 
tion and appointed a second 
committee, frequently re- 
ferred to as the Grand Com- 
mittee, to regulate and or- 
=^=,^_.... ^^^ ^^^ settling of Matta- 

tuck. The men chosen for 
this important task were 
Major John Talcott, Lieut. Robert 
Webster, Lieut. Nicholas Olmstead, En- 
sign Samuel Steele, and Ensign John 
Wadsworth, all men of note in the 
Connecticut colony. This committee 
appears to have done its work with great 
painstaking ; and to its wise plans the 
success of the early settlement may be 
'argely attributed. The labors of the com- 
mittee and those of the first proprietors 
are made the more interesting because at 
the time of the settlement of Mattatuck 
the building of towns along the lines of 
the Connecticut township — since so wide- 
ly patterned after throughout the coun- 
try — was then in its experimental stages. 
At that early era the task was considered 
hazardous and difficult and certainly this 
Mattatuck endeavor proved to be both. 
One of the first steps taken by the Grand 
Committee was to secure deeds of the land 
from the Indians. These it procured, as 




EXCHANGE PLACE IN 1857. 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



123 



before related, with little difficulty and it 
would also appear with little of conclu- 
siveness, as the fact that it was thought 
best to take further deeds from the Indi- 
ans shows. Another important step of 
the committee was the drawing up of 
Articles of Association and Agreement 
which each settler was required to sign 
before he acquired an interest in the 
new lands. The terms of this simple 
agreement were just and wise requiring 



dispose of as it saw fit. All agreed that 
the taxes of the village should be assessed 
for the first five years on the meadow al- 
lotments ; after five years the law and cus- 
tom of the country to be followed. This 
was a fair settlement, for a time at least, 
of that omnipresent bone of contention in 
every community, the taxes, and proved 
satisfactory. Then follows restrictions in 
the agreement upon the settlers which 
may be considered as the forerunners of the 




BIKD'S EYE VIEW OF WATERBURY FROM ABRIGADOR HILL. 



as they did of each settler the surrender of 
certain individual rights for the good of 
the whole community. 

The agreement first provided for a fair 
division of the lands and a just distribu- 
tion of the tax burden among the set- 
tlers. Every inhabitant was to receive 
eight acres for a house-lot ani a share in 
the meadow-lands, according to his prop- 
erty interests ; no person to receive more 
than a 100 pound allotment. • Two or three 
allotments were given to the committee to 



city's modern building ordinances. Each 
proprietor was required by these to build 
in the place assigned him a good substan- 
tial house, not less than eighteen feet long 
by sixteen feet wide and nine feet be- 
tween joints, with a good chimney. Each 
house was to be built within four years 
from the date of the agreement — June (>, 
1()T4 — or tlie proprietor forfeited his al- 
lotment. By these terms a compact, well- 
built village was assured. Land s»iuatters 
were barred out of the commuuitv bv a 



124 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



provision that each proprietor should oc- 
cupy his house for four years after its com- 
pletion, and until he had done this he 
was not at liberty to alienate or sell his 
land. After-events made necessary some 
changes in this interesting document,, 
but in general this early charter was close- 



laid out the eight-acre house-lots on which 
the coming settlers were to build. The 
site selected is a beautiful one and over- 
looks the hill-encircled arena m which the 
activities of the Brass City are carried 
on today. 
But fast-hastening events were to cause 



t& 



rr 




SOLDIERS MONUMENT. 



ly followed. 

In that same season of 1674 the commit- 
tee selected a site for the town plot on the 
west bank of the river. This town plot 
comprehended a central square surrounded 
by roads, whil^^ around the center were 



this first plan for the.town to be set aside. 
Before the work of settlement, tardily 
undertaken in the season of 1674, could be 
renewed the following spring, all New 
England was called to arms by an Indian 
uprising. Concentration became the 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



121 




COUKT HOUSE. 



watchword of the Connecticut colony and 
instructions were sent out to the out- 
lying and exposed plantations to move 
in. The General Court did not feel 
warranted in backing further at that time 
the settlement at Mattatuck even had the 
settlers themselves cared to prosecute a 
work so dangerous. The settlers ascord- 
ingly returned to Farmington and waited 
for peace. 

For nearly three years King Philip and 
his Indians "held up" the settlement and 
when in 1677 a temporary peace allowed the 
settlers to return again to their abandoned 
lands, military expediency, coupled per- 
haps with other considerations, made it 
desirable to select a different site for the 
town. If built on the west side of the river 
the settlers saw that the town would be in 
danger of having its communication \^ith 
the rest of the colony cut olf by [a flooded 
river, and they and their families left 



to confront the Indians unaided. .Vccord 
ingly, before resuming their building op- 
erations, the proprietors appointed a com- 
mittee to see if a better town site could 
not be selected and to confer if j)ossible 
with the Grand Committee regarding a 
change. This proprietors' committee se- 
lected a site on the east side of the river, 
and the committee of the General Court 
consenting to it, the site of the town was 
pitched on the location of the present city. 
Thus it came about that modern Water- 
bury, like many a far more ancient city, 
can trace its location to military cousider- 
atioDS, in part, at least. The name of 
"town plot" has always clung to that 
early location on the west bank of the 
river, but the real town plot was laid out 
around the land now comprised in the 
city square or green. The wisdom of the 
change was amply shown in the tempest- 
uous vears directlv to follow. 



126 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



lu laying out the town anew on the east 
side of the river the Grand Committee 
went to work in much the same way as 
when planning the old town plot. A vil- 
lage common, the meeting-house green 
of early times, was first staked off and 
around it the town highways were fun. 
Around this village nucleus the house- 
lots of the farmers were laid out, but much 
smaller than the old house-lots on the slope 
on the west side of the river had been. 
This was one of the penalties the farmers 
paid for their choice of building-sites 
nearer civilization. Neither were the 



Thomas Handcox, John Warner, Thomas 
Richardson, Joseph Hickox, John Bron- 
son, Sr , Daniel Porter, John Carrington, 
Obadiah Richards, Thomas Newell, John 
Stanley, Sr., Daniel Warner, John War- 
ner, Jr., John Judd, John Laughton, John 
Andrews, Richard Sej^mour, Abraham 
Bronson, John Porter, William Higason, 
Samuel Gridley, Thomas Gridley, Sam- 
uel Judd, and William Judd. The last 
ten named afterward declined to join the 
settlement and the folowing were taken 
in their stead : John Scovill, Joseph Gay- 
lord, Benjamin Barnes, John Hopkins, 




CITY HALL. 



house-lots so healthily located as the old 
ones had been. The work of settlement 
proved difificult and discouraging ; and 
although the Grand Committee made ex- 
tensions of time and other concessions 
from the terms of community compact, the 
work dragged. Some of the signers of the 
Articles of Agreement never became per- 
manent proprietors of Mattatuck. 

The thirty persons who j-igned this agree- 
ment were : Thomas Judd, Edmund Scott, 
John Welton, Abraham Andruss, Isaac 
Bronson, John Stanley, Samuel Hickox, 



John Stanley, Jr., Timothy Stanley, 
Edmund Scott, Jr., and Thomas Warner. 
That ten out of the thirty original sub- 
scribers should fail to carry out their part 
of the compact is eloquent testimony to 
the difficulty of the task and to the deter- 
mination and grit of those who persevered. 
There were several things that made for 
the success of the undertaking ; but most 
important of all was the sterling, sturdy 
character of the men enlisted in it. They 
were no new emigrants from England, 
unused to the conditions of the new 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY, 



27 



country in which they were come to live. 
Several of them had been among the first 
proprietors of Farmington, and from that 
school of experience they came well fitted 
to cope with the hardships of Mattatuck. 
They were all farmers of that good, old- 
fashioned type, who, to a great degree, 
were rendered industrially independent by 
their smattering knowledge of most of 
the common trades. They formed a hom- 
ogeneous body of one blood and tongue ; 
and of one faith— that of the Congrega- 
tional church ; and they were 
accustomed to the same meth- 
ods for the conducting of local 
affairs, that of the self-gov- 
erning Connecticut town. In 
local conditions, as they then 
existed, those several unities 
were almost absolutely essen- 
tial in order that the founda- 
tions of the new township 
might be firmly laid. 



the instructions given by the Committee 
that the villagers built a common fence 
about their meadow-lands which lay be- 
tween the village and the river. Each pro- 
prietor was required to build fence in 
proportion to his holding of meadow- 
lands. This fence, which is one of the 
curious features of early Waterbury, con- 
tinued to be for many years the common 
care of the community and doubtless 
shared, with the highways, church, and 
school in relieving the tedium of debate at 





BRONSON LIBRARY. 

On the house-lots set off to them, then, 
these old-time commoners built their 
homes, humble indeed, but according to 
their means and within the provisions of 
that early building ordinance. 

For several years the Grand Committee 
continued to direct the affairs of the vil- 
lage, though at a comparatively early day 
it made over to the proprietors the titles 
to the land the Committee had acquired 
from the Indians. It was in obedience to 




Y. M. C. A. BUILDING. 

the local gatherings of the free- 
holders. The proprietors also 
held uiach land in common, 
which wa'^ gradually parcelled 
out into individual holdiug.s as 
the community grew. Besides 
supporting of church, school, 
and other municipal burdens^ 
the plantation gave aid to a grist 
mill, to supply an early need of the com- 
munity. In all these things the wise fore- 
thought of the Committee in reserving 
several of the large lots made pi^ssible 
special allotments of land to the church, 
the school, and the grist-mill. 

In 1()8(> the j)lautatiou was incorporated 
as a town imder the name of Waterbury. 
Many have since regretted that the town 
was not called Mattatuck : but to the prac- 
tical men of the seventeenth century, when 
Indians and Indian rames were alto- 
gether too common, there was not the eu- 



128 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



oliantment about the name 
which time has since lent it. The 
failure, too, to retain its Indian 
name was. in keeping with the 
practice of nearly every other 
town in the State. Of all Con- , 

necticut towns but one retains 
an Indian name. That one is 
Naugatuck, which, quite late in 
the present century, was partly 
formed out of the original Mat- 
tatuck land. The propriety of 
calling the one-time Mattatuck 
a water-burg or water-borough 
is not at first apparent to the 
stranger. It becomes so, how- 
ever, as he learns of the devas- 
tating floods the town has suf- 
fered, or has perchance himself 
witnessed the shallow Nauga- 
tuck when it was "on the ram- 
page." The numerous small 
streams in the town, which 
have since aided much in the 
development of its large manu- 
facturing industries also may 
have suggested the name. 

Long after Waterbury had cut loose from 
the leading-strings of the Graud Commit- 
tee and had become incorporated as a town 
with a Christian name, its progress was 
slow. It was nearly forty years be- 
fore the farming village, the forerunner 
of the present manufacturing city, had 
fairly taken root and begun to grow and 
prosper. The principal highway of the 
village ran, it is believed, along the lines 
of East and West Main streets. Along this 





V 




INDISTRIAL SCHOOL. 



WELTON FOUNTAIN. 

the houses of many of the settlers were 
built. Of these tradition says that there 
were at one time forty, built of logs. Later 
investigations have cast some doubt on 
the statement that they were of logs. 

At first the inhabitants attended Sunday 
service at Farmington, twenty miles dis- 
tant, but soon the settlers petitioned for 
religious privileges at home ; and a 
worthy reverend, Jeremiah Peck, was sent 
to them for a season, who was later suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. John Southmayd, who 
preached in the first meeting-house 
erected on the green in 1691. As a part in- 
ducement for the Rev. Southmayd's com- 
ing, one of the large allotments of land 
reserved by the Committee "for public 
and pious usages," was given him. 

The village school-master is believed to 
Lave preceded even the minister, but it 
was not until about 1707 that there was 
talk of building a schoolhouse. The first 
schoolhouse was erected on the meeting- 
liouse green in 1709 and was no doubt a 
inde and humble affair. Reservations of 
land also went to help support this 
common burden and benefit. 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



129 




was killed while lie was ar work 
in the meadows, and a litile later 
a father and his two sons were 
cprried away rnptives. To the 
severe labors of clearing and cul- 
tivating the land was added the 
burden of watching for the hos- 
tiles. Several of the village house> 



ST. MARGARET'S SCHOOL. 

The dark ages of the town's his- 
tory are those forty years before 
1713. During those years these 
seekers for cheap land endured 
sufferings and hardships, which, 
had they come to Mattatuck us 
refugees from political or religious 
bigotry, w^ould have caused their 
praises to have been loudly sounded. 
In 1691, the year in which they 
w^ere building their first church, 
their rich meadow-lands were inundated 
by the Naugatuck river and a great por- 
tion of the soil carried away or ren- 
dered valueless for cultivation by deep de- 
posits of sand and gravel. To the strug- 
gling farmers this loss was well nigh ir- 
reparable, and some of them left the set- 
tlement. This inundation was known as 
the "Great Flood." Another devastat- 
ing flood occurred in 1709. Then fell a 
deadly visitation on the village which was 
spoken of ever afterward as the "Great 
Sickness." It began in October, 1712, 
and lasted nearly a year. During its con- 
tinuance one-tenth of ^he population died ; 
and at one time the well were not able to 
care for the sick and bury the dead. Of 
the twenty-one victims of the disease 
ten were heads of families. Throughout 
all these trials the dread of the Indians, 
who had begun again to vex the land soon 
after the temporary truce of 1677, hung 
over the village. This fear was well 
founded for in 1708-9 one of the villagers 




WATERBURY HI'lH SCHOOL. 

were fortified — among others thar of the 
Rev. John Southmayd — and at night 
the settlers resorted to these for safety. 
In the day, while the farmer worked 
in the fields, scouts scoured the 
neighborhood and sentinels on the high 
hill-tops guarded against the approach of 
the Indians. The Connecticut colony sent 
a small garrison to aid in the protection 
of the town. It was not until the peace 
of 1712 that followed the French and In- 
dian War that the settlers could worl: 
and rest in quiet without fear of disturb- 
ance. Up to that year more people had 
removed from the town than had moved 
into it, and the population in 1718 was but 
one hundred eighty soiils, the same num- 
ber that the town had in 1688. 

In the years that followed the peace of 
1718 the village jirospered. It gradually 
outgrew its narrow, local conditions and 
through better connections with the out- 
side world soon became a pirt of it. Its 
days of isolation had jiassed. 

With the industrial transition from a 



I30 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 




WATERBURY CHURCHES. 



SKETCH OF EARLY WATERBURY. 



13 




THE WATERBUEY HOSPITAL. 

farming village to a manufacturing city 
have come the other changes which have 
made the Waterbury of today. The town- 
city — for the shell of the old town author- 
ity has clung to the local government 
through two centuries of change — has 
within its borders a population of more 
than fifty thoueand of as composite a char- 
acter as that of early Mattatuck was hom- 
ogeneous. Territorial disintegration has 
marked its history from the beginning. 
Towns and parts of towns have been taken 
from it: in 1780, the whole of Watertown ; 
in 1795, the whole of Plymouth ; also parts 
of Middlebury, Prospect, and Naugatuck. 
Waterbury proper, however, is still the 
natural commercial center of all these 
towns. 

The old green, the meeting-house green 
of Mattatuck days — the communitj^ cen- 
ter of the city now as of the plantation 
then — has been improved imtil it is one of 
the most beautifiil and valuable pieces of 
land in Waterbury. All roads, figura- 
tively speaking, still lead to it now as in 



earlier days. Long ago it ceased to 
be the site of school and church and 
the training-field of the local mili- 
tia. To the west of it a grateful 
community has now erected a hand- 
some monument in honor of those 
who fought in the War of the Re- 
bellion, Facing it from the south 
is the town hall, the seat of the 
city and town governments. At a 
little distance removed from it, on 
Leavenworth street, stands the 
handsome and commodious new 
Court House. The direct descend- 
ant of the first Mattatuck churcb, 
the First Congregational, faces the 
green from the north. The other 
churches of the city are scattered 
over its wide area though most of 
the larger ones are near the center, 
St. John's Episcopal church, de- 
scendant of an earlier church, which 
was first to share the local relig- 
ious field with the Congregational 
church, faces the green from the 
west. A costly Y. M. C. A. build- 
ing also overlooks the green from the 
north. The Welton Drinking Foun- 
tain, of equestrian design, attracts 
attention at the east of the green. This 
fountain was built with money bequeathed 
by Miss Caroline J, Welton, a Waterbury 




THE TOWN HOUSE. 



132 



DUSK AND DAWN. 



young lady who died from exhaustion and 
exposure in making an ascent of Long's 
Peak in 1884. To the east of the green 
and overlooking it is the Odd Fellows' 
building, one of the largest office-build- 
ings in the city. In it the post-office is lo- 
cated. Exchange Place, the business 
center of the town, also opens on the 
green. From that first schoolhouse on 
the green has grown up a splendid and 
well-equipped school system, with an ex- 
cellent high school at its head. In addi- 
tion to the public schools are the St. Mar- 
garet's school for Girls, an F.piscopal in- 
stitution, and the Convent Notre Dame, 
a Roman Catholic school. 

On Grand street, on the site once occu- 
pied by the old village cemetery, is the 



Bronson Library, one of the largest and 
best in the State. Its inner walls bear a 
memorial tablet to the Waterbury n:en 
who fought in the Revolution. It was 
presented to the Library by the Melicent 
Porter Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

The present city cemetery (Riverside), 
is located on the west side of the river. 
At the entrance of this beautiful place of 
burial is a memorial chapel erected with 
money bequeathed for that purpose by the 
late S. W. Hall. 

Of the industrial Waterbury of today 
much is to be said ; but the history of the 
growth of the city's large industries is 
another chapter outside the limits of this 
sketch. 



DUSK AND DAWN. 



BY EDITH GRAY POPE. 



A drowsj' murmur fills the air 
The flowers clasp their petals fair, 
The while they breathe their evening 
prayer — 

Tlie day is done. 

The twittering birds on tree and bush, 
The leaden sky with joy a-flush 
To meet the great sun's upward rush — 
The day's begun ! 




WATERBURY 



ITS PROMINENT INTERESTS 
AND PEOPLE. 



BY FLORENCE WEST. 




SEAL OF WATERBURY. 

IT has been said by a Waterbury histo- 
rian that the true history of that town 
did not begin until manufacturing was 
established there, which was at a very 
early date — 1680. It was then that use was 
first made of the water-power. On the site 
of the Scoville Manufacturing Company of 
today a grist-mill was built by Stephen 
Hopkins, and it was in operation for one 
hundred and sixty years. Not so very 
long after the establishing of the grist- 
mill a fulling-mill and a saw -mill were 
built. In 1790 the manufacture of wood- 
en clocks was started in Waterbury by 
James Harrison. These clocks were made 
by hand, and the wood for the "working- 
part" of the clock was laurel and ivy, 
both of which are fine-grained and firm. 
That they wear well time has proved ; for 
some of these wooden clocks have not only 
run, but have kept good time, for seventy 
years at least. Mr. Harrison's second 
shop stood where now the Eli Block is. 
Here there was a small stream — Little 
Brook by name— that still flows under the 
Eli Block. 

When Ohauncey Jerome invented the 
brass clock it took the place of the wooden 



clock and was the precursor of the famous 
Waterbury watch, as well as of the Water- 
bury Clock Company, established by Eli 
Terry and his sons in 1857. 

But the most important of all manufac- 
turing begun in the early days in this 
Connecticut town was that of button- 
making. This business was established 
in 1750 by Joseph Hopkins, and later was 
carried on by the Gridley Brothers. 

Buttons used to be made of pewter and 
were cast in molds in one solid piece. The 
first improvement made on buttons was 
the iron wire-eyes. In 1802 manufactur- 
ers began making buttons of brass. The 
brass was rolled from small ingots that 
were "broken down" at the rolling-mill 
in Bradleyville, and the finishing was done 
in Waterbury, where the brass was placed 
"between two steel rolls two inches in 
diameter, and these were driven by horse- 
power. ' ' Says one writer, ' ' It would have 




CITIZENS NATIONAL FkVNK. 



133 



134 



WATERBURY. 




DIME SAVINGS BANK. 

iDeen a remarkable prescience that could 
have seen in the little tvy^o-inch rolls, 
driven by horse-power and used to finish 
the brass plates for the early button-mak- 
ers, the real foundation of the large manu- 
facturing business of the Waterbury of to- 
day." 

When Lafayette was visiting this coun- 
try in 1824 it was at the Waterbury fac- 
tory owned by Frederick Leavenworth, 
David Hay den, and James M. L. Sco- 
ville, that there was made ths set of gold 
buttons presented to the general. The 
die from which these buttons were cast is 
now owned by Scoville & Company. In 
1876 buttons made with this same die 
were presented to the French commission- 
ers to the Centennial at Philadelphia. 

It was in Waterbury that brass buttons 
were turned out in tremendous quantities 
and with great rapidity to supply the de- 
mand for them for the soldiers' uniforms 
in the Civil War. How busy were the 
people of little Connecticut during that 
war ! In Hartford they were rushed with 
orders for firearms, in CoUinsville for bay- 
onets and swords, and in Waterbury for 
brass buttons. 

The brass button started the brass and 
German silver industries in Waterbury, 
where every conceivable thing'^that can 



be made of these metals is now 'manufac- 
tured. Here, too, the copper and copper- 
alloyed coins for South America are made, 
as well as the blanks for our own * nick- 
les. ' ' 

The vast manufacturing interests of 
the Waterbury of today make its name 
known all over the world, for its goods are 
sent to the remotest corners of the globe. 
Apropos of this, an experienced ''globe 
trotter" bought in Algeria some quaint 
silver sleeve-buttons, which he present- 








„ J aai.. MMi '*^ '^*^ 

' — 4 «^ -^^ ---J* ^M 




MANUFACTURERS BANK. 



r 



WATERBURY. 



J35 




WATERBURY NATIONAL BANK 

€d as a unique and therefore choice gift 
to a friend living in Connecticut. The 
recipient of the gift while gazing with ad- 
miration upon these buttons, and mar- 
Teling at the oriental workmanship, es- 
pied suddeply on the underside of one of 
the buttons the name of a well-known firm 
in Waterbury ! 

Twenty thousand persons are now em- 
ployed in the factories of this busy Con- 
necticut town. Not only brass articles 



are made, but the brass itself, the ingots 
cast and rolled into sheets. 

At the Scoville Manufacturing Company 
brass and Gerinan silver in sheets, rods, 
tubing, and wire are made. They also 
make aluminum (pure) in sheets, rods, 
and wire. Here, too, are manufactured 
buttons, bolt-hinges, lamps, and burners. 
This plant occupies about thirteen acres 
of land and employs two thousand hands. 

Sheet-brass, brass wire, and tubing are 
manufactured by the Benedict & Burn- 
ham Company. This company employs 
one thousand hands, and the plant covers 
twelve acres and has twenty-five build- 
ings. 

Holmes, Booth, & Hayden manufacture 
sheet-brass, brass wire, rods, tubing, in- 
sulated wire, copper telegraph-wire, lamps 
and burners. Over a thousand hands are 
employed here. 

The Waterlury Brass Company makes 
sheet-brass, brass wire, rods, and tubing, 
also brass eyelets, and employs about eight 
hundred hands. 

At Randolph & Clowes, sheet-brass, 
rods, and tubing are made, and about six 
hundred hands are employed. 

Plume & Atwobd maniif acture lamps and 
burners, as well as brass goods in great 
quantities. The plant comprises ten four- 




THE CX)L0NIAL TRUST COMPANY. 



136 



WATERBURY. 



story buildings. 

There are several smaller manufactor- 
ies where brass goods are made on a more 
or less extensive scale — but not sheet- 
brass. Some of these concerns are of 
great importance, because of the extent 
of their trade and the superior quality of 
their manufactured articles. 

Then there are other establishments 
that, though not directly connect- 
ed with the making of brass ar- 
ticles, are, nevertheless, connected with 
the brass trade, for they are concerned 
with the manufacture of metals or ma- 
chinery. Some of the most prominent of 
these are the Waterbury Clock Company, 
manufacturers of clocks and watches ; 
the Waterbury Manufacturing Company, 
where brass buttons, umbrella "furni- 
ture," upholstering trimmings, and pat- 
ented brass novelties of all descriptions 
are made ; the New England Watch Com- 
pany — formerly the Waterbury Watch 
Company — known all over the world for 
their "Waterbury watches." 

Then there are the American Pin Com- 
pany at Waterville and the Oakville Com- 
pany at Oakville, both engaged in the 
manufacturing of pins. 

The Oakville Company is specially in- 
teresting in that it is the direct outcome 
of Chauncey O. Crosby's invention of a 
machine for sticking pins on paper. This 
company was formed in 1852, and at that 
time had purchased property just on the 





FOURTH NATIONAL BANK, 



APOTHECARIES HALL. 

line between Waterbury and Watertown, 
The plant consists today of several build- 
ings ranging from one to four stories in 
height. The various departments are 
equipped throughout with the latest and 
most approved machinery and appliances 
operated hj both water and steam power. 
Nothing has been left undone to make the 
plant one of the most complete and mod- 
ern in the country. The various build- 
ings are lighted by electricity supplied 
from the company's own electric plant. 
Many skilled operatives are employed, and 
the output largely consists of wire goods, 
such as pins, safety-pins, and a variety of 
articles made from wire that requiro the 
use of automatic machinery. The com- 
pany is continually strengthening its hold 
upon public favor, and no goods stand 
higher . among the jobbers in this line 
than those bearing the Oakville Com- 
pany's trade -mark. 

E. C. Lewis is the company's president 
and J. H. Bronson is secretary and treas- 
urer. 

Rogers & Brother, whose works are lo- 



WATERBURY. 



37 




cated in Waterbury, are probably the old- 
est mamifaoturers of nickel silver spoons 
and forks in the United States. 



as a brass mill. From rolled nickel sil- 
ver the company manufactured spoons, 
forks, knives, and other articles of fiat 
ware in great variety, and on a far more 
extensive scale than ever had bsen attempt- 
ed before in this country. The original 
factory has been enlarged and improved 
from time to time, and is today the largest 
and best equipped plant of its kind in the 
world. The 'olive," the first fancy pat- 
tern in electro silver plate made in Amer- 
ica, was originally made by this com- 
pany and bore their trade-mark, ' ' * Rog- 
ers & Bro. A-1," which has since become 
celebrated, and articles bearing that trade- 



f. 




r. I fc fe |i I; |, |, i 



BUILDINGS OF THE OAKVILLE PIN COMPANY. 




In the year 1846, Asa H. Rogers began ex- 
perimenting in electro plating, and in 
1847, with his brothers William and Sim- 
eon S. Rogers, he established in the city 
of Hartford the firm of Rogers Brothers. 
Iq 1858 the brothers Asa and Simeon S. 
Rogers removed to Waterbury, and estab- 
lished there the firm of Rogers & Brother, 
which was organi7ed the following year, 
as a joint-stock company under the laws 
of the State of Connecticut. They pur- 
chased the stone mill located on Mad riv- 
or, formerly occupied by Brown & Elton, 




138 



WATERBURY. 




IVATERBURY, 



139 




GENERAL LOUIS N. VAN KEUREN. 

mark are now known as the "Star 
Brand" goods. 

In spite of keen competition, they have 
passed the crucial test of time, and have 
by their artistic styles and the endur- 
ing qualities of their goods , become right- 
fully entitled to the high place they have 
attained in the business world, and the 
highly successful results that have fol- 
lowed their efforts during the last half a 
century. 

This company became a member of the 
International Silver Company at its or- 
ganisation in the year 1898. 

The general management of the Water- 
bury works is under the direction of 
George Rockwell, secretary of the Inter- 
national Silver Company. 

Waterbury, with its vast manufacturing 
interests, requires good banking facil- 
ities, and with such it is well supplied, 
having in its midst four National and 
three savings banks. 

The Colonial Trust Company was or- 
ganized in 1899 and opened its doors for 
business November first of that year. It 
is at present located at 48 Center street ; 
but this year there willj:»e^erectedja beau- 



tiful and commodious banking-house on 
West Main street, corner of Leavenworth 
street. The company's charter provides 
for a general banking, trust, and safe-de- 
posit business as well as many other feat- 
ures valuable to the community. Upon 
completion of the new building this com- 
pany will have the very latest and most 
secure safe-deposit vaults in Connecticut, 
in which boxes can be obtained for $5 and 
upwards. This is a new feature in the 
Naugatuck valley and one that will be 
greatly appreciated, not only by small 
banks, savings-banks, and corporations, 
but by every person having securities or 
^'aluable papers. There will also be a 
vault for storage of trunks, packages, and 
silver-ware, at nominal prices. 

The following statement of the condi- 
tion of the company at close of business, 
Dec. 31, 1900, shows a remarkable growth, 
and is the result of careful and constant 
attention on the part of the directors, 
whom individually and collectively con- 
stitute a board equal to any in the State. 



Capital stock, - 

Surplus, 

Undivided profits, - 

Deposits, 

Due Banks, 

Total, 



$ 400,000.00 

100,000.00 

15,898.44 

784,529.08 

85,()68.05 

$1.88(1,095.57 



The officers are : D. S. Plume, presi- 
dent ; J. H. Whittemore, first vice-presi- 
dent ; G .W. Woodruff", second vice-presi- 
dent ; General Louis N. YanKeuren, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

A feature of this thrivincr manufactur_ 




RESIDENCE OF GENEHAL VAN Kl-.l KEN. 



I40 



WATERBURY. 





"•■''«Si:z, 




ill iMi 




mjt 



RESIDENCE OF 
W. F. WRIGHT. 



RESIDENCE OF 
E. A. LEWIS. 



RESIDENCE OF 
M. E. WRIGHT. 




SOME PROMINENT RESIDENCES OF WATERBI'RY DESIGNED BY W. FOSTER WRIGHT. 



WATERBURY. 



41 




RESIDENCE OF F. J. KINGSBURY. 

ing town, quickly noticed by the visitor, 
is the large number of beautiful homes 
that have been constructed within the 
past five years, especially in the western 
part of the city. These modern homes, 
some of which are pictured in this arti- 
cle, were designed and built by W. Foster 
Wright, of "the Wright Building Com- 
pany of Waterbury." In cost they av- 
erage from 13000 to |10,000. 

Mr. Wright, who has always made a 
specialty of designing and building mod- 
ern up-to-date homes, came to Waterbury, 
December, 1899, from "the Oranges,*' 
New Jersey, where are situated the homes 
of so many of New York's professional 
Tuen. He had been engaged there for 
the ten years previous in building modern 
homes, and acquired an enviable repu- 
tation. Waterbury' e prospective build- 
ers are very fortunate in having in their 
community a man so qualified not only 
to design a modern home but to carry out 
the design and build the house so well 
from start to finish. 

Waterbury has cause to feel proud of her 
citizens, both in the present and the past. 
Space forbids the enumeration of the im- 
portant inventions by her citizens and 
the attainments of some in literary and 
professional lines. Among the brilliant 
galaxy may be mentioned A. Bronson 
Alcott, the Concord philosopher, who 
served an apprenticeship in a clock manu- 
factory ; the Rev. Tillotson Bronson, born 
in 1721, who was j editor of The ('hiD'cJt- 



1)1(1 n's Mfif/aziiif', and for some 
time he was the principal of 
the Cheshire Academy. In 
early times lived Lemuel Hop- 
kins, M. D., the author of 
satirical poems and of "The 
Epitaph on a Patient killed by 
a Quack Doctor," this last be- 
ing in the school readers of a 
half -century ago. There was 
John Trumbull, the brilliant 
lawyer, born in 1750, author 
of "M'Fingal, " a poem that 
had wide-spread notice be- 
cause of its political intent. 
John Trumbull, Lemuel Hop- 
kins, and Joel Barlow, "to- 
gether with David Humphrey, Timo- 
thy Dwight, and Richard Alsop, were 
the leading members of a literary club 
known as the "Hartford Wits." 

In Waterbury dwelt Junius Smith, LL. 
D., through whose energy was brought 
about the first crossing of the Atlantic 
oy a vessel propelled entirely by steam. 
This ship was the Sirius. Writes Homer 
Bassett in his "Sketch of Watarbury,"- 
from which we have largely borrowed in 
this paper, "It is a curious fact that a 




W. KKLT.OUG 



42 



WATERBURY, 




RESIDENCE OF S. W. KELLOGG. 

copy of the labored treatise of the famous 
Dr. Lardner, written to prove the impos- 
sibility of crossing the Atlantic by steam- 
power— the first that came to this coun- 
try — was brought over by the Sirius on 
this her first trip." 

The Hon. F. J. Kingsbury is one of Wa- 
terbury's most prominent citizens. His 
ability as a historian is shown in that ex- 
haustive work, "The Town and City of 
Waterbury, Conn. ' ' An interesting paper 
written by him will appear in our next is- 
sue, on "The Ericsson Propeller on the 
Farraington Canal." 

William A. Alcott, M. D. , another Wa- 
terbury citizen, was a writer of educa- 
tional books and a lecturer on various 
reforms. He was 
born in 1798. Then 
there were Dr. Me- 
lines C. Leaven- 
worth, the well- 
known botanist, 
a ad Samuel Hop- 
kins, D. D., the 
hero of Mrs. 
Stowe's "The Min- 
ister 's Wooing," 
who founded the 
sect of "Hopkinsi- 
ans." He is said to 
be the first man of 
influence in New 
England that pro- 
tested against slav- 
ery, and through 
h i s efforts laws 
were passed pro- 
hibiting the impor- 



^^.^ 




tation of slaves into New England. 

Among those that have written Water- 
bury history are Ohauncey Jerome, Hen- 
ry Terry, J. D. Van Slyck, S. R. Judd, 
the Rev. Dr. Anderson, the Hon. F. J. 
Kingsbury, and Sarah J. Prichard. 

Among Waterbury' s prominent citi- 
zens of today is the Hon. Stephen Wright 
Kellogg, ex-member of Congress and at- 
torney-at-law. He was born in Shelburne, 
Mass., April 5, 1823. 

He is the son of Jacob Pool and Lucy 
(Wright) Kellogg. His great-grandfath- 
er, Lieut. Jacob Pool, belonged to the 
little band of patriots under the com- 
mand of General Arnold, who left Cam- 
bridge in 1775, and after marching from 
the coast of Maine through the wilder- 
ness of intervening territory, climbed the 
Heights of Abraham and attacked the 
strongly-fortified citadel of Quebec. Be- 
fore those walls Lieut. Pool afterward 
died. 

Stephen Wright Kellogg spent his early 
years upon his father's farm, where he 
worked summers until he was twenty 
years of age, when he entered Amherst 
College. He remained there two terms 
and then entered Yale the third term of 
the freshman year. He was graduated 
from Yale in 1846, taking one of the three 



^ 



:\Mv 







RESIDENCE OF DR. C. H. BROWN. 



WATERBURY, 



143 




HON. GREENE KENDMCK. 

highest honors of his class. 

In 1847 he entered the Yale Law School 
and was admitted to the New Haven Bar 
in 1848. He immediately opened a law 
office at Naugatuck, Conn., where he re- 
mained until 1854, when he removed to 
Water bury, where he has since lived. 
He has had a large and important 
practice in the higher State and in 
the United States courts. In 1851 
he served as Clerk of the Senate 
and two years. later he represented 
the Waterbury District as senator. 
In 1856 he was a member of the 
House from Waterbury. Mr. Kellogg 
was a delegate to the National Re- | 
publican conventions of 1860, 1868, [ 

and 1876. He was first elected to 
Congress in 1869, and was re-elected 
in 1871 and 1873. He declined the 
nomination of governor in 1878, 
while president of the convention 
that made the nomination. Mr. 
Kellogg has been one of the agents 
of the Bronson Library since its 
organization in 1868, and while 
in Congress he succeeded in mak- 
ing it one of the six depositories of i 
the State for the valuable publica- 
tions of the United States Govern- 
ment, i 

He was married Sept. 10, 1851, to 
Lucia Hosmer Andrews, a grand- 
daughter of Stephen Titus Hosmer, 
formerly Chief Justice of the 



Connecticut Supreme Court. She was 
a great-granddaughter of Titus Hos- 
mer, a member of the Continental 
Congress, and of General Samuel Holden 
Parsons, of the War of the Revolution. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg are the parents of 
seven children : Sarah Andrews, Lucy 
Wright, Frank Woodruff (a lieutenant in 
the Navy), John Prescott (associated with 
his father in the practice of law, under 
the name of Kellogg & Kellogg), Eliza- 
beth Hosmer, Stephen Wright, Jr. (who 
died in 1868), and Charles Pool Kellogg, 
now secretary of the Connecticut State 
Board of Charities. 

Very prominent in Waterbury is the 
name Kendrick. Descended from the 
Pilgrims, they possess much of that ener- 
gy and perseverance that distinguished 
their early ancestors. 

The Hon. John Kendrick was born in 
Charlotte, N. C, in 1825. He was grad- 
uated from Yale in 1848, and in 1847 he 
was admitted to the Bar of Connecticut. 
He practised his profession in partner- 
ship with Judge Norton J. Buel of Water- 




IION. JOHN KI.NDHIOK. 



144 



WATERBURY. 



bury. From 1856 to 1860 he was associate 
editor of the New Haven Daily Register. 
Afterward he became president of the 
great manufacturing concern of Rogers & 
Brother. He was mayor of Waterbury in 
1864-65-68, and representative in the Leg- 
islature in 1865 and 1867. He was ap- 
pointed by President Ulysses S. Grant, 
diplomatic agent to The Hague and Brus- 
sels in 1869. In 1871 he was the Democrat- 
ic candidate for Congress. He was 
agent of the Silas Bronson Public Library 
Fund of $350,000, from 1873 until his 
death on May 27, 1877. 

Mr. Kendrick 
was famous for 
his wit, and many 
of his ho7^ mots av 
verses have been 
widely circulated, 
and often wrongly 
ascribed to other 
writers. It was 
he that wrote the 
famous 

"Felis sedit by a 

hole 
Intentus he cum 

omni soul 
Prendere, " etc. 

Mr. Kendrick 
married Marian 
Mar, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Jo- 
seph Tf Mar of 
New Haven. Of 
three children but 
one survive s — 
Greene Kendrick. 
He was born in 
Waterbury, May 
81, 1851, and is 
the grandson of 

the Hon. Greene Kendrick, lieutenant- 
governor of Connecticut in 1851. 

Mr. Greene Kendrick was graduated 
from Yale, where he took high honors, 
in 1872. He then pursued a post-gradu- 
ate course in history, comparative philol- 
ogy, and international law. In 1875 he 
was graduated from the Yale Law School, 
where he also took high honor?. He was 
admiUed to the New York Bar of Federal 
Courts in 1885. 



HON. (iREENE KENDRICK. 



Mr. Kendrick was elected Member of 
the Waterbury Board of Education in 1876. 
He was auditor of the State institutions 
of Connecticut for ten years. He refused 
nominations to Congress and for lieuten- 
ant governor. He has been attorney for the 
township of Waterbury since 1895. Like 
his father he. has traveled extensively 
abroad . He is a member of the American 
Oriental and the American Philological 
Societies. He belongs to several frater- 
nal orders, and is a thirty-second degree 
Mason, a Knight Templar, and a Shriner. 
On November 19, 1896, he married Miss 
Flora Mabel Lock- 
1 wood of New Ha - 
j ven. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kendrick 
have one child, 
Martha Flora 
Kendrick, born 
October 26, 1898. 

The ancestor in 
Waterbury of the 
Kendrick family 
was the Hon. 
Greene Kendrick. 
He was born at 
Charlotte, County 
of Meklenburg, 
North Carolina, 
April, 1798. His 
ancestors for at 
least three prior 
generations were 
Virginia planters 
in the County of 
Lunenberg, liv- 
ing on the south 
bank of the Roa- 
noke river, a few 
miles from the 




North Carolina line. 

Mr. Kendrick 's great-grandfather was 
William Kendrick (born 1704 in Virginia), 
and the father of the latter, by family 
tradition, emigrated from Massachusetts 
to Virginia about 1685. The Kendricks are 
wholly of Welsh descent and came to Amer- 
ica between 1633 and 1645, as many of the 
Pilgrims came, being forced to leave 
their native land under the prosecutions 
of Archbishop] Land and the Estab- 



WATERBURY. 



45 



lished Church— all being rigid Non -con- 
formists. 

Greene Kendrick resided on his father's 
plantation where he was born, until after 
his marriage with Anna Maria, daugh- 
ter of Mark Leavenworth, of Waterbury, 
Conn., in 1823. He removed to Water- 
bury in 1829 and thenceforth wholly iden- 
tified himself with the interests of his 
adopted town and State. He first became 
a partner with his father-in-law in Mas- 
sachusetts in cloak manufacturing. He 
next was among the first in the United 
States to engage in the manufacture of 
gilt buttons, out of which grew the pres- 
ent immense brass industries of Water- 
bury. He organized and was president 
of the Waterville Mfg. Co., the first in 
this country to manufacture pocket cut- 
lery. He organized and successfully es- 
tablished the Oakville Pin Company, one 
of the earliest pin firms on this continent. 
He was identified financially with the 
American Suspender Company. Indeed, 
his interests were coextensive with the 
business industries of the town. He was 
for many years the president and held 
the control of perhaps the most noted 
silver-plate plant in the world — Rogers & 
Brothers. 

Though actively engaged in promoting 
and fostering the industries of Waterbury, 
Mr. Kendrick served his town in other 
ways even more efficiently. To him was 
due in the largest measure the drafting 
and passage of the joint-stock law of this 
State in 1837. It would be hard to esti- 
mate the stimulus which this law has, 
even to the present time, given to the 
manufacturing industries of Connecticut. 

He was representative from Waterbury 
in the General Assembly eight times ; a 
senator from his district three times ; 
lieutenant-governor of Connecticut in 
1853 ; and speaker of the House in 1854 and 
1856. He was chairman of the Water- 



bury Board of Education for a generation ; 
president of Board of Agents of the Bron- 
son Library; a pioneer, organizer, and 
promoter of the beautiful Riverside Cem- 
etery, at the opening of which he deliv- 
ered the dedication address ; he was the 
originator of the plan to reclaim the then 
bog-land in the heart of the city and con- 
vert it into the beautiful Ceuter Square 
of today ; he procured from what is known 
"the Park"— a high piece of woodland 
west of the town— the trees that beauti- 
fully adorn Center Square. These he 
planted mainly at his own expense and 
wholly under his own supervision. 

Mr. Kendrick, the late Alfred Bishop 
(father of Hon. W. D. Bishop), and the 
late Abram Heaton of New Ha- 
ven, were the organizers, promoters, 
and builders of the Naugatuck rail- 
road, and the first-named gentle- 
man was one of the directors from it> 
inception to the time of his death. He 
was, with the late Aaron Benedict and the 
late Hon. John P. Elton, one of the three 
founders and directors of the Water- 
bury (now National) Bank. He formu- 
lated and secured the passage of the first 
charter for the City of Waterbury in 
1852. Mr. Kendrick was also an orator 
of exceptional powers. 

He died Aug. 26, 1873. His children 
were, John, Katherine (who married 
Frederick G. Wheeler) and Martha, un- 
married. Of these, his daughter, Mrs. 
Katherine Wheeler, is the only siuvivor. 
His grandson, Greene, son of John, is the 
sole survivor of these generations of the 
Kendrick name in Waterbury. 

And here we must cease our review of 
Waterbury 's citizens and interests, feel- 
ing that we have but touched here and 
there on this pulsating center that sends 
its energetic throbs throughout the civil- 
ized world. 



TIMES FOR HOLDING THE ANNUAL TOWN MEETING 
OF ELECTION IN CONNECTICUT. 



BY EDWIN STANLEY WELLES. 



A while ago two students in making 
some genealogical investigations had to 
learn the customary date of the annual 
town meeting of election in one of the an- 
cient towns of Connecticut. It was in 
the early times, but they supposed of 
course that some authority could be found 
to answer the question. But while the or- 
igin, meaning, and development of the 
New England town meeting have been 
often discussed, the surprising discovery 
was made that this phase of the town 
meeting in Connecticut had not been treat- 
ed. For this reason it is the purpose here 
to consider simply the times at which the 
annual town meetings of election were 
originally held in the colony of Connecti- 
cut, and to pursue this line of study down 
to our own day. 

The independence of the early Connect- 
icut settlements is illustrated by the fact 
that for a third of a century from their 
beginnings, or until 1672, no law was 
passed by the General Court fixing a time 
for the annual town nleeting, and then the 
date had reference to the election of but 
one class of officers — the constables. 

In the Code of 1672, printed early in 1673, 
' ' It is Ordered by the Authority of this 
Court ; That the Constables in each Town 
shall be yearly chosen before the first of 
January and sworn to that Office the next 
Court following or by some Magistrate or 
Magistrates."! 

Down to 1678, then, the towns could 
hold their annual meetings whenever they 
pleased, and after that date until 1703, the 
only stipulation placed upon them by the 
General Court was that the constables 
should be elected some time during the 
year before the first of January. And con- 
stables in those days could not be classed 
as town officials merely. It was they who 
received warrants from the treasurer of 
the colony "to call the Inhabitants of the 

1. Laws of 1672, V. 14, Knprint. 
•2. Ibid. P. 59. 

146 



Town together" for the choosing of listers, 
and it was they who were accountable to 
the same treasurer for the rates collected 
by them. 2 

It was not the custom until 1703 to elect 
annually a town clerk, but "until another 
be chosen, ' ' so that the important offices 
filled at these meetings were those of con- 
stable and townsman or selectman. Spec- 
ial meetings could be held at the op- 
tion of the inhabitants. 

With these facts in mind let us turn to the 
"Town Votes" of Hartford, Wethersfield, 
and Windsor, and see when they were ac- 
customed to hold their annual meetings. 

In Hartford, on the 16th of November, 
1639, John Steele was chosen town clerk ; 
a month later, Dec. 23, 1639, the townsmen 
and constables were chosen. Within a 
month from that date, the need of survey- 
ors resulted in their choice on the 14th of 
January, 1639-40. From this time elections 
were more uniform, and for four years 
the townsmen, constables, and surveyors 
were elected in the month of January. 
Then a slight change occurred. The an- 
nual meeting held the latter part of Jan- 
uary, began to be held early in February. 
In 1644 the town officials of Hartford were 
chosen the 3rd of February. The time is 
noteworthy because, as will be shown, 
February became a favorite month for 
holding annual meetings in the planta- 
tions of Hartford, Wethersfield, and Wind- 
sor. From a perusal of "the Hartford 
Town Votes, ' ' it appears that from 1644 
to 1673 the annual meeting was held in 
February, except for the years 1647 and 
1648, when the meetings took place in 
January. 

There were, however, special meetings 
of election during that period, such as 
that, for instance, of January 12, 1651, 
when William Andrewes was chosen re- 
corder or town clerk, and that of April 11, 



TIMES FOR TOWN MEETING OF ELECTION. 



'47 



1659, when John Allyii was elected to that 
office. But February was the month for 
the regular annual meeting. 

In Wethersfield, as in Hartford, we find 
that the townsmen were elected in Jan- 
uary for the years 1647 and 1648, though 
in 1649 they were chosen in December, 
Thereafter, however, without any devia- 
tion until 1674, the annual meeting was 
held in February. At first townsmen alone 
were chosen ; then constables and sur- 
veyors were added to the number, and 
gradually, as in Hartford, other officials 
were chosen as the growing needs of the 
settlements required them. Windsor's 
record is not so simple. It was some 
time before much uniformity existed in 
the dates of her annual meetings of elec- 
tion. On the 10th of February, 1650, her 
constables were chosen. The next year 
they were elected in January, but in 1652 
February was again the month of their 
election, and became the usual month for 
choosing constables and some minor offi- 
cers until 1673. 

But it was on the 20th of August, 1652, 
that Matthew Grant was chosen ' ' Towne 
Clarke" and the townsmen were elected. 

The next year the election of townsmen 
occurred in October. In 1654 it took place 
in November, in 1656 it was in December, 
and until 1673 there was more or less alter- 
nation between the months of November 
and December in the times for choosing 
townsmen. 

So far we have investigated the dates 
of the annual meetings in the three towns 
down to 1673. At that time, when the 
order of the General Court was published 
that the constables should be chosen year- 
ly before the first of January, a new era 
begins in the dates of the annual meetings. 
Hartford at once wheels into line. Though 
her town officers were elected on the 13th 
of February, 1672, i her next annual meet- 
ing took place the last day of December, 
1673, when not only constables but the 
other town officials were chosen. Real- 
izing that the constables must be elected 
before the first of January, she very sen- 
sibly chose her other town officers at the 
meeting appointed for the annual election 
of constables. Neither Wethersfield nor 
Windsor exhibited such practical judg- 



1. 1673, new style. The date here as elsewhoro is 

2. Hartford Town Votes, Vol. 1, P. 186. 
a. Collections of the Coiinectieut Historical Society, Vol. i. r. 137 



ment. In fact Wethersfield did not at first 
obey the law. December, 1673, passed by 
without an election of constables, they 
having been chosen with the townsmen, 
surveyors, and fence-viewers, the previous 
February as usual. But the break occurs 
the following year when her constables 
were chosen Dec. 31, 1674. Her townsmen 
and other officers were chosen, however, 
the following March, and until 1680 there 
were two separate meetings of election 
annually : one at the close of the year for 
the choice of constables ; the other, early 
in the year for the election of other town 
officers. 

December 27th, 1680, the townsmen, sur- 
veyors, and other officials were chosen as 
well as the constables. The two meetings 
had at last become merged into one 

A similar condition existed in Windsor. 
She promptly chose her constables the 
31st of December, 1673, and also chose her 
townsmen at the same time. But she per- 
sisted in holding two meetings of election 
annually, electing her constables and 
townsmen generally in December, and her 
minor officers early in the year, though 
fehe must have surprised the inhabitants 
in 1676 when she chose her townsmen iu 
June. 

We now come upon the unexpected dis- 
covery that the meeting of election was 
held in May, and on the same day of the 
month, in Hartford, Wethersfield, and 
Windsor. It is the year 1688, and one nat- 
urally reflects that this striking departure 
from their previous habits must have been 
due to the advent of Sir Edmund Andros. 
The "Hartford Town Votes" are dumb 
over the change and merely state that "At 
a Town Meeting may 21th, 1688 The Town 
made Choyce oft" those men hereafter 
named to bee Town officers, "-i 

In his "Will and Doom," Gershom Bulk- 
eley relates that "On Monday, Oct. 31. 
1687, Sir E. A, ( ,vith divers of the mem- 
bers of his council and other gentlemen 
attending him, and with his guard), came 
to Hai'tford, where he was received with 
all respect and welcome congratulation 
that Connecticut was capable of, ' ' 

On Page 427, Vol. Ill, of the Cnlmiiol 
Rccordfi of CoiiiK cticKt, among the laws en- 
acted by Governor Andros and his Coun- 

ivon as it appears iu the oris;iual nvonl. 



48 



TIMES FOR TOWN MEETING OF ELECTION. 



cil for the territory of New England and 
in force during his government in Con- 
necticut, appears this one : 

' ' That it shall and may be lawf ull for 
the inhabitants in each respective town 
within this Dominion, on the third Mon- 
day in May yearly, to meet and convene 
together, by the major vote to choose and 
nominate any even number of fit persons 
inhabiting within their respective towns, 
not exceeding eight to be selectmen, 
townsmen or overseers for the several 
towns respectively. The one half of 
which number so to be chosen shall be of 
those that served in that office the year 
before and the other half to be new per- 
sons, who are to serve together as select- 
men, townsmen or overseers until the 
next time for the annual election. " 

On the same day constables were to be 
chosen and a commissioner, who, with 
the selectmen, should make a list of all 
males from sixteen years old and upward 
and a true estimation of all real and per- 
sonal estates. 

The dismay and indignation of the in- 
habitants can be imagined as they read 
this further enactment by Governor An- 
dros and his Council : "That from hence- 
forth it shall not be lawful for the inhab- 
itants of any Town within this Dominion 
to meet or convene themselves together 
at a Town meeting, upon any pretence or 
colour whatsoever, but at the times before 
mentioned and appointed for the choice 
of town officers as aforesaid, i i. t;. the third 
Monday in May. 

The hand of the royal governor was laid 
too heavily on Wethersfield and Windsor 
for them not to note it. On that memora- 
ble 21st of May, 1688, the following ac- 
tion was taken in Wethersfield : 

"At a publike toune meeting one this 
day according to ye act of ye Governr & 
Councell, in that case provided, it was 
agreed by ye general vote of ye inhabi- 
tants then present that the trust & man- 
nagement of all publike prudentiall af- 
fairs in this toune or parish of Wethers- 
field, wh shal happen within this 
yeer ensueing shal be Comitted to the 
select men wh shal now be chosen : and 
if one or more of ye sd select men shal 
happen to decease before the yeer be ex- 
it Enacted in the "Council chamber in Boston^ 
fourth year of the rel«n of our Sovereign Lord 
2. Wethersfield Town Votes, Vo]. 1, P. 103. 
;i Windsor Second Book of Town Acts, P. 57. 



pired or shal be sick or there be other im- 
pediment that they cannot all meet at ye 
times appointed, then the management of 
affairs aforesaid shal be left to ye sur- 
vivors or survivour of them, or to thos 
that can meet. "^ 

The power of Sir Edmund Andros van- 
ished in April, 1689, and Hartford cele- 
brated her freedom by deferring the an- 
nual town meeting until December, 
according to her former custom. Weth- 
ersfield and Windsor, however, kept the 
governor's memory green a little longer 
by holding their annual meetings for 1689 
in May. But Windsor showed her spirit 
by the following entry in her Town Acts : 

"At a town meeting may 14: 1689. It 
was agreed that all the officers that shall 
be chosen Are to Remayn in yr office 
untill that time wch we formerly did use 
to chuse town officers wch useth to be 
sometime in december yearly. "3 

After this sudden incursion into their 
cherished liberties, the towns resumed 
their meetings much as before. 

It is in the Revision of 1702 that the law 
first appears which established uniformity 
in the time for holding the annual town 
meeting of election throughout the colony. 
As has been shown, the general custom in 
the towns was to hold that meeting in 
December. That custom now became crys- 
tallized into a law directing "That the 
settled and approved Inhabitants (qual- 
ified as in this A€t is mentioned) in each 
respective Town, shall some time in the 
Month of December Annually meet, and 
convene together, upon notice given by 
the Select men of each Town, or such oth- 
ers as they shall appoint, and by the major 
Vote of such Assembly, shall choose a con- 
venient number, not exceeding seven of 
their Inhabitants, Able, Discreet, and of 
good Conversation, to be Selectmen or 
Townsmen, to order the prudential occa- 
sions of their Town; as also to nominate 
and choose a Town Clerk (who shall enter 
and record all Town Votes, Orders, Grants, 
and Divisions of Land, made by such Town 
Constables, Surveyors of Highways, Fence- 
Viewers, Listers, Collectors of Rates, 
Leather-Sealers, Haywards, Inspectors, 
Chimney-Viewers, and other ordinary 
Town Officers." 

on Saturday the 17th day of March, 1687, in the 
King James the second." 



EAST ROCK. 



149 



This act took effect December, 1703, and 
Windsor, for the first time, elected all her 
town officers that month. 

For nearly a century after this date, the 
towns held their annual meetings of elec- 
tion, some time in the month of Decem- 
ber. Indeed, as late as the Revision of 
1808, the law is printed almost word for 
word as just quoted, but with some addi- 
tions necessitated by town development. 

But further on in the Revision of 1808, 
we learn that in October, 1798, a law was 
passed, "That the meetings of the several 
towns in this state, shall be holden some 
time in the month of November or De- 
cember, annually, any law to the contrary 
notwithstanding. ' ' 

In the Revision of 1821, still wider lat- 
itude is given : 

"The annual town meetings shall be 
holden some time in the months of Octo- 
ber, November, or December." 



This permission to hold the annual 
town meeting any time within the three 
months mentioned, must have tended to 
great confusion in the dates of the meet- 
ings throughout the State, yet this act 
was in force for nearly fifty years. It 
was not until the May session of 1868 that 
the time was fixed as it had not been since 
Governor Andros and his council, one 
hundred and eighty years before in Bos- 
ton, had enacted that the third Monday in 
May should be the time for holding the 
annual town meeting. 

The act of 1868 is that ' ' The annual town 
meetings for the choice of town officers, 
of every town of this State, shall be holden 
on the first Monday of October in each 
year. ' ' 

With the exception of a few towns that 
have been exempted from its provisions, 
this act is still in effect. 




EAST ROCK. 



BY ZEPHINE HUMPHREY. 



Not in thy modern phases take I thee, 

Thou ancient rock, red-heaved against the sky, 

But in thy old-time wildness ; climbing high 

Upon thy cliffs, with steep space under me 

And proud winds moving grandly from the sea 

To hail thee, with the old trees standing by 

And the old sun above, triumphantly 

Have I cast off the new and stood forth free. 

My soul and thou are old together, thou 

Of many silent eons — old and strong 

And wild and full of life; I do not bow 

Before thine age ; I, too, have waited long ; 

I, too, have known the young sun, noticed how 

The hills leaped up, and heard the child sea's song. 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



BY WILBUR WEBSTER JUDD. 




|HE red school house 
and the 'Blue Spell- 
ing Book" were con- 
temporaries. Oft- 
times the school house 
was not red, but mere- 
ly stained a neutral 
shade by the storms of 
innumerable seasons ; but it was safe 
to assume that it had once been the 
bright, proverbial spot in the New Eng- 
land landscape. The spelling book was al- 
ways blue — so long as its covers remained — 
and it was in many respects a remarkable 
book. Now, the speller, and the "ragged 
beggar" of a school house such as Whit- 
tier knew, have largely passed away and 
are not well known to the younger mem- 
bers of the present generation, but there 
are a vast number living who used the 
book and received their early education in 
the primitive, rural school house. The 
writer, twenty years ago, attended a coun- 
try school house that was rumored to 
have been red several generations before, 
and there learned to spell — or tried to learn 
— from Webster's spelling book. There 
are without doubt many men and women 
who can say the same. 

Perhaps it was this old speller that 
contributed more to the widespread fame 
of Noah Webster, its author, than the 
great dictionary which he labored so long 
to create. It may be also that the aban- 
donment of the speller for modern meth- 
ods has been the main cause of the grad- 
ual disappearance of his name. Certain 
it was that the school boy or girl of twen- 
ty years ago was perforce familiar with 
the name of Webster from the general use 
of the spelling book; today school chil- 
dren are hardly aware that such a book 
ever existed, and know the old-time lex- 



icographer merely as the maker of the 
first great American dictionary. But it 
is not probable that his name will entirely 
disappear. The big book still bears his 
name, and very likely always will; it 
should, at least, and thereby serve as a 
fitting monument to the memory of the 
pioneer scholar, who has been aptly called 
the "School-master of the Republic." 

Noah Webster came of excellent stock ; 
he was a lineal descendant of John Web- 
ster, the fifth colonial governor of Con- 
necticut (1656-7). Less is known about 
Governor John Webster than of any other 
of the chief executives of the State. It 
is reasonably certain that he was born in 
Warwickshire, England, and that his 
wife came from the same place. He was 
one of the original proprietors of Hartford. 
On account of dissensions in his church 
he removed from Hartford in 1659 and 
founded Hadley, Mass. Before his re- 
moval he served the State of Connecticut 
in several capacities. He was a repre- 
sentative to the General Assembly, for 
many years a magistrate, and before be- 
coming governor was deputy-governor. 
He was a member of the committee which 
sat ^vith the Court of Magistrates in 1637 
for the purpose of declaring war against 
the Pequots. He had four sons and three 
daughters. His son Robert remained in 
Hartford and from him Noah Webster was 
descended. 

Governor Webster was a prosperous 
farmer, owning a large tract of land be- 
tween Farmington and Hartford. Though 
he did not succceed in making an inef- 
faceable impression upon history he was 
evidently a man of considerable ability 
and of force of character. His autograph, 
still clear after a lapse of nearly two hun- 
dred and fifty years, can be seen in the 



150 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



State library at the Capitol. 

On his maternal side Noah Webster was 
descended from William Bradford, gov- 
ernor of Plymouth in 1621. All the ele- 
ments of both Puritan and Pilgrim chai- 
acter were thus combined in him, as was 



of the main street of the village. 

Noah Webster, Jr., was born in West 
Hartford, Oct. 16, 1758. The youth early 
revealed a love of books and study and in 
1774 he entered Yale College. During an 
interval of his college career he ser^^ed 




IS'OAH WEBSTER. 



evidenced in all the acts of his life ; in 
fact, he was'i^himself the] supreme tj^e of 
the Puritan. His father >'as Noah, and 
his mother, Mercy ; their graves can be 
seen in the old church yard in West Hart- 
ford, the ancient stones being in full sight 



in a company of militia raised to oppose 
General Burgoyne. At one time his com 
pany acted as the escort to General Wash- 
ington, and Webster has recorded that, 
"It fell to my humble lot to lead this com- 
pany with music. ' ' It is probable that he 



152 



NOAH WEBSTER 



played the flute. He was graduated from 
Yale in 1778 and for the following five 
years he taught school in various places 
and studied law at intervals. He was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1781. His first pub- 
lished writings appeared in the Hartford 
Courant. Over the nom-de-plume, Honari- 
ous, he wrote for that paper a series of 
articles in vindication of the congressional 
soldiers' pay-roll. In 1783 the first part of 
a Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language was published. In 1785 he made 
a tour of the Southern States, and, visit- 
ing General Washington, presented him 
with a copy of his ' ' Sketches of American 
Policy" which was said to have been the 




Tiii.i: i'\-.i; «ii- Tiir iii;-'i i mti-'N «'|; 

UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY. 

"first distinct proposal made through the 
medium of the press for a new Constitu- 
tion of the United States. ' ' 

After a residence in Philadelphia, and an 
experience as editor of the American Mag- 
azine, he went to Hartford where in 1789 he 
married a daughter of William Greenleaf . 
He did not remain in Hartford but went 
to New York and established a daily 
paper — "fhe Minerva. In 1798 he went to 
New Haven and this place was his home 
for the rest of his life with the exception 
of ten years spent in Amherst Mass. , and 
a brief period abroad. 

A great many incidents in the career of 



Noah Webster have been handed down 
from lip to lip in the various towns in 
which he taught or resided. It is record- 
ed that in Sheldon he met his first love, 
who did not reciprocate his feelings. The 
R P to whom Scudder al- 
ludes, was a Miss Pardee, who was the 
belle of Sharon. Webster taught a sing- 
ing school — was there any limit to his 
versatility? — and Miss Pardee was a pupil. 
But the young woman had a lover in the 
army, a Major Patchin, and for a long 
time she was undecided which of the two 
candidates for her hand to choose ; in 
fact, she hesitated so long that the matter 
was finally brought up before the church, 
and the elders and deacons 
solemnly decided that she 
ought to accept the first 
claimant, who was away 
fighting for his country. She 
abided by this decision and 
not long after Webster left 
Sheldon. 

While teaching in Sheldon 
Webster lived in the family 
of Governor Smith. He did 
not get on well with the gov- 
ernor, tradition has it. The 
executive was a Purist of the 
old school in the matter of 
the King's English, and they 
fell afoul over such points as 
"musick, " "favour," etc., on 
which thus early young Web- 
ster showed great depravity ! 
The philologic and ortho- 
graphic engendered an enmity 
similar to that which in those 
days religious differences were wont to do. 
The late State Librarian Hoadley, in a 
conversation with the writer, was of the 
impression that Webster had his law 
chambers in Hartford in a two-story per- 
amiter-roofed house which stood at the 
corner of Main and Mulbery streets. There 
it was where the famous "Blue Spelling 
Book," that was at once the despair and 
orthographic salvation of future genera- 
tions, was written. Mr. Hoadley showed 
the writer a large calf -bound law book 
which had belonged to Noah Webster, It 
was very fully annoted in the lexicograph- 
er's handwriting, and many of the notes 



■I'lii- 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



53 




Old English' Lard-oll Student's Lamp used toy 
Noah Webster In his literary labors while compil- 
ing the Spelling Book and Dictionary. Now in the 
famous Lamp Collection of Capt. C. A. Q. Norton of 
Hartford. 



were extremely interesting. A statement 
in the text read: "But because these 
Things (as I said) cannot be wrought in 
you merely by the Law, without the spe- 
cial assistance of Divine Grace," and the 
note was: "Yet some vicious characters 
have been great lawyers without this 
special assistance." The notes in the 
book contained many words written in 
the abbreviated phonetic form as follows : 

Meens, twelv, sees, giv, reeson, hav, 

etc. 

Webster was a Oongregationalist of the 
orthodox type ; yet it is on the records of 
Christ church, Hartford, that he contrib- 
uted to the original fund for the building 
of the church. The amount which he sub- 
scribed was three pounds, which he paid 
in seven dozen spelling books. This is 
not surprising as money was scarce in 
those days, and there was much barter in 
merchandise. On the same books it is re- 
corded that Major John Caldwell sub- 
scribed ten pounds in pure spirit and 
John Chenevard gave one hogshead of 
molasses. A drink called "black strap," 
which was made of a mixture of rum and 



molasses, was popular at that time in the 
best classes of society. 

Mr. Hoadley recalled Webster's last 
visit to Hartford. He came there to de- 
liver an address, and was so feeble that 
he was unable to deliver only half of it 
and its reading was completed by another. 
Mr. Hoadley said that the venerable 
scholar was an impressive figure. He 
was rather below the medium height, of 
stocky build, with a large, square head. 
He had but little hair and that was snow 
white. A gentleman who met Webster i i 
Paris while he was pursuing his philo- 
logical studies there described him mi- 
nutely : He was clad in scrupulous black, 
with long-tailed coat and close fitting 
small clothes, white silk stockings and 
white frilled shirt front. His neck was 
tightly encased in a stock of the period. 
He moved with quick, nervous motions 
and spoke in a firm precise manner. His 
greeting was warm and cordial. 

Amherst, Mass., was an insignificant 
village when Webster went there to re- 
side in 1812. It consisted of a few scat- 
tering farm houses and the usual tavern 
and one or two general stores. The col- 
lege was not founded until nine years after 




THE FIKST EDITION OF THE UN- 
.VBKIDGED DICTIONAKY. 



154 



NOAH WEBSTER, 







BUST OF WEBSTER, REPRESENTING HIM AS 
HE LOOKED LATE IN LIFE. 

he had taken up his residence in the place. 
The ardent scholar bought a house, which 
was surrounded by several acres of desir- 
able land, and settled down with the ob- 
ject of pursuing his labors undisturbed by 
the world. He resided in Amherst until 
1822, and the major share of the work on 
his magnum opui^, the dictionary, was ac- 
complished in this village. The house in 
which he lived stood where Kellogg' s 
block is now situated ; east of this point 
there were no houses in the neighborhood. 
Tn the immediate vicinity of his house he 
planted a large apple orchard, while the 
rest of the land was left an open meadow. 
It is said that some of the trees which he 
planted are still standing in the rear of 
the residence of S. F. Cook; the fields 
which he mowed so long ago remain un- 
changed and every year the scythe cuts 
its swath over them. 

When he went to Amherst he had al- 
ready spent six years in New Haven in 
the special work of his dictionary, and, 
therefore, on settling down in the quiet 



village his great; undertaking was well 
launched. He entirely abandoned the prac- 
tice cf law and gave himself up with the 
utmost enthusiasm to his philological pur- 
suits. Although the family at this time 
did not live in a luxurious manner it is 
quite probable that they did not want for 
anything. During the twenty years in 
which he was engaged on the dictionary 
the entire support of the family was de- 
rived from the profits at a premium for 
copyrights at less than a cent a copy on 
the Spelling Book, or the "Grammatical 
Institute of the English Language." 

Dr. Trumbull of Hartford, speaking of 
Webster's neglect of the law, said : "I fear 
he will breakfast upon institutes, dine 
upon dissertations, and go supperless to 
bed." But it is a well-known fact that 
Webster did not have any time for the 
"Hartford Wits," so called, and it is prob- 
able that this little sally did not partic- 
ularly affect him, if it reached his ears, 
which is doubtful. 

Residents of Amherst today like to re- 
call the fact that the lexicographer went 
to live there because he found the village 
to be of such primitive manners and re- 
fined society, all of which suited his means 
and his tastes. A writer in the Amherst 
Record, Sept. 24, 1879, says: "His beau- 
tiful wife and attractive daughters took 
the lead in the refined society of the town. 
He mowed the little hay crop of his 
grounds, and his daughters raked the 
hay and afterward married the most ele- 
gant scholars of the country." The Am- 
herst correspondent of the Springfield Union 
wrote in January, 1900, "Noah Webster 
was more than a secluded resident of the 
town. He was unusually alive to the in- 
terests of the village, prominent in his 
public life, in the care of his educational 
institutions, and in personal labor for the 
church. He was one of the trustees of 
the Amherst Academy, and was foremost 
in influence as well as in earnestness in 
establishing Amherst College on the foun- 
dation of the old academy. Indeed, among 
all those who labored for the foundation 
of the college there was probably at this 
time none so widely known as Noah Web- 
ster, through his philological writing and 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



155 



extensive learning. The others were com- 
paratively unknown. " The writer in the 
Amherst record already quoted aptly said : 
"It is probable that if the great dictionary 
had not already been made in Amherst 
the college would never have been built." 

It is stated by one that is familiar with 
Amherst College that a bust of Noah 
Webster, which formerly occupied a con- 
spicuous place in the library, has been 
relegated to the upper story of the book- 
stack of the college library where it lies 
neglected with other relics of the past — 
dust covered and well-nigh forgotten. 
Two busts like this one are given hon- 
ored places today in the offices of the G. 
& C. Merriam Company in Springfield, 
the publishers of the dictionary since the 
early forties. 

That such a sad obscurity should sur- 
round the memory of a man who was once 
one of Amherst's honored citizens, and 
that the college that he was instrumental 



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THE "BLUE SPELLER" THAT OUR 
FATHEKS KNEW. 



TITLE PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF 
WEBSTER'S SPELLING BOOK. 

in founding should allow his bust to re- 
main in an out-of-the-way corner, is cer- 
tainly regrettable ; but it is rather an ev- 
idence of the ingratitude of the piesent 
generation than food for philosophical 
thought on the brevity of greatness. At 
the laying of the corner-stone of the first 
building of Amherst College Noah Web- 
ster delivered the address. After ten years 
in Amherst he left the village, and estab- 
lishing his family in New Haven, went to 
Europe where he wrote the last word of 
his great book in Cambridge, Englaiul, in 
1825. 

Noah Webster was a man with many re- 
lations of all degrees and conditions, and 
the fact that he always treated them with 
unfailing kindness and courtesy speaks 
more than pen can exiiress of the innate 
gentleness of his character. He was par- 
ticularly well oft' in nieces and nephews, 
and to these he wrote occasinally or re- 
ceived them in his home. He evideutly 
had his favorites, however, and several to 
whom he gave words of encouragement 
afterward became distinguished in the 
professions or in the service of the State. 

Noah Webster was undoubtedly wise in 
his generation beyond all understanding, 
a deep student of men, and ofttimes a 



156 NOAH WEBSTER. 















LETTEK WRITTEN BY NOAH WEBSTER TO HIS NEPHEW, THE LATE JUDGE JOHN 
W. WEBSTER OF WATERBURY. 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



157 



prophet ; but that he could be mistaken in 
his estimate of a man's ability was strik- 
ingly proven in the case of Jonathan Wil- 
kinson Webster, a son of his brother 
Charles. Jonathan was exceedingly lack- 
ing in the world's goods, and was obliged to 
set out to learn the trade of a machinist. 
He laudably persevered in the undertaking 
until he had served out his time, and, then 
while working as a journeyman, became 
fired with the ambition to study law. As 
is quite natural with all persons who 
have well-to-do or distinguished relatives, 
he cast about mentally for some one who 
would lend him the money with which 
to prosecute his studies in the law. He 
finally decided to go to his uncle Noah 
and ask him to lend him a certain sum. 

The maker of the dictionary was at this 
time well advanced in years and was very 
comfortably well off, and it appeared to 
the young aspirant for the legal profession 
quite reasonable to suppose that he would 
quickly receive all that he asked. Accord- 
ingly he went to his Uncle Noah, told 
him his plans, and asked him to loan him 
the money. The ancient school-master 
refused point blank to lend his nephew a 
cent, and added ''You've got a good trade ; 
stick to it. ' ' Young Webster did not heed 
the sage advice of his distinguished uncle, 
but went forth all the more determined 
to become a lawyer. He entered Yale 
College, worked his way through, and 
eventually became most successful in his 
chosen profession. So devoted was he to 
the law, and so opposed to his name Jo- 
nathan, that he had it legally changed to 
John. He became a judge, was always 
prominent in the affairs of his town, and 
was widely known and greatly esteemed. 
When Judge John W. Webster died in 
Waterbury in June, 1896, he was the pa- 
triarch of the Bar of Connecticut, and was 
perhaps the most thoroughly eulogized 
lawyer to die in the State. 
{It was the same John W. Webster who 
delivered copies of the great dictionary 
to subscribers throughout New England. 
An interesting letter which Noah Web- 
ster wrote to his nephew at that time has 
been preserved, and is as follows: 

New Haven, May 3, 1841. 
Dear Nep'iew : 



I have your letter from Northampton 
and am sorry to know that you are un- 
successful. I have sent a line to you at 
Greenfield, but it is possible you may have 
returned before you receive it. You may 
present a copy of the dictionary to Pres- 
ident Allen with my respects. As the 
boats are now running from New Haven 
to Northampton, you have an easy con- 
veyance by the canal and can stop in 
Westfield and Farmington, if you judge 
it best. This will depend on the fre- 
quency of the running of the boats. 
Yours in friendship, 

N. Webster. 

Perhaps the lack of success to which 
he alludes in this letter had something to 
do with the impression which he formed 
of his nephew's ability. 

Elizabeth was a sister of John W. Web- 
ster. She married a Dr. Perry, and for a 
number of years conducted a private 
school in Waterbury. She died in 1885 in 
Bristol, where her descendants now re- 
side. Noah Webster wrote her the fol- 
lowing letter : 

New Haven, Novr. 28, 1833. 
My dear Niece : 

I received some weeks ago a letter from 
you which gave me great pleasure. For 
some years I knew not where you resided 
nor what was your coadition. I was also 
ignorant of the residence & condition of 
your brother. I first learned from Mr. 
Goodman that; you was keeping a school 
in Torringford, with success, & giving 
satisfaction to your employers. I rejoice 
that you are doing well, as is also Jona- 
than. I have long wanted to see you both ; 
but you must have known something of 
the magnitude of my undertakings, vie of 
the importance of pursuing them with 
undivided attention. I was nearly sev- 
enty years of age before I had finished 
my dictionary, & at that period, a man 
that has much to do has no time to lose. 
By the good providence of God I have 
accomjilished what I had undertaken, for 
which I am very grateful. I have now 
finished & published an edition of the 
Bible, with alterations in the language 
which time has rendered necessary to a 
clear interpretation of the original script- 
ures. Notwithstanding the apprehen- 



158 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



sions of the public, I find my copy is now 
nsed as the family Bible, in several fam- 
ilies both of the clergy and laity. 

My family are in good health, as is that 
of Prof. Goodrich, & of Mr. Ellsworth in 
Hartford. Eliza has lately lost her young- 
est child but is pretty well herself. Mr. 
Fowler's family also at Middlebury are 
in health. I have lately heard of the 
death of Mrs. Blair, one of the daughters 
of brother Abram. Of his four daughters, 
only one, Mrs. Adams, is living & she is in 



connected with religious husbands. 

I hope you will pay us a visit nevt 
spring, more especially as you are going 
to leave the state. If you have an oppor- 
tunity please to give my kind regards 
to your brother. Mrs. "Webster joins me 
in love to you both. 

Please to present my respects to your 
mother, & to Mr. Goodman, & be as- 
sured of the affection of your friend and 
Uncle Noah Webster. 

The recipient of the above letter was f re 




BIRTH PLACE OF NOAH WEBSTER IN WEST HARTFORD. THE HOUSE WAS BUILT IN 1757. 



poor health. My brother's widow is mar- 
ried to a Mr. Hubbard of Leverett in 
Mass'tts. 

My son William married a Miss Stuart 
in Virginia, & now lives near us. He is 
engaged with Dunie & Peeke in book- 
selling. 

I have passed a long life in labor & toil, 
but have had as good success as I had rea- 
son to expect, & am quite comfortable in 
my old age. I have great reasons for 
thankfulness ; & especially that my chil- 
dren nro well settled & my daughters all 



quently a guest at the home of Noah Web- 
ster in New Haven, where she was al- 
ways received with a graceful hospital- 
ity which would have added lustre to the 
reputation of a Southerner of the pro- 
verbially hospitable type. 

The home-life of the Websters was as near 
ideal as was possible, and an atmosphere of 
serenity and intellectuality was always 
apparent. Mrs. Webster was a woman of 
charming manners and gifted with unusu- 
ally brilliant mental powers. In 1883 all 
the daughters, except one, had married 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



159 



and left home. 

Although Noah Webster was a typical 
scholar of the severe old school, and to a 
certain extent a recluse, he was by no 
means taciturn or unsociable. He often 
discussed his work with his niece, and in 
relation to his paraphrase of the Bible ex- 
plained to her why the version had not 
received its due recognition. He said that 
the habit of literally interpreting the 
nineteenth verse in the twenty-second 
chapter of Revelations — "And if any man 
shall take away from the words of the book 
of this prophecy, God shall take away 
his part out of the book of life, and out of 
the holy city, and from the things which 
are written in this book" — had prejudiced 
th3 public mind against any change in 
the form to which they were used. 

This edition of the Bible is almost un- 
known today, though in many parts of 
Germany and other European countries 
a very similar form of the scriptures is 
used in homes and schools. One biograph- 
er has made Webster the butt of consider- 
able ridicule that he should have at- 
tempted such a colossal work as a para- 
phrase of the Bible, though he is forced to 
admit that many of his views have been 
adopted in later versions. At the time 
of the issuance of this Bible Webster 
wrote as follows: "In no respect does 
the present version of the scriptures re- 
require amendments more than in the use 
of many words and phrases which cannot 
now be uttered, especially in promiscu- 
ous company, without violence to decency. 
In early stages of society when men are 
savage or half civilized, such terms are 
not offensive, but in the present state of 
refinement the utterance of many words 
and passages of our version is not to be 
endured ; and it is well known that some 
parents do not permit their children to 
read the scriptures without prescribing 
to them the chapters. To retain such of- 
fensive langauge in the popular version 
is, in my view injudicious, if not unjusti- 
fiable ; for it gives occasion for unbeliev- 
ers, and to persons of levity, to cast con- 
tempt upon the sacred oracles, or to ques- 
tion their inspiration ; and this weapon is 
used with jio considerable effect. Fur- 
ther, many words and phrases are so of- 



fensive, especially to females, as to create 
a reluctance in young persons to attend 
Bible classes and schools in which they 
are required to read passages which can- 
not be repeated without a blush ; and con- 
taining words which on other occasions a 
child could not utter without a rebuke." 

His object was to purify the Bible from 
"obsolete, ungrammatical, and except- 
ional" words. Therefore he set out cheer- 
fully to straighten out the tangle of 
should, would, will, and ^hall ; to change 
which to who, when it referred to persons, 
and make other improvements. He pro- 
nounced folk obsolete and put in its place 
people or uersons. He did not like "even- 
ing tide" and made it into erening tlmf. 
He thought "an hungered" bad English, 
and as was to be expected of so Puritani- 
cal a mind, he changed "Holy Ghost" to 
"Holy Spirit" wherever it occurred. 

All this is quite likely to contribute 




MONUMENT TO NOAH WEBSTER IN GROVE 
STREET 0E:METERV. NEW HAVEN. 



i6o 



NOAH WEBSTER. 



somewhat to the gaiety of the students of 
the present generation ; one is quite apt 
to inquire what Webster thought of 
Shakespeare. But in the face of the aus- 
tere and lofty character of the man, 
which is unmistakably evidenced in all 
his writings, one cannot help but feel 
that he was absolutely sincere in his en- 
deavor to do everything in his power to 
uplift humanity; (those who aim their 
satire at the venerable pedagogue fail to 
place him in the proper perspective. ) In 
measuring Webster from present stand- 
ards Scudder but betrayed his own defi- 
ciencies. 

The house in which Noah Webster was 
born in West Hartford still stands. It is 
on the west side of the street and over- 
looks a beautiful succession of undulat- 
ing fields and blue vistas. Great elms 
overhang the ancient structure, one being 
of unusual height and thickness. The 
place long ago passed into the possession 
of strangers, and the broad acres which 
composed the original farm have been 
divided. But the house is little changed 
from what it was when the scholar lived 
there as a boy. The writer visited the 
place in the autumn two years ago. The 
yellow pumpkin lay smiling in the rust- 
ling cornfield in the slope back of the house, 
and vines clambered over the old lean-to 
in the rear, and everything looked quite 
as it must have done in the early part of 
the nineteenth century. 

The house is of a familiar old New Eng- 
land type ; is severely plain, and from a 
modern point of view, very ugly. The 
big front door is ornamented by an iron 
knocker. Two stories in height, the house 
contains many large rooms though the ceil- 
ings are low. Each side of the front 
entry is a large room on the first floor, and 
these rooms, in keeping with the old style, 
show the large sheathed beams lower than 
the plastered ceiling. The chambers above 
correspond to the rooms below. The rear 
portion of the house is only one story 
high, the roof sloping down unbroken from 
the ridge. In the center of the house is a 
huge chimney which affords three fire- 
places — one for each of the front rooms 
and one for a large room on the west side 
of the house. The latter room was the 



living room of the Websters, North of it 
is the pantry and south of it a sleeping 
room. In the old lean-to in the rear of the 
house is another large chimney with a 
fireplace and the brick oven that was con- 
sidered indispensible to the kitchen by 
old-time housekeepers. It is not definitely 
known in which room Noah Webster was 
born. This information is nearly always 
the first information which visitors to the 
place ask. Not long ago a lady stopped 
one night in the house and went away 
and wrote a letter to a newspaper, joyfully 
proclaiming that she had slept in the room 
in which Noah Webster was born ; per- 
haps she did, though by what means she 
became certain of it is not known. Just 
when the farm passed fully out of the 
possession of the Webster family is not 
recorded. 

Nearly all cyclopedias state that Noah 
Webster was born in Hartford, which 
statement is true, for Hartford once in- 
cluded the territory which is now West 
Hartford. No more delightful drive than 
one over the road which passes the an- 
cient Webster homestead is to be found in 
the State. The elevation is high and the 
views from all sides are perfect. The 
trolley has not yet penetrated in that di- 
rection. 

The idea is very general that there re- 
mains but little of Noah Webster's work 
in the great dictionary of today that bears 
his name. Since his time many thousand 
words have come into use, while the words 
common in his day have assumed a mul- 
titude of new meanings. In the latter 
editions these new words and new defi- 
nitions have been introduced and the ety- 
mology of words has been more exactly 
determined. Many of Webster's defini- 
tions remain, in substance, if not in man- 
ner of expression. 

The first edition of the great work was 
issued in two volumes in 1828. Successive 
editions were in one volume and appeared 
at intervals of about ten years. The edi- 
tion of 1847 was revised and enlarged by 
Professor Ohauncey Goodrich, Webster's 
son-in-law. In 1859 a supplement was 
added, and in 1864 the entire work was re- 
vised and enlarged under the direction of 
Dr. Noah Porter, President of Yale Col- 



THE WIND FLOWER. 



i6i 



lege and, Dr. 0. A. F. Mahon of Berlin. A 
supplement was added in 1879 and again 
in 1884 a biographical supplement and geo- 
graphical gazeteer was introduced. In 
1890 the work was again entirely revised 
under the direction of Dr. Porter. The 
recent 1900 edition contains 25000 more 
words and many changes. It was produced 
under the guidance of Dr. W. T. Harris, 
United States commissioner of education. 
Previous to the issuance of the big dic- 
tionary of 1882 Webster had published two 
small dictionaries. One of these came 
out in 1806 ; the other was an arrangement 
of this for the common schools and was 
published a year later. Webster wrote 
a great many works beside the diction- 
ary, the spelling book, and a paraphrase 
of the Bible. A work from his pen, 
which was once considered important, was 



"A Brief History of Epidemic and Pes- 
tilential Diseases with the Principal Phe- 
nomena of the Physical World which 
Precede and Accompany Them, and Ob- 
servations Deduced Therefrom." This 
was in two volumes, 1799. Although many 
things in this book would cause the mod- 
ern physician to smile, it is a remarkable 
fact that Webster in it describes an epidem- 
ic of influenza which visited this part of 
the country a century ago that was very 
like the supposedly modern grip. His de- 
scription at least could be applied to the 
malady of the present time Webster 
also wrote numerous papers on historical, 
literary, and political subjects, many of 
which were published in book form. The 
first editions, pictures of which are herein 
produced, are in the possession of the G. 
& C. Merriam Co. Springfield, Mass. 




THE WIND FLOWER. 



BY AGNES E. BLANCHARD. 



Near yonder, cold grey rock, I've seen 
Nodding, sweet, of modest niein. 
Trembling, beautiful and niet^v, 
A purple bruise on one pale cheek — 
Anemone, rough Borea's bride, 
Shivering on the bleak hill side. 




THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH 



BY ANNA L. VVETMORE SMITH. 



IN early winter, in the year 1635, a 
group of men and women stood on the 
banks of the frozen Connecticut, where 
Hartford now stands. Having watched 
the retreating forms of the greater part of 
their little band they turned and faced 
one another, confronting that gaunt shad- 
ow, famine, which seemed stealthily ap- 
proaching in the grim embrace of the bleak 
winter before them. It was a dreary out- 
look for those who had so perilously fought 
their way to this new wilderness home. 
We wish that the veil of years could have 
been drawn aside for this brave advance- 
guard of English settlers, so that in place 
of barren rock they might have seen in the 
vista of future years the fertile fields of 
Connecticut, and instead of the cry of bird 
or howl of beast they might have heard 
the hum of factory, the rush of train, 
threading through many an adjoining 
town, and felt the throb of busy life which 
is the warp and woof of our compact lit- 
tle State today. And in place of primeval 
forest above them, they might have seen 
rise the stately walls embodying the civic 
government they cherished ; and the slen- 
der spire representing the religion they 
loved. They builded better than they 
knew, that valiant band ; courageously 
holding a new territory destined here- 
after to plant its standards always in the 
front ranks of industry, education, and 
patriotisoi. 

As early as 1631, eleven years after the 
landing of the Pilgrims, an Indian sachem 
came to Governor Winthrop at Boston 
with glowing descriptions of the Connecti- 
cut valley, urging him to commence set- 
tlements there. Governor Winthrop, cau- 
tious of his enthusiasm, refused an ex- 
ploring party. Two years later, however, 

162 



a vessel in command of William Holmes, 
sent out by the Plymouth colony, made its 
way around to the mcuth of the Connec- 
ticut river, bearing the frame of a house 
with workmen to erect it. This was af- 
terward used for trading purposes. It is 
a suggestive picture in retrospect — that 
little craft with its germ of Connecticut 
industry winding its way over unknown 
waters, past wooded hills into a new land. 
Our thriving industries today might fail 
to recognize their birthright ; yet does 
not the whirl of wheel, the blast of whis- 
tle, that incessant trail of smoke from 
countless chimneys trace undisputed evo- 
lution from that humble craft? 

Sailing up the river as far as Suckiag 
(Hartford), Holmes was hailed by the 
Dutch, who, though previously content to 
carry on a trade with the Indians with- 
out authorized title to any land, becoming 
uneasy at the ominous rumors of Eng- 
lish settlers, were now garrisoned in a 
rude earth-work with two guns. The 
command to stop under penalty of fire 
was disregarded by the plucky captain. He 
bade them ' ' fire away, ' ' and pushed up the 
river to what is now the town of Wind- 
sor, where the English flag soon flaunted 
an ineradicable possession. After a few 
unavailing assaults made by the Dutch 
on the little garrison, the latter retreated 
to their post at Hartford, which they main- 
tained for about twenty years, cut off 
from Dutch assistance and hemmed in 
closer and closer by the ever increasing 
throng of English settlers. 

Early in their history, the colonies of 
Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay began 
to look about them for further worlds to 
explore, and the extravagant reports 
brought back from Connecticut increased 



( 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



163 



their restlessness. Various reasons were 
assigned for the desire for emigration : 
insufficient room in their present habita- 
tion; a wish to rescue Connecticut from 
the Dutch; and "the strong bent of their 
spirits to remove thither,." Probably 
this last reason veiled one of greater im- 
port. Dorchester, Watertown, and New^- 
town (now Cambridge) had for some time 
shown signs of chafing under the funda- 
mental policy of Massachusetts — the lim- 
itation of office-holders and restriction of 
franchise to church-members — and the 
September session of the Massachusetts 
General Court in 1643 was petitioned for 
' ' liberty to remove to Connecticut, ' ' Great 
was the consternation of the Court when 
this petition was presented. The worst 
poverty of the Massachusetts Bay col- 
ony, Cotton had stated, was the "poverty 
of men, ' ' and there was reason for alarm 
should its slender numbers be depleted. 
During 1634-35, while this petition was 
causing lively discussion, a few discon- 
tented men broke away and began a crude 
settlement in Wethersfield ; and in Octo- 
ber of the following year, a company to 
the number of sixty decided to cast their 
lot in the wilds of Connecticut. 

It was a quaint caravan that started on 
that overland march ; educated men and 
delicate women and children. As they 
journeyed through the forests with their 
wagons, cattle, and swine, possibly they 
trod some future highway and biv- 
ouacked where the express for Chi- 
cago now waits on the first track. Hav- 
ing started late in the season, an early 
winter served bitterly to increase the suf- 
fering of these staunch pioneers. By the 
middle of November the Connecticut river 
was so completely blocked by ice that the 
settlers in despair gave up looking for the 
vessel which was to bring them their 
only sustenance for the winter ; and, ex- 
haus^ied by the tedious march, with fam- 
ine staring them in the face, strong men 
were unnerved, and some from the set- 
tlement beat a retreat to Massachusetts. 

The advancing winter dealt harshly 
with those men and women who so in- 
domitably held the settlement. Their 
loneliness was intense, the cold was fierce, 
and there was no food. Unable to secure 



any game, as a last resource they dug nuts 
and acorns from beneath the snow. Thus, 
on the foundation stones of trial, endur- 
ance, and courage was reared the com- 
monwealth of Connecticut. It was during 
this same year, that the patentees of 
the Say-and-Sele and Brooke association 
in England, began to think their interests 
in America had best be guarded, and John 
Winthrop, son of the distinguished gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, was sent over with 
a commission to begin a settlement, and 
erect a large fort at the mouth of the Con- 
necticut river. 

The one whose dominant personality 
made itself most felt during the discus- 
sion regarding immigration from Massa- 
chusetts to Connecticut, was Rev. Thomas 
Hooker, a man distinguished for his dem - 
ocratic spirit, learning, and eloquence. 
A graduate from Cambridge University, 
England, he had been already silenced for 
non-co7iformity, though against the pro- 
test of forty-seven ministers. In 1633 
Hooker, accompanied by Samuel Stone, 
came to Newtown (Cambridge), Massa- 
chusetts, where he became the leader in 
matters both ecclesiastical and political. 
But even in this new country to which 
people were escaping for the very pur- 
pose of progressive thought, the barnacles 
of conservatism still clung. Thomas 
Hooker believed in a government "by the 
people, for the people," in which he found 
scant sympathy among his colleagues. 
Cotton declared "that democracy was no 
fit government either for church or com- 
monwealth," and Winthrop pleaded the 
limitation of the suffrage on the princi- 
ple that "the best part is always 
the least, and of that best part 
the wiser part is always the lesser." 
This controversy made Hooker more de- 
sirous of moving further away from old re- 
strictions where his ideas of a demo- 
cratic government might find broader 
scope, and in June of 1636 he led practi- 
cally all of his congregation overland to 
Connecticut. They numbered one hun- 
dred or over, and one hundred and sixty 
head of cattle. Without guides or roads 
this company began the rough march 
which led over mountains, across uu- 
bridged streams, through swamps, and 



1 64 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



woods dense and almost impassable. Mrs. 
Hooker being too ill to walk was carried 
on a litter. The people carried part of 
thBir baggage, and drank the milk from 
their cows. 

But it was summer — and what a welcome 
does Connecticut extend to the wayfarer 
in June ! The river that had presented 
such a forbidding aspect to the pioneers 
of a few months previous, now lay gently 
shimmering under a blue sky, while 
graceful elms and stately oaks spread em- 
bracing branches over stretches of green 
meadow. Here and there the smoke rose 
dreamily from Indian wigwams ; and 
the rude cabins of the survivors of that 
stern winter, told of habitation and of 
friends. We like to think of those found- 
ers of a commonwealth, who, having defied 
starvation, could now greet old friends, 
and while viewing the surrounding fields 
that gave promise of abundant harvest, 
could now draw broad plans for the fu- 
ture. Hope spread her fair wings, and 
Fear, in guise of abandoning Connecticut, 
drooped and hid her head forever ! 

It was but a few years later that Hook- 
er preached a sermon of power and elo- 
quence, in which he maintained that au- 
thority belonged not to those of high de- 
gree, but in the free consent of the 
people by God's own allowance." Pro- 
fessor Fiske points to the fact that when 
the freemen met to adopt a constitution 
in which the principles of Hooker are 
clearly apparent, there was no allu- 
sion to "dreaded sovereign" or 'gracious 
king;" no reference to the British, or 
any government outside of Connecticut ; 
nor did it 'prescribe any condition of 
church membership for the right of suf- 
frage." Here was the first written con- 
stitution known to history ; and one that 
created a government, of which the gov- 
ernment of the United States is a lineal 
descendant. Thus early did the young 
colony fling out her first banner for lib- 
erty, which has never been lowered, 
though the vicissitudes of succeeding 
years have beaten fast about its standard. 
It speaks well for those freemen in the en- 
vironment of a new land, who could thus 
form a government which today allures 
the straager from distant shores, and en- 



dures the strain of the heterogeneous mil- 
lions scattered from the Atlantic to th3 
Pacific coast. 

Shortly after the treaty of Connecticut 
with Uncas and Miantonomo was signed, 
terminating the bloody Pequot War, there 
arrived in Quinnipiac, the present site of 
the city of New Haven, a company from 
England under charge of Theophilus 
Eaton. They ordained that their gov- 
ernment and life should be in strict ac- 
cord with the Scripture, and the first 
Sabbath in their new home found them 
holding religious services under the 
branches of an ample oak. Their dis- 
tinguished pastor, the Rev. John Daven- 
port, preached, admonishing them of ap- 
proaching trials ; and his colleague, Mr. 
Prudden, discoursed from the text, "The 
voice of one crying in the wilderness. 
Prepare ye the way of the Lord." The 
power of the clergy attained its greatest 
strength in New Haven, and the laws of 
conduct were so sharply defined as to give 
a semblance of foundation for the legend- 
ary Blue Laws — the stories of a Tory 
refugee in London, who delighted in fan- 
tastic exaggeration. 

The following years reveal steady de- 
velopment in both Connecticut and New 
Haven colonies though both were contin- 
ually harrassed by the governors of New 
Netherlands. The latter were tenacious 
of the claim of Holland to the Connecti- 
cut valley maintaining that the Dutch 
had first explored the country and carried 
on trade with the Indians. In the mean- 
time Colonel and Lady Fenwick in charge 
of the fort at Saybrook had waited in 
vain to see rise the flourishing commer- 
cial city, the vision of which they had 
had when they crossed the water and 
which they had expected ere long to see 
materialize. Leaders in the English rev- 
olution had planned to make this spot 
their future home if driven from their 
own land ; but questions had arisen in 
England calculated to erase all thought 
of this little refuge across the sea; so, 
instead of stately mansions and crowded 
quays, the waves lapped the beach near 
the lone fort, and Fenwick and his fair 
lady were sorrowfully isolated. 

It would be interesting if we might 



I 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



165 



get a more complete view of the every- 
day life of the people of these different 
settlements ; their individual hopes and 
disappointments ; joys and sorrows which 
cluster so essentially the same around all 
human life, and weave the romantic 
truth so often stranger than fiction. To 
appreciate the full significance of this ex- 
istence, we must picture to ourselves a 
new country shorn of every convenience 
that tends to make life comfortable today ; 
shut off from the world except by most la- 
borious travel, where steam engine, tele- 
graph and postal service had yet to be ; 
and, where after the snows of a New Eng- 
land winter had settled in impassable 
depths on Connecticut's hills and val- 
leys, there was an isolation akin to a sep- 
arate hemisphere. We must feel, in imag- 
ination, the severity of the cold in the 
houses, which an open fire could not sub- 
due ; where water froze in the pitchers, 
and the thickly frosted window-panes shut 
off all outlook; and where the crudity 
of medical and surgical knowledge left 
pain uneased or met it with harsh treat- 
ment, and over all that grim vein of earn- 
estness was cast which gave slender allow- 
ance for pleasure in any designated form of 
amusement. 

The essential foundation of the colony 
was religion and education. It was a law 
"not to suffer so much barbarism in any 
family as to have a single child or ap- 
prentice unable to read the holy word of 
God, and the good laws of the colony." 
And on the Sabbath the entire community, 
at the beat of the drum, made their way 
to the rude meeting-house, where they sat 
on hard benches, while an armed garrison 
at the door kept guard against Indians. 
In the bitterest cold, with heated stones 
in their hands, and bags drawn over their 
feet, the preacher protected with muffler 
and mittens, they were led through a the- 
ological maze unto the "sixthly" and 
* ' seventhly. ' ' Hartford's meeting-house 
alone was the proud possessor of a bell, 
brought from Cambridge, the only public 
bell on the continent, with the exception 
of one at Jamestown, Ya. Later it 
was recast to make part of the bell 
belonging to the First Congregational 
Church, Hartford, and in its ring must 



still reverberate the tone that first sound- 
ed on the shores of a new continent, and 
through the years has so persistenth' called 
men to worship and to prayer. 

In a community where equality was 
upheld, it is amusing to read that "one of 
the most difficult and delicate functions 
of a church committee in Connecticut 
and New Haven was the seating of the 
congregation." The allotment of pews 
indicated social prominence and was 
sometimes determined by a majority vote 
at a town meeting. There are not infre- 
quent records of permissions to success- 
ful men to sit "in the Justice's pew" or 
in the "cross pew by the second 
pillar," equally distinguished places be- 
ing reserved for the wives on their 
proper side of the house. The people were 
not expected to be designated by any title, 
the appellation, "Mister," being rare 
instead of universal, but those owning 
landed estates in England were privi- 
leged to write "Esquire" to their names, 
and young gentlemen at college were hon- 
ored by the address of "Sir". Ministers 
were looked upon with awe and venera- 
tion as being scarcely of this earth, and 
accosted with great respect as Mr. Pastor 
or Elder. Gradually those who had at- 
tained some desirable position were ad- 
dressed as Goodman and Good wife, so 
surreptitiously did society distinctions 
creep into the new colony. The church, 
school, general store, and blacksmith's 
shop constituted the centre of the village 
community, and when in the short winter 
days the shadow of the sun-dial stretched 
its full length, families grouped them- 
selves in the great kitchens of their 
homes, where the flames in the capacious 
fireplace leapt fondly round iron crane 
and kettle, and the pewter porringers 
glistened down from their high shelves. 
Here common interests pulsated, chil- 
dren j^layed and cracked nuts, the spin- 
ning-wheel whirled, and while conversa- 
tion waxed keen and the mirth of youths 
and maidens resounded along the black 
rafters, Pleasure, in dutiful disguise, 
brooded gently over all. 

The colonists had been watching with 
eager interest the stormy revolution in 
England, they were aware that Cromwell 



% 



166 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



-entertained friendly regard for them and 
felt secure under his protection. But 
early in 1660 occurred Monk's march to 
London^ On the twenty-fifth of April 
Charles landed in Dover, and in July the 
momentous news reached Boston. Aware 
that with the restoration of Charles II., 
a king was again on tho throne, Connect- 
icut hastened to acknowledge the royal 
authority; and, uneasy regarding their 
claim to a vague and shadowy patent, 
leading citizens thought safety lay only 
in obtaining a charter from the king of 
England. They were fortunate in the 
choice of a representative, John Winthrop, 
governor of the colony. Historians have 
been lavish in their praise of the younger 
Winthrop a man of winning address and 
wide culture, with great beauty of char- 
acter. Perhaps the best testimony is in 
the words of his own father. ' ' God gave 
him favor in the eyes of all with whom he 
had to do." Winthrop at once set sail 
and arrived in England in the summer of 
1661, where his polished bearing admitted 
him to influential society. He bore with 
him a petition and address to the king. 
His instructions were to consult with 
Lords Say-and-Sele, Brook, and other of 
the original patentees, to obtain if possi- 
ble a copy of the old patent, otherwise to 
endeavor to procure a new one with ex- 
tended boundaries. No mention is made 
of New Haven, but Connecticut had al- 
ready given evidence that she considered 
New Haven to have encroached somewhat 
on her possessions. 

The address to the king which had given 
the united intellects of the colonists 
much labor to construct, was couched in 
language of prostrate humiliation and 
loyal devotion. There was much of the 
diplomat under the rugged exterior of the 
Connecticut pioneer. The address opens 
with a lament that the colonists are sep- 
arated by so va*t an ocean, from the im- 
mediate influence and splendor of so great 
a monarch, in the princely palace of his 
renowned imperial city, the glory of the 
whole earth ; that in their wilderness 
home they could only bewail the unhappy 
troubles and wars in England with sighs 
and mournful tears ; and that they had 
been hiding themselves behind the moun- 
tains in that desolate desert as a people 
forsaken ; choosing rather to sit solitary, 



and wait upon Divine Providence for 
protection than to apply to any of the 
illegal governments v/hich had arisen. ; 
They besought his majesty — the beams of 
whose sovereignty had not only filled the 
world's hemisphere, but had appeared 
over the great deeps in the New England 
horizon, "to accept this colony, your own 
colony, a little branch of your mighty 
hemisphere. " Winthrop pleaded his cause 
with tact and courtesy, a pretty illustra- 
tion of this being shown in his present- 
ing to Charles at their first meeting, a 
ring formerly given to Winthrop 's grand- 
father by Charles I. The little colony 
found favor in the eyes of the king, and 
there was presented to the Puritan com- 
monwealth, a charter of surprising lib- 
erality, containing no power of reprisal 
and a magnitude of territory stretching 
from Narragansett Bay to the Pacific 
Ocean, a charterless colony of New Ha- 
ven being wholly swallowed within these 
limits. 

Why Charles should have granted so 
unrestricted a charter has always given 
cause for comment and surprise. Many 
have considered the act that of a monarch 
readily susceptible to the whim of a 
moment and the wishes of his friends. 
But in the complete absorption of New 
Haven others claim to see a deeper reason. 
Against the colony of New Haven the 
king already had a private spite, for 
there two of the regicides who condemned 
his father had been for a long time har- 
bored. Manifold are stories of the 
hazardous escapes of Whalley and Goffe 
after the royal edict for their arrest had 
compelled them to fly from Boston, and 
we can but admire the bravery of staunch 
John Davenport, who, while the oflicers 
were hotly pursuing, boldly raised his 
voice in the text, "Make thy shadow as 
the night in the midst of the noonday ; 
hide the outcasts, bewray not him that 
wandereth. ' ' 

New Haven had also been tardy in rec- 
ognizing the restoration of Charles IL 
Moreover, the king looked with suspic- 
ious eyes upon Massachusetts as threat- 
ening to become troublesome, and it 
seemed a favorable opportunity to hamper 
this colony by creating a rival in Con- 
necticut and by suppressing New Haven 
whose policy was in accord with that of 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



167 



Massachusetts. 

Ill October, 1662, Connecticut trium- 
phantly blazoned its charter by a public 
reading in the presence of the freemen, 
and Hartford was declared the capitol. 
New Haven could only appoint a day of 
fasting and prayer for guidance "in this 
weighty business about joining the Con- 
necticut colony." But a new exigency 
arose when Charles made that grant of 
territory to his brother, the Duke of York 
which included both New Haven and 
Hartford. The charter of Connecticut 
offered the only protection. Here was 
a choice of evils. Much as New Haven 
disliked Connecticut, the direct rule of a 
duke whom they detested was more ab- 
horrent. A general meeting was called, 
recommending submission, and midst 
much confusion the commonwealth of 
New Haven was merged in that of Con- 
necticut. The aged Davenport "dis- 
dained the Christless rule" of the neigh- 
boring colony and mourned bitterly over 
the destruction of his life work. Rut 
the scythe of the inevitable cuts a wide 
swath through many a hope and ambi- 
tion. 

For some years the colonies developed in 
comparative quiet, disturbed chiefly by 
boundary disputes and by King Philip's 
War. The domain of magnificent dis- 
tances which the charter had so ignorantly 
defined was causing endless contradiction. 
Rufus Choate gives the following de- 
scription: "The commissioners might as 
well have decided that the line between 
the States was bounded on the north by 
a bramble bush, on the south by a blue 
jay, on the west by a hive of bees in 
swarming time, and on the east by five 
hundred foxes with firebrands tied to 
their tails." 

Connecticut was not to be left long un- 
molested of her civil rights, The easy- 
going Charles had put his signature to 
other documents as readily as to that of 
the colony's charter, thereby signing 
away what he had previously bestowed. 
With the accession of James H., Con- 
necticut with customary alacrity hastened 
to appoint a representative, Mr. Whiting, 
to again express loyalty to England's king 
and beg the extension of past favors. 
Scarcely had this petition been drawn 
when Edward Eandolph, agent of the 



English Lords of Trade, and slanderer 
of the colonies, appeared in person at 
Hartford requesting the surrender of the 
charter. Immediately following this de- 
mand came a second from the newly com- 
missioned governor-general of New Eng- 
land, Sir Edmund Andros. Some years 
earlier Andros had laid claim to the 
country west of the Connecticut river by 
right of the Duke of York's patent, and 
had one day anchored at Saybrook under 
pretence of bringing protection against 
the Indians. As Connecticut rather 
preferred the Indians to Sir Andros, his 
efforts to read his papers of authority 
met an effectual rebuff from lusty Cap- 
tain Bull. The imperious demand for 
Connecticut's charter caused the hori- 
zon to look dark, but it was not the first 
storm the valiant colony had weathered. 
Again the General Court convened, and 
in a letter addressed to the English sec- 
retary of state, humbly plead the continu- 
ance of their privileges. For the first time 
a quiver of uncertainty is detected, when 
they ask, if the request is denied, to be 
annexed to Massachusetts. This Sir Ed- 
mund chose to consider as practical sur- 
render, and with characteristic bravado 
came to Hartford the last day of October, 
1687, accompanied by his troop of sixty 
officers and soldiers. 

Little did he know the spirit of the men 
with whom he had to deal. Liberty and 
home had been bought with too dear a 
price to be easily relinquished ; those 
men, whose fathers had braved famine 
and peril, were not the ones to allow the 
bequest of independence to be wrested 
without a struggle. With deference, 
courage and tact, they braced themselves 
for the encounter. In the old Hartford 
meeting-house, the scene of many an eccle- 
siastical council, the assembly met, and 
with every outward mark of respect re- 
ceived Andros. The latter publicly de- 
manded the charter, declai-ing the colo- 
nial government dissolved. Then, tra- 
dition relates Governor Treat rose, and 
in earnest, powerful words denounced 
this action ; his eloquence swept on as a 
torrent as he told the pathetic story of Con- 
necticut's pioneers: their deprivations, 
sufferings, and efforts, dU for that free 
dom they held so precious. The after- 
noon waned and the shadows stretched a 



i68 



THE BIRTH OF A COMMONWEALTH. 



dim length across the room, while still 
the governor plead for that charter dear 
to them as life. We know the familiar 
story of how, after the candles were placed 
on the table, together with the box sup- 
posed to contain the charter, suddenly the 
lights were extinguished, while a hush 
fell upon the audience and the throng 
outside. When the candles were re- 
lighted the charter had disappeared, and 
could not be discovered after the most in- 
defatigable search. It has been supposed 
thatjthe blowing out of the candles was 
a strategy to allow Captain Joseph Wads- 
worth to seize the charter and make way 
with it, to a place of safety in the heart 
of the patriarchal "Charter Oak." Tra- 
dition further asserts that this tree was 
spared at the request of the Indians who 
said, "It has been the guide of our ances- 
tors for centuries as to the time of plant- 
ing our corn." So the old tree stood, 
a monitor of the seasons and signal re- 
minder of a heritage of freedom, for which 
Connecticut's children have ever been 
ready to live or die. 

The original charter, engrossed on three 
skins, now hangs in the secretary's office 
in Hartford, and what of the duplicate 
remains is in the library of the Connecti- 
cut Historical Society, placed there by 
Hon. John Boyd, a former secretary of 
this state. Before finding this distin- 
guished resting-place it appears to have 
had a precarious existence. Mr. Charles 
J. Hoadly, State Librarian, is authority 
for the following account of its preserva- 
tion : 

"In 1817, or 1818, while Mr. Boyd was 
preparing for college at the Hartford 
Grammar School, he boarded in the family 
of the Rev. Dr. Flint of the South Church. 
Coming in one day from school he noticed 
on the work-stand of Mrs. Bissell, the 
doctor's mother-in-law, a dingy piece of 
parchment, covered over on one side with 
black-lettered manuscript. In answer to 
his inquiries Mrs. Bissell told him, that, 
having occasion for some pasteboard, her 
friend and neighbor, Mrs. Wyllys, had 
sent her this. Mr. Boyd proposed to pro- 
cure her a piece of pasteboard in exchange 
for the parchment, to which Mrs. Bissell 
consented. It was not, however, until 
six or eight years had elapsed that Mr. 
Boyd examined the parchment with care 



when for the first time he learned what 
its contents were. ' ' 

It is a touching picture which pre- 
sents itself in the old Hartford meeting- 
house at the close of the session witJi An- 
dros. All that was possible had been done 
and Connecticut's magistrates bent before 
a conquering power. We can almost see 
Governor Treat gravely descend and him- 
self conduct Sir Edmund to the governor's 
chair, which so regretfully and painfully 
he resigned. We can almost feel the pulse 
of bitter hearts, as Sir Edmund rose and 
therewith declared his right, by commis- 
sion of his majesty to take on himself the 
government of Connecticut. We can al- 
most perceive the tottering of past efforts, 
the shattering of present energies and 
the burying of future aims as the secre- 
tary reluctantly and sorrowfully penned 
tne word. Finis, to Connecticut's Colonial 
Records. Happily we know the day was 
not far distant when these sturdy strug- 
glers would gain their well deserved re- 
ward ; and government under a charter 
intrepidly protected and never surren- 
dered, should be prosperously resumed. 

At first Connecticut's domain stretched 
across the continent. But circumstances 
drew close the limit of her borders, and ■ 
the map of the United States today barely ™ 
reveals her area ; but in the commonwealth 
of Connecticut dwelt a spirit that bounda- 
ries could not limit nor maps restrict — 
a spirit of government that pervades the 
nation, a spirit of patriotism undying and 
glorious. 

Looking one morning f.'om the hills 
near Hartford, in the distance the Genius 
of Conneoticut, which surmounts the Cap- 
itol's glistening dome, gradually disclosed 
herself: half shrouded in mist she ap- 
peared to bend as though to place the lau- 
rel wreath she held upon some worthy's 
brow, and in imagination those who long 
ago laid her invisible foundutions seemed 
kneeling to receive her homage ; the mist 
receded, and the phantom forms dissolved, 
yet the lofty figure stood with outstretched 
laurel, as if to say, "Not alone to one 
generation belong strife and honor, but 
with a perpetual wreath of victory does 
Connecticut crown every self-sacrifice, 
every earnest deed, and every noble tri- 
umph of all her sons and daughters. ' ' 




THE OLD STONE CHIMNEY. 



BY MARY E. AYEEILL. 

Like giant grim it over-towers the hill, 

Standing alone, a monument of days 

When those who now perchance walk foreign ways 

Were gathered in that home. Its walls until 

Short time ago were standing, though no sill 

A foot-hold sure afforded. Who now straj^s 

Beside this ruin, wonders in amaze 

That Time so mocks the workman's boasted skill. 

And when the moonlight on the cliimney falls 

'Tis ghostly : human life all turned one side. 

The only sound is wlien the swallow calls 

To helpless brood adown the cavern wide. 

Man's love departed, whither does he roam? 

The swallow dares and fiuds herself a honu\ 



169 



BIOGRAPHIES OF THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



BY FREDERIC CALVIN NORTON. 



{^Second Paper.) 




JONATHAN TRUMBULL. 

1769-1784. Fifteen Years. 

ONATHAN Trumbull, the first 
war governor of Connecticut, 
is preeminently known in his- 
tory as the brave patriot who 
presided over the destinies of 
his native state during its most 
critical period. His other brill- 
iant qualities fade away be- 
fore that magnificent patriotism which 
made Connecticut worship her noble son. 
He was born in the town of Lebanon on 
Oct. 12, 1710, and was the son of Joseph 
Trumbull, a well-to-do merchant and 
farmer who had moved to the little town 
ten years previous. At thirteen years of 
age Trumbull entered Harvard College 
and was graduated in the class of 1727. 
Early in life his family and friends dis- 
covered the young man's fine talents, and 
a professional life was planned for him. 
He studied theology, which was thor- 
oughly agreeable to his tastes, and in a few 
years was licensed to preach. His career 
in the ministry was brief, but it is pointed 
out by good authorities that if he had 
continued in the profession Jonathan 
Trumbull would have become, without 
doubt, a conspicuous figure in the church. 
His plans in life were changed abrupt- 
ly in 1731 when an older brother left his 
father's store in Lebanon and Trumbull 
resigned from the ministry to carry on the 
business. While attending to his duties 
in the store Trumbull studied law, and 
two years later, in 1733, was elected a 
member of the General Assembly, which 
marked the opening of his long public 
career. In this body he became such a 
leading spirit that in 1739 he was elected 
speaker and occupied the office with such 
success that during the following year he 
was chosen as assistant. TrambuU was 
re-elected to this position twenty-two 
times, and was looked upon as one of the 
soundest men in the colony He after- 
ward became judge of the County Court, 
an assistant judge of the Superior Court, 
and chief judge of the latter body from 
17G6 to 1769. In the year 1767 Trumbull 
was elected deputy-governor and held the 
office for a year, when he succeeded Wil- 



liam Pitkin as governor, upon the latter 's 
death in 1769. 

His utter abhorrence of the Stamp Act 
was abundantly demonstrated in 1765 
when he absolutely refused to take the 
oath required of every official to support 
the obnoxious act. Bancroft remarks con- 
cerning this period that Trumbull "was 
the model of the virtues of a rural magis- 
trate ; profoundly religious, grave in man- 
ner, discriminating in judgment, fixed 
in his principles." Professor Johnston 
says that for several years Trumbull had 
been at the head of the popular volunteer 
organization known as the "Sons of Lib- 
erty, ' ' which patrolled the country, "over- 
awed those who were inclined to support 
the British government, and making ready 
to resist the execution of the law. ' ' When 
Jared Ingersoll rode to Hartford from New 
Haven to put the Stamp Act into operation 
he found fully a thousand of these "Sons 
of Liberty" ready to resist to the last 
degree. 

When Trumbull became governor the 
people of Connecticut were convinced that 
in him the colony had found the man 
the people needed at that time. Before 
Trumbull doubt and hesitation fled in the 
twinkling of an eye. He threw his whole 
soul into the impending struggle, and 
while the war clouds were not as black 
in Connecticut as in the neighboring col- 
ony of Massachusetts where Trumbull's 
classmate, Hutchinson, was governor, yet 
the crisis called for a man in whom craven 
frailty was an unknown quantity. 

Trumbull, with many other worthy men, 
was committed to the idea that extreme 
measures in dealing with existing diffi- 
culties were unnecessary ; that it was 
neither wise nor expedient to separate 
from Great Britain, and he personally 
thought the troubles between the colo- 
nies and the mother country ought to be 
settled "by gentle and insensible methods 
rather than by power and force. ' ' 

His private opinions were quickly set 
aside, however, when the declaration of 
war came ; and from that time Trum- 
bull was laboring day and night for the 
cause for which the colonies were making 
such a sacrifice. 
A correspondence soon ensued between 



170 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



171 



Governor Trumbull and General George 
Washington. It gradually assumed a close 
personal cast, which was continued 
throughout and after the Revolution. 

In August, 1776, when Washington 
wrote Governor Trumbull concerning the 
weakness of the Continental army, the 
latter immediately called together the 
coancil of safety and supplemented the 
five Connecticut regiments already in the 
field by nine more, which proved to be of 
incalculable benefit to the cause. 

The governor's pertinent injunctions to 
those who had not left the fields for the 
war have come down to us ringing with 
his magnificent patriotism. He said : 
"Join yourselves to one of the companies 
now ordered to New York, or form your- 
selves into distinct companies and choose 
captains forthwith. March on ; this shall 
be your warrant : May the God of the 
Armies of Israel be your leader." It is 
no wonder such words as these inspired 
many a Connecticut farmer to leave the 
harvest fields unfinished, and begin the 
weary tramp to New York where they ar- 
rived in the nick of time. Washington 
wrote to Trumbull that he had "full con- 
fidence in his most ready assistance on 
every occasion, and that such measures as 
appear to you most likely to advance the 
public good, in this and every instance, 
will be most cheerfully adopted. ' ' 

Trumbull's advice to the great com- 
mander-in-chief, and the latter 's im- 
plicit confidence in the governor's un- 
commonly sound judgment, has been 
treated at length by historians. When 
Washington implored the governors of the 
New England States in 1781 to raise more 
men, Trumbull sent back word that he 
should have all he needed. Jared Sparks, 
the biographer of Trumbull, wrote that 
Washington relied on Connecticut's gov- 
ernor as one of his main pillars of sup- 
port, and often consulted him in emer- 
gencies. The epithet "Brother Jona- 
than," applied to Governor Trumbull, 
originated with Washington, who, accord- 
ing to an eminent writer, when perplexed 
or in an emergency uFed to exclaim, 
"Let us hear what Brother Jonathan 
says. ' ' 

Governor Trumbull was elected every 



year for fifteen consecutive years, and 
his term of office covered the whole Rev- 
olutionary period. When the war with 
Great Britain had reached an end Gov- 
ernor Trumbull, who had been in contin- 
uous public service for fifty-one years, 
asked the General Assembly to allow him 
to retire. His speech before that body 
in October, 1783, was a memorable one, 
and referring to his proposed retirement 
he said: "I have to request the favor of 
you, gentlemen, and through you of all 
freemen of the state, that after May next 
I may be excused from any further ser- 
vice in public life, and from this time I 
may no longer be considered as an object 
for your suffrages for any public employ- 
ment. The reasonableness of this request, 
I am persuaded, will be questioned by no 
one. The length of time I have devoted 
to their service, with my declining state 
of vigor and activity, will, I please my- 
self, form for me a sufficient and unfail- 
ing excuse with my fellow citizens. ' ' 

At the next election Governor Trum- 
bull was retired, and he never again en- 
tered public life. His services were rec- 
ognized by both Yale College and the 
University of Edinburgh, both of which 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws. Governor Trumbull 
died at his home in Lebanon in August, 
1785, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

During his life the governor made a 
large and valuable collection of historical 
papers and manuscripts which were pre- 
sented to the Massachusetts Historical 
Society after his death. He had four 
sons, Joseph, Jonathan, David and 
John. Joseph, born in 1737, was 
a member of the Continental Congress 
and commissary general in the Revolu- 
tionary War. He died at Lebanon in 
1778. Another son, Jonathan, born in 
1740, was a distinguished soldier and 
aide-de-camp to Washington. He was 
afterward governor of Connecticut. The 
family has been one of the most distin- 
guished in the history of this state. 
John Trumbull, another son was the 
renowned painter whose "Battle of 
Bunker Hill," and "Death of Mont- 
gomery" brought him unceasing fame. 
His nei)hew Joseph was a congressman 



172 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



and afterward governor of Connecticut. 
The family also includes John Trumbull, 
the poet and author of "McFingal" ; 
Rev. Benjamin Trumbull, author of the 
"History of Connecticut"; James Ham- 
mond Trumbull, the philologist ; Henry 
Clay Trumbull, the leader in Sunday 
School work ; ex-Senator Lyman Trumbull 
of Illinois, and Jonathan Trumbull, the 
prominent librarian of Norwich. 
MATTHEW GRISWOLD. 
1784-1786. Two Years. 

Matthew Griswold was born in the 
town of Lyme on March 25, 1714. His an- 
cestors were members of an old and repu- 
table family who had lived in that part 
of Connecticut for many years. Gris- 
wold 's education was about as meagre as 
it was possible to make it, and the state- 
ment is made on good authority that the 
governor never received any public in- 
struction whatever. The natural abil- 
ities of the young man attracted attention, 
and his remarkably mature judgment at a 
tender age was the wonder of those who 
knew him. When he had reached the age 
of twenty-five years he began the study of 
law. He never had an instructor or teach- 
er, but by very close and persistent applica- 
tion to the studies he soon acquired a 
sufficient knowledge of the law to gain 
prompt admission to the bar. Entering 
upon the practice of his profession, he 
became an indefatigable worker, and soon 
rose to the prominence of an advocate, 
which he always enjoyed afterward. 
Griswold was one of the most prominent 
lawyers of Connecticut for many years, 
and his reputation as an able, faithful, 
and conscientious advocate was probably 
never excelled by a man w^ho educated 
l-imself. 

His first public office was that of 
King's attorney, which he held for some 
years; but his public career really com- 
menced in 1751 when he was elected as a 
representative from Lyme to the General 
Assembly. He was returned every year 
until 1759, when he became a member of 
the council. In 1776 Griswold was cho- 
sen a judge of the Supreme Court, a 
position for which he was eminently 
adapted, as was demonstrated by his sub- 



sequent career on the bench. Three years 
later, in 1769, he was elected lieuten- 
ant governor of the colony and chief jus- 
tice of the state. 

Occupj^ing the office of lieutenant gov- 
ernor for fifteen years, covering the en- 
tire period of the Revolutionary War, 
and being in close touch with GDvernor 
Trumbull, it is doubtful if a better suc- 
cessor to the famous "war governor" 
could have been found. He succeeded 
Trumbull as governor in 1784 and held 
ihe office for two years In 1786, when 
lie ceased to be governor, Griswold pract- 
ically retired from public life. He only 
appeared in a public capacity once there- 
after, and this was in 1788, when he acted 
as president of the convention which 
met at Hartford in January of that year 
for the purpose of ratifying the Consti- 
tution of the United States. Yale con- 
ferred the degree of LL. D. on Governor 
Griswold in 1779, and his distinguished 
ability was abundantly recognized in va- 
rious ways. He died at his home in 
Lyme on April 28, 1799, in the eighty-fifth 
year of his age. One son, the Hon. Rog- 
er Griswold, was governor of Connecti- 
cut. 

An authority in commenting on the life 
and character of Governor Griswold 
writes as follows : 

"But if we descend to the more private 
walks of life, and view his character as 
a private citizen, we shall find the social 
sweetly blended with the Christian vir- 
tues. He possessed a benevolent dispo- 
sition which rendered his deportment 
truly engaging in all the domestic rela- 
tions. Having a frank and an open heart 
lie was sincere in all his professions of 
friendship, and consequently enjoyed the 
confidence and esteem of a numerous and 
extensive acquaintance. He was truly 
hospitable and abounded in acts of char- 
ity. The children of want he never sent 
hungry from his door, but, guided by a 
real sympathy, he fed the hungry, clothed 
the naked, and relieved the distressed." 
SAMUEL HUNTINGTON. 
1786-1796. Ten Years. 

In many ways the career of Samuel 
Huntington, a signer of the Declaration 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT, 



of Independence, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished of any of onr governors. The 
story of his life is how a humble plow- 
boy, purely by his own exertions, became 
a great lawyer, president of Congress, 
chief justice of the Connecticut Supreme 
Court, and finally governor of his native 
state. It affords a brilliant example of 
\5hat a man can do in attaining great 
honors through self-education. 

Samuel Huntington was the son of a 
poor farmer living in Windham, but 
whose ancestors were from the town of 
Saybrook, where they were early settlers. 
He was born on July 2, 1731, and his 
early life was characterized by industri- 
ous habits, a great desire to work, and 
to obtain knowledge. His father, a sim- 
ple farmer, had not the means to give 
Ids son the education he desired, but 
apprenticed him early in life to learn the 
coopers trade. He also worked on the 
farm at odd times, and attended the dis- 
trict school irregularly. All his youth- 
ful energies were bent in one direction, 
and that object was the advancement of 
of his mind. The numberless obstacles 
which present themselves to every poor 
boy were bravely brushed aside in his 
case. By unremitting study during his 
spare hours Huntington acquired a fairly 
good knowledge of Latin and several 
other studies, so that at the age of twenty- 
two he decided to study law. 

With only borrowed books and no in- 
structors whatever he set about the task 
^ ith a grim determination that meant 
success. He was indefatigable in his 
labor, and in due time mastered the law 
sufficiently, so that he commenced the 
practice of his chosen profession. Clients 
were plentiful, and he soon acquired so 
good a reputation that he decided to move 
to Norwich — a much larger field. This 
was in 1760, and his public career com- 
menced soon afterward ; for his uncom- 
mon ability was recognized at once, and 
honors heaped upon him. 

In 1764 he was elected a representative 
from the town of Norwich to the General 
Assembly, and the following year was 
chosen a member of the governor's coun- 
cil. As king's attorney in 1765 he served 
with distinction ; in 1774 he was appointed 



an associate judge of the Superior Court, 
and in 1775 a delegate from Connecticut 
to the Continental Congress. 

In Congress Huntington displayed his 
fine talents and his great learning to good 
effect. He was a zealous supporter and 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and a man whose loyalty and patriotism 
was of the most sturdy type. Continued 
in Congress for about five consecutive 
terms, Huntington was a valued member, 
highly esteemed by his colleagues. In 
1779 he was honored by being elected 
president of Congress, then the highest 
office in the land. He held this position 
from September 28, 1779, to July 6, 1781, 
succeeding John Jay who had been ap- 
pointed minister to Spain. In 1781 his 
health had failed to such an extent that 
he retired from Congress, and his resig- 
nation was accepted with reluctance on 
July 6th of that year. In parting he re- 
ceived the unanimous thanks of Congress 
''in testimony of appreciation of his con- 
duct in the chair, and in the execution of 
public business." 

Returning to Connecticut he resumed 
his duties in the governor's council and 
on the bench, he having been continued 
in both offices during his congressional 
career. Two years later he returned to 
Congress and soon became actively en- 
gaged in its deliberations. He again re- 
tired during the same year and went to 
Norwich ; but he was not destined to re- 
main out of office long, for in 1784 he 
received the appointment as chief justice 
of the Supreme Court. During the same 
year he was elected lieutenant-governor, 
and in 1786 was advanced to the office of 
governor. He held the position until his 
death, which occurred on Jan. 5, 1796, at 
his home in Norwich. As governor of his 
native state he displayed that superior 
judgment for which he was famous 
throughout his life. 

As an instance of the repute in which 
Governor Huntington was held as a states- 
man may be noted the fact that each of 
the corporations of Yale and Dartmouth 
colleges, in 1787 and 1785 respectively, 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws. A biographer has writ- 
ten : "He was a thoughtful man and 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



17 



talked but little — the expression of his 
mind and heart was put forth in his act- 
ions. He seemed to have a natural tim- 
idity, or modesty, which some mistook 
for the reserve of haughtiness ; yet with 
those with whom he was familiar he was 
free and winning in his manner. As a 
devoted Christian and a true patriot he 
never swerved from his duty, or looked 
back after he had placed his hand to the 
work." A nephew of the governor, 
adopted and educated by him, was gov- 
ernor of Ohio from 1808 to 1810, and one 
of the most prominent citizens of that 
state. 

OLIVER WOLOOTT. 

1796-1797. One Year. 

Oliver Wolcott the second member of 
that famous family to occupy the office of 
governor, was a distinguished soldier, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and a member of Congress. He was 
the son of Governor Roger Wolcott, and 
was born in Windsor on Nov. 26, 1726, 
Entering Yale College in 1743 he was 
graduated in the class of 1747. Almost 
immediately after graduation the young 
man entered the army, received a cap- 
tain's commission, and recruited a com- 
pany at once. Marching his men to 
the northern frontier he took an active 
part in the French and Indian War which 
was then raging. The following year, 1748, 
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was con- 
cluded, and as that put an end to further 
hostilities, Wolcott' s services were no 
longer needed, so he returned to Connecti- 
cut. 

As a proof of his great ability as a mil- 
itary officer may be instanced the fact 
that he left this state as a captain and 
returned a major general. He retired to 
private life at this time and began the 
study of medicine under the direction of 
Dr. Alexander Wolcott, a brother, and 
one of the celebrated practitioners of the 
day. Upon the completion of his studies 
Wolcott began to practise in Goshen, but 
soon received the appointment as sheriff 
of the recently organized Litchfield 
County. In 1774 he was elected a member 
of the Council and continued holding 
the office until 1786, notwithstanding the 



fact that he was, during the same period, 
a delegate to the Continental Congress, 
judge of the Litchfield County Court, and 
judge of probate for the district. He did 
excellent service also as a member of the 
commission on Indian affairs, appointed 
by the first Congress. Much of his time 
was devoted toward bringing about a 
satisfactory settlement between Pennsyl- 
vania and Connecticut oyer the Wyoming 
controversy. 

General Wolcott first took his seat in 
the Second Congress in January, 1776, and 
was in attendance throughout the famous 
debates over the Declaration of Indep<^nd- 
ence. During this critical period he dis- 
tinguished himself by upholding the cause 
of the colonies with a spirit of lofty pat- 
riotism. He signed the Declaration of 
Independence and then returned to Con- 
necticut, where his valuable services were 
needed in the field. The governor placed 
him in command of a detachment of Con- 
necticut militia embracing fourteen reg- 
iments raised for the defence of New 
York. He thoroughly organized these 
troops, divided them into brigades, and 
participated in the actions about New 
York ; but returned to his home in Litch- 
field after the battle of Long Island had 
been fought. In November of that year 
he resumed his seat in Congress and was 
with that body when in December, 1776, 
Congress fled to Baltimore from Phila- 
delphia on account of the occupation of 
the latter place by the British. 

Having raised several thousand re- 
cruits during the summer of 1777 General 
Wolcott reinforced General Putnam on 
Hudson's river, and rendered valuable as- 
sistance to the latter officer. During this 
period he was corresponding with leaders 
throughout the colonies on matters of 
military importance. In the fall he joined 
General HDratio Gates, in the northern 
department, and took an active part in 
the capture of Burgoyne's army in Octo- 
ber of that year. During these opera- 
tions General Wolcott was in command of 
a brigade. 

Returning to Congress, which was then 
assembled at York, Pa., Wolcott re- 
sumed his seat in that body and re- 
mained until Julv, 1778. 



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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 




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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



\77 



When General Tryon began his expedi- 
tion of plunder and devastation of Oon- 
necticiit to\^ns during the summer of 
1779 General Wolcott took command of 
a division of state militia and defended 
the southwestern coast in a successful 
manner. Fairfield and Norwalk v^ere 
laid in ashes, and other towns plundered 
in a barbarous manner, but the heroic 
work of General Wolcott 's command 
thwarted many plans of the British. 

In 1780 Wolcott was again elected a 
member of Congress, which office he held 
for the next four years, although he did 
not attend the sessions regularly. Dur- 
ing these years his time was divided, at- 
tending to civil and military affairs in 
Connecticut. He also acted as an Indian 
agent during a portion of this period. 

General Wolcott was one of the commis- 
sioners who settled terms of peace with 
the famous Six Nations, a tribe of Indi- 
ans who lived, in the western portion of 
N'ew York, and had spread terror and 
desolation among the white inhabitants 
for years. In 1786 General Wolcott was 
chosen lieutenant-governor of Connect- 
icut, and was re-elected to this office 
every year until 1796, when he was chosen 
governor of his native state. He served 
one year and was then re-elected, but did 
not complete the term, as he died while 
in office on Dec. 1, 1797, in the seventy- 
second year of his age. 

Governor Wolcott 's patriotism was of 
the highest type, and he was always 
looked upon by the leaders of the Revo- 
lution as a brave defender of the cause. 

In 1776 Governor Wolcott' s home in 
Litchfield was the scene of a famous epi- 
sode which has been rehearsed many 
times. "For a time one of the principal 
ornaments of lower New York was an 
equestrian statue of George III. This was 
cast in lead and stood on Bowling Green 
where it attracted much attention. Ex- 
actly one week after the adoption of the 
Declaration of Independence this statue 
of King George was taken down and car- 
ried by night to the home of General Wol- 
cott in Litchfield. Here a sort of celebra- 
tion was held and then the statue was 
cast into bullets, making 42,088 car- 
tridges, which were used by the Conti- 



nental soldiers. 

The historian of Litchfield pays this 
tribute to his public career: "He was 
singularly modest and even diffident in 
his intercourse with men in the common 
walks of life. Those who best knew this 
gentleman well new that the highest 
trust was never improperly placed in him. 
He possessed a benevolent heart and was 
warm in his friendship ; a firm friend to 
order ; a promoter of peace ; a lover of re- 
ligion ; and a tried, unshaken friend to 
the institution of the gospel. He was an 
indefatigable student, and neither wasted 
his time nor his words. His mind was 
clear and penetrating ; his views of po- 
litical subjects just and comprehensive ; 
his discernment of the wisest means to 
promote the best ends, ready and exa,ct ; 
and his acquaintance with science, partic- 
ularly with theology, extensive. He had 
a remarkable talent at investigation. He 
has left a name which is a sweet savor to 
his surviving friends ; and a lively hope 
that he is enjoying the rewards of the 
faithful in immortal bliss." 

Lossing says of Governor Wolcott: "As 
a patriot and statesman, a Christian and 
a man, Governor Wolcott presented a 
bright example ; for inflexibility, virtue, 
piety, and integrity were his prominent 
characteristics. 

A. son, Oliver Wolcott, Jr. , became sec- 
retary of the United States Treasury, and 
the first governor of Connecticut under the 
Constitution. 

JONATHAN TRUMBULL. 
1797-1809. Twelve Years. 

The second Jonathan Trumbull was one 
of the governors of this commonwealth 
that acquired a national reputation. Born 
at Lebanon, on March 26 1740, he was the 
second son of Jonathan Trumbull, the fa- 
mous "war governor." He prepared for 
and entered Harvard College in 1T55 at 
the age of fifteen years. While a college 
student be had a reputation for scholarly 
ability that followed him throughout his 
career. 

When he was graduated with honors in 
1759, a useful and patriotic career was pre- 
dicted by his friends. Settling in Leba- 
non, Trumbull was soon elected a mem- 



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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 




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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



79 



ber of the General Assembly, and was in 
that body when the Revolutionary War 
opened. He immediately entered into the 
conflict with the same strong spirit of 
determination which characterized his 
life afterward. The Continental Con- 
gress appointed Trumbull paymaster-gen- 
eral of the northern department of the 
colonial army under General Washing- 
ton. This position he filled with such 
thorough satisfaction to the commander- 
in-chief, that in 1781 Trumbull was se- 
lected to succeed Alexander Hamilton as 
private secretary and first aid to Major 
General Washington. He held this hon- 
orable position until the close of the Rev- 
olution, when he returned to Connecti- 
cut. Shortly after his return he was 
again elected to the General Assembly and 
was twice made speaker of the House of 
Representatives. In 1789 he was elected as 
a Federalist to represent his district in 
Congress, and in that capacity he won 
distinction of a high order. Two years 
after his first election to Congress Trum- 
bull was chosen the second speaker of the 
House of Representatives, succeeding the 
Honorable F. A. Muhlenberg of Pennsyl- 
vania. Trumbull continued in this office 
four years when he succeeded the Honor- 
able Stephen Mix Mitchell of Wethers- 
field as United States Senator from Con- 
necticut. 

He was a member of the Senate only a 
short time as he resigned in 1796 to ac- 
cept the office of lieutenant-governor of 
Connecticut. 

Trumbull left a reputation in Congress 
as an honorable and talented legislator. 
He was lieutenant-governor two years and 
in 1798 succeeded General Wolcott as gov- 
ernor of Connecticut. Governoi Trumbull 
was also chief judge of the Supreme Court 
of Errors, while holding the office of gov- 
ernor. He was governor of Connecticut 
for eleven consecutive years, the longest 
term since his father's administration — 
a record that has not been equalled by any 
chief executive since that date. 

Governor Trumbull died at his home in 
Lebanon on August 7, 1809, having 
reached the age of 69 years. In Dr. Stan- 
ley Grisw old's "Miscellaneous Sermons" 
is this tribute to Governor Trumbull's 



accomplishments: "Genius, docility, 
and love of learning appeared in early 
years. At fifteen admitted to Harvard, 
receiving its honors in 1759, he left the 
University with his character unblem- 
ished, respectable for science, and pecul- 
iarly amiable in manners." 

Another writer says of him: "Gov- 
ernor Trumbull was a man of handsome 
talents, of very respectable acquirements, 
of amiable manner, and was distinguished 
for his social virtues. The confidence of 
his fellow citizens, which he so long en- 
joyed in a very eminent degree, affords 
the most satisfactory evidence of his tal- 
ents and virtues. ' ' 

JOHN TREADWELL. 

1809-1811. One Year, Nine Months. 

John Tread well was the last of the Pu- 
ritan governors of Connecticut, and in him 
we see blended for the last time the the- 
ologian and statesman. He was born at 
Farmington, Nov. 23, 1745, and lived there 
all his life. His father was a well-to-do 
mechanic, and a stern Puritan, who told 
his son when he had reached the age of 
sixteen that he could have one week in 
which to decide whether he would receive 
a college education. The future governor 
accepted the offer before the week had ex- 
pired, and Rev. Timothy Pitkin, a son 
of Governor Pitkin, set about preparing 
the young man for college. In 1763, at the 
age of eighteen, Treadwell entered Yale 
where he gave particular attention to the 
classics. It is said that John Locke's 
"Essay on the Human Understanding," 
and Jonathan Edward's "Inquiry Into the 
Freedom of the Will," wera his favorite 
works. He was graduated from Yale in 
the class of 1767, and being heir to a con- 
siderable fortune he rejected the idea of 
pursuing a professional career, although 
he studied law with Judge Hosmer of Mid- 
dletown. Soon after, Treadwell engaged 
in a mercantile business, hoping to in- 
crease his income, but the result was an 
embarrassing failure. 

He began the manufacture of nitre 
later on, however, and extricated himself 
from the financial loss he had previously 
sustained. 

During the Revolutionary period Tread- 



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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 




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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



i8i 



well engaged all his energies in the strug- 
gle for freedom. In 1774 and 1775 he was 
active as a member of the "Committee of 
Inspection and Correspondence" and in 
1776 his townsmen elected him as their 
representative in the General A^ssembly. 
This office he held for the next seven 
years, when, in 1783, he was elevated to 
the governor's council. He continued as 
a member of this body by successive 
election until 1798. Tteadwell was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress in 1785 
and 1786. In 1789 he was elected judge of 
probate of the Farmington district and 
also a judge of the Supreme Court of 
Errors. These offices he held until 1809, 
and he was afterward a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for several years. 
He was elected lieutenant-governor in 
1798 and continued in this office until 
1809, when he succeeded Trumbull as gov- 
ernor. Governor Treadwell held the of- 
fice almost two. years. 

In 1795 Governor Treadwell took an im- 
portant part in negotiating the sale of 
lands in Ohio the proceeds of which con- 
stituted the Connecticut School Fund. 
He was one of the delegates to the con 
vention at Hartford that ratified the Con- 
stitution of the United States in 1788. 

Thirty years later Governor Tread- 
well was also an important member 
of the convention which formed our pres- 
ent constitution. In 1800 Yale College 
conferred on him the degree of LL. D. 

Retiring from public life in 1811 Gov- 
Treadwell spent a large portion of his 
time in writing on religious subjects. 
He was attentive to the scriptures from 
his youth up, and was assisted in the ac- 
quisition of religious knowledge by the 
study of the New Testament in the orig- 
inal Greek. The outcome was a series of 
essays on theological subjects, which are 
preserved, but were never published. 
Governor Treadwell was active in found- 
ing the "Connecticut Missionary Socie- 
ty." the first organization of its kind in 
North America. 

He died at his home in Farmington on 
August 12, 1833. His death was a serious 
loss to the people of Farmington. Rev. 
Dr. Noah Porter, pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in Farmington, preached 



the governor's funeral sermon. Among 
other things he said, "He was never sus- 
pected of partiality, duplicity, or a tinie- 
serving policy. He was known to act 
uprightly, and with a sincere desire to 
promote the public good. Probably no 
man was better acquainted with the in- 
ternal policy of the state. And it is a 
singular proof of his fidelity, if not his 
disinterestedness, that after this long and 
arduous course of public service he had 
only about the same amount of property 
that he had possessed when he began it. 
The emoluments of all his offices, to- 
gether with the income of his farm, but 
little exceeded the expenses of his fam- 

Professor Olmstead writing of his abil- 
ity as a scholar says : "It may be safely 
asserted that few, if any, of our chief 
magistrates have retained more fully the 
acquisition of their youth, or distin- 
guished the latter periods of life by more 
solid learning. What was his compara- 
tive ability or usefulness, as a theologian 
or as a magistrate and civilian, it would 
be difficult to decide. This is much more 
evident, that few men have combined in 
themselves in so eminent a degree the 
most important qualifications for all three 
and that in him they reflected on each 
other a lustre, and together formed an 
excellence of character such as we are 
not often in this world to behold. ' ' 

ROGER GRISWOLD. 

1811-1812. One Year, Five Months. 

The second Governor Griswold was de- 
scended from two governors of Conuect- 
cut, h3 being a son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and grandson of Roger Wolcott. He 
inherited many of the distinguished traits 
of his able ancestors. 

Roger Griswold was born in Lyme on 
May 21, 1762, and entered Yale College 
at the age of fourteen. He was graduated 
in 1780, and immediately began the study 
of law in his father's office. In 17S3 Gris- 
wold was admitted to the bar and com- 
menced his brilliant career in the town 
of Norwich. Great success was his from 
the first, and few men in this state has^e 
ever acquired a greater reputation at the 
bar than Roger Griswold. He returned 



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GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



to liis native town of Lyme in 1794 and 
was elected as a Federalist to represent 
his district in the national House of Rep- 
resentatives. He was re-elected five con- 
secutive times, serving from 1795 to 
1805. During the time he served as a 
congressman his ability and profound 
judgment placed him in the front ranks. 
The period covered a portion of Wash- 
ington's administration, the whole of 
John Adams's, and a part of Jefferson's. 
He ranked with the first of his party, was 
distinguished "for his powerful talents 
in debate, and the independence and de- 
cision of his conduct. ' ' 

In 1798 Griswold had a "violent per- 
sonal encounter" with Matthew Lyon, the 
famous Vermont politician. Lyon ap- 
peared to be the aggressor, although an 
attempt to expel him from the House was 
unsuccessful. In 1801 President Adams 
offered Griswold the position of Secre- 
tary of War in his cabinet, but he de- 
clined the office, having previously re- 
quested the President to withdraw the 
nomination. 

Returning to Connecticut, Griswold was 
in 1807 chosen a judge of the Supreme 
Court, and remained on the bench two 
years, when the Legislature elected him 
lieutenant-governor. 

The same year, 1809, he was also a pres- 
idential elector on the Pinckney and King 
ticket. Harvard College honored him in 
1811 by conferring the degree of LL. D., 
and Yale followed in 1812 with the same 
degree. 

Griswold served as lieutenant-governor 
two years, when in 1811 he was elected 
governor of Connecticut. During his ad- 
ministration the President made a requi- 
sition on Connecticut for four companies 
of troops for garrison duty, but Governor 
Griswold refused to furnish them on the 
ground that they were not needed to "re- 
pel invasion." Governor Griswold had 
been in office nearly a year and a half 
when he died on Sunday, Oct. 25, 1812. 
Taken away in the prime of life, his 
death was generally lamented. The 
Honorable David Daggett delivered an el- 
oquent eulogy upon his character before 
both Houses of the Legislature at New 
Haven. 



Leading public men of the time agreed 
that Governor Griswold had few equals 
in his day. One writer says: "He was 
regarded as one of the foremost men in the 
nation in talents, political knowledge, 
eloquence, and legal ability." The late 
Chief Justice Waite wrote of him, "In 
all positions he proved himself a born 
master of men. ' A writer in the New 
England Review said: "Few have been 
more universally esteemed and loved. 
He lived in a critical and eventful period 
of our existence ; and pre-eminently acted 
well his part, deserving and receiving the 
highest honors his native state could be- 
stow upon him." 

In personal appearance Governor Gris- 
wold was "a very handsome man, with 
large flashing eyes, a commanding figure, 
and majestic mien — he seemed by out- 
ward presence born to rule." 

Of his executive ability it has been said 
that "the secret of his power lay in the 
wonderful promptness of his mind, which 
penetrated every subject presented to it 
and saw it clearly in all its connections. ' ' 

The following is on the family monu- 
ment near Black Hall : 

" He was respected in the university as 
an elegant classical scholar. Quick dis- 
cernment, sound reasoning, legal science, 
manly eloquence, raised him to the first 
eminence at the bar. Distinguished in 
the national council among the illustri- 
ous statesmen of his age -revered for his 
inflexble integrity^and pre-eminent talent?, 
his political course was highly honora- 
ble His fame and honor were 

the first rewards of noble action, and of 

a life devoted to his country His 

memory is embalmed in the hearts of sur- 
viving relatives and of a grateful peo- 
ple. When this monument shall have de- 
cayed his name will be enrolled with 
honor among the great, the wise, and the 
good." 

JOHN COTTON SMITH. 
1812-1817. Four Years, Seven Months. 

The last governor of the old regime 
was John Cotton Smith. It has been said 
that he exhibited many of the striking 
traits of the founders of this republic. 

He was born in Sharon on Feb. 12, 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT. 



183 



1765, and was the son of a clergyman of 
considerable power. His mother was the 
daughter of Rev. William Worthington of 
Saybrook. Governor Smith inherited the 
blood of those famous Massachusetts di- 
vines — John Cotton and Richard Mather. 
The home where John Cotton was reared 
was a typical New England household 
where the law of God was uppermost. 

His early education was conducted by 
his talented mother ; then he prepared for 
Yale College under the direction of Rev. 
Mr. Brinsmade of Washington. Entering 
college in 1779 at the age of fourteen, he 
was graduated with honor in 1783. Im- 
mediately after leaving Yale, Smith en- 
tered the office of John Canfield, an attor- 
ney of Sharon, and commenced the study 
of the law. In 1787 he was admitted to 
the bar of Litchfield County. When the 
young man commenced to practice he 
found himself in the midst of the best 
legal talent of. the state, as the Litch- 
field County Bar was then famous for its 
brilliant array of able lawyers. 

Success attended his efforts for advance- 
ment, and in 1793 he was elected a rep- 
resentative from his native town. He 
also served as a member of the House of 
Representatives from 1796 to 1800. In Oc- 
tober, 1799, Smith was chosen clerk, and 
during both sessions of the following year 
he occupied the speaker's chair. 

During his term of service Smith was a 
strong supporter of the old Federal party, 
and through the stormy period from then 
to 1818 he steadfastly opposed the increas- 
ing demand for a new constitution. 

Elected as a member of Congress in the 
fall of 1800 he represented his district in 
the House of Representatives until 1806. 
While in Congress he was widely known 
as an accomplished scholar and a man of 
sound judgment. He was often called 
upon to preside at critical times when 
such statesmen as Pinckney, John Ran- 
dolph, Otis, Lee, and Griswold were at 
the height of their fame. Smith re- 
signed his seat in Congress in 1806 in or- 
der "that he might the better admin- 
ister to the comfort of an aged father." 
Returning to Sharon he took charge of 
the ancestral farm, at the same time en- 
gaging in literary pursuits, which his 



early training and hereditary tastes made 
very congenial. His townsmen soon re- 
turned him to the Legislature where he 
was made speaker of the House, represent- 
ing the town in that body until 1809. In 
that year Smith was chosen judge of the 
Superior Court, and his opinions were, 
to quote Hollister, "among the best in 
our reports, and are distinguished for 
their clearness of thought and finish of 
diction." 

In 1809 he was elected lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of the state, holding the office one 
year and seven months. During a large 
portion of the time that he held this office 
Governor Griswold was ill and unable to 
attend to the duties of state. The respon- 
sibilities of the chief executive at a criti- 
cal juncture, fell upon the shoulders of 
Lieutenant-Governor Smith. 

Governor Griswold died in 1813, and the 
same year John Cotton Smith was elected 
to take his place. He was governor of the 
state for over four years, during a period 
that the commonwealth was convulsed by 
the strained relations existing bet^veen 
the two dominant political parties — the 
Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Gov- 
ernor Smith was not in favor of chang- 
ing the old form of government for a new 
one, so when his party was defeated in 
1817, and Wolcott, the Anti-Federalist 
champion, elected governor, he retired 
from the political arena. Settling once 
more on his farm of over a thousand 
acres, at the age of fifty-two years. Gov- 
ernor Smith passed the remaining twenty- 
eight years of his life. 

Many, honors came to him in his re- 
tirement : Yale College conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Laws, the 
American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions elected him its presi 
dent in 1826 ; he was the first president of 
the Connecticut Bible Society, and in 
1836 the Royal College of Northern An- 
tiquarians of Copenhagen elected him a 
member of that body. Governor Smith 
was also an active member of both the 
Massiichusetts and Connecticut Historical 
Societies. 

"Dividing his time," says a writer, 
"between the scholastic studies that had 
coupled so large a portion of his youth 



1 84 



GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUf. 




From reproduction for the Connecticiit Magazine by Randall. 



^^a. <^^^J^ 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



'85. 



and the pursuit of agriculture, he lived 
the life, then almost obsolete, of the Con- 
necticut planters of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. His hospitable mansion was always 
thronged with the most refined and cul- 
tured guests, who, on whatever points 
they might differ, all agreed that their 
entertainer was an unrivalled gentleman 
in the highest and best sense of the 
word. ' ' 



Governor Smith died at his home in 
Sharon on Dec. 7, 1845, at the age of 
eighty years. 

"His character can be likened to noth- 
ing that better illustrates it,'' says a 
historian, "than the warm smiling Shar- 
on valley on a summer's morning, when 
the grass sparkles with dew and the 
bright lakes gleam in the sunshine." 




©EK]g^O.®gD/^ 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



CONDUCJ'ED BY EDWIN STANLEY WELLES. 



This department Is open to an, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries 
should be as concise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his per- 
sonal attention to questions relating to Hartford Records free of charge. Extended investigations will be 
made by him for a reasonable compensation. 

Persons having old family records? diaries, or documents yielding genealogical information are re- 
quested to communicate with him with reference to printing them. 

Anything that will help to enhance the value and usefulness of this department will be gladly welcomed. 

Readers are earnestly requested to cooperate with the editor in answering queries, many of which can 
only be answered by recourse to original records. 

Querists are requested to write clearly all names of persons and places so that they cannot be 
misunderstood, and to write on only one side of the paper. Queries will be inserted in the order in which 
they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CONNECTICUT MAGA- 
ZINE, Hartford, marked Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office address. 



ANSWERS. 

To No. 22, (b) March-April, 1900. 

C(imp. Eleazar Camp was born in Mil- 
ford, Ct., Dec. 10, 1697, and died in 
Durham, Ot., Oct. 30, 1774. 

He married Mary Botchford of Guil- 
ford, Ct., May 30, 1723, in Milford, who 
was born in Guilford, March 9, 1697 and 
died in Durham Sept. 30, 1776, and was 
buried there. The Guilford Records will 
probably give the names of her parents. 

Roxana. 
To No. 4, March- April 1901. 

LohdeJI. John Lobdell, born in Ridge- 
field, Ct., in 1721, married in 1742 
Ruth, daughter of Daniel and Ruth Sher- 



wood of Ridgefield. 

To No. 5, March- April 1901. 

Lobdell. John Lolxlell, born at Cort- 
landt Manor, Westchester Co., N. Y., 
son of Joshua and Mnry (Reynolds) Lob- 
dell, married Elizabeth, daughter of Dan- 
iel and J erusha (Whitnev) Sherwood, Mav 
30, 1764. 

Can C. L. Raj' prove that the mother of 
Abigail Warren Lord (Elizabeth Warren 
who afterwards married Phineas Wilson) 
was Elizabeth, daughter of John Crowe? 
I think Elizabeth Crowe married William 
Warren of East Hartford. The maiden 
name of Elizabeth Warren Wilson, wid- 



1 86 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



ow of John "Warren of Boston, is much 
wanted. A. W. S. 

To No. 15, March- April, 1901. 

Van Boskirk. I find a request for Van 
Boskirk record. As I have several lines 
may be I can help, if the special line is 
given. The Scraalenburgh and Hacken- 
sack records give many lines also Bergen's 
Early Settlers oj New Jersey. 

Mrs. Charles Francis Roe, 
Highland Falls, N. Y. 

QUERIES. 

16 (a). Linus. — Wanted ancestry of An- 
nar Linus, born in 1753 at Stratford, or 
Bridgeport, Ot. She married Benajah 
Beach of Woodbridge, Ct. She had a 
brother Robert, who served in the Rev- 
olutionary War, and a sister Freelove, 

who married 1st Lunn, and 2ndly 

Josiah Nettleton of Oxford ; also a sister 

Lois, who married French. Robert 

Linus had a daughter Ann, who mar- 
ried Jeremiah Judson and had two chil- 
dren, Ann and Robert. 

(b). PZo^^— Wanted ancestry of Eliz- 
abeth Piatt born at Woodbridge, Ct. , 
in 1748 and died in 1841. She married 
Samuel F. Peck. According to Wood- 
bridge Church Records she was daugh 
ter of Nathan Piatt ; mother's name not 
given. Her brother, Dea. Nathan Piatt, 
married Deborah Peck, sister of her hus- 
band, Samuel F. Peck. 

Mrs. Samuel H. Street, 
207 Bishop St., ^ew Haven, Ct. 

17. Bronson. — Wanted ancestry of Oli- 
ver Bronson, born in 1746 who married 
Sarah Merrills in Simsbury in 1774. He 
is spoken of in all the histories of Hart- 
ford and Simsbury as a teacher of vo- 
cal music, and published a music book 
called, I think, Bronson^s Collection. 
Possibly his father's name was Isaac, 
but I cannot be sure. Oliver Bronson 
was given the old colonial distinction 
of "Mr." and so must have been a per- 
son of some means and importance, but 
search so far has failed to disclose any- 
thing concerning his ancestry. 

Mrs. M. A. Rice, 
562 Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Suggestion — The Simsbury Records, 
p. 259, show that the children of Oliver 
Bronson were born in New Hartford. 
Possibly a search there might disclose 
something. 

18. (a.) Turner. — Thomas and Patience 
(Bolles) Turner of New London had 
John born 1728, married Bathsheba, 

daughter of Zach. Whipple, and Sam- 
uel born 1741, married Whip- 
ple. 
Wanted names of all the children of 



John and Samuel Turner. Had either 
of them a daughter Zipporah who mar- 
ried 1785, Norman Lester? 

(b). Lester. — Wanted names and dates 
of births of all the children of Isaac 
Lester who married Amy, daughter of 
Robert Fargo before 1751. 

19. Tyler. — Mehitabel, daughter of Gen. 
Igrael Putnam married a Tyler whose 
name I desire to know. 

Gen. Wm. P. Tyler of Brooklyn, Ct., 
was her son, and Daniel P. Tyler her 
grandson. 

The reason of my inquiry is, that my 
son, William Pierrepont Williams in- 
herited Israel Putnam's clock which is 
now in the historical department of 
Yale College. He received it while 
there and was urged by friends to let it 
remain temporarily in the college for 
safe keeping. 

Mrs. Wm. P. Williams, 

2 West 32d St., New York City. 

Answer — Mehitabel Putnam born in 
Pomfret, Ct., Oct. 21, 1749, mar- 
ried in 1771, Capt. Daniel Tyler of 
Brooklyn, Ct., an aide-de camp of 
Gen. Israel Putnam at Bunker Hill. 
She died Nov. 28, 1789. Her husband 
born in 1750, married second Sarah, 
widow of Deacon Benjamin Chaplin, 
and died April 29, 1832. He was the son 
of Daniel Tyler, born at Groton, Feb. 
22, 1701, and died Feb. 20, 1802. See 
Putnam Family by Eben Putnam, page 
182. 

20. Wolcott. — I would like to know the 
ancestry of Ann Wolcott who married 
about 1768 Jedediah Pratt of Meadow- 
woods in Saybrook. They had ten chil- 
dren. Mrs. Anna Pratt died Nov. 22, 
1830, aged 81. Was she a descendant of 
Gov. Roger Wolcott? 

Mrs. J. M. Pratt, 

Chester, Conn. 

21 (b) Buck- Wright. — Who were the par- 
ents and grandparents of Samuel Buck 
and his wife Hannah (Wright) Buck? 
Samuel Buck born about 1730, married at 
Wethersfield, Ct., March 22, 1758, Han- 
nah Wright, born 1737 and died 1831. 
She was his second wife. He had two 
children by first marriage, Amos and 

Anna who married Belden of 

Rocky Hill. 

(b). Wells. — Wanted names of wife and 
children of Oliver Wells of Colchester, 
Ct. , and those of her parents with dates 
of birth and death, also date of death 
of Oliver Wells. He was born June 19, 
1732 in Groton, Ct., and died in Col- 
chester. He was fifth son of Thomas of 
Groton. Who were his brothers and 
sisters? He had a son Roswell Wells 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



187 



who married Content Lamb and lived 
in Fast Hampton, Ct. When was she 
born, married and died and who were 
her parents? 

(c). Norton — Smith. — Who were the 
parents of Capt. Solomon Norton of 
Hebron, Ct., born Aug. 19, 1715, per- 
haps on Martha's Vineyard, and the 
parents of Capt. Samuel Smith, father 
of his wife? Solomon Norton removed 
from Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard, to 
Hebron about 1771 with his wife and 
six children. 

Mrs. Norton was Deborah Smith, 
baptized at Edgartown 1733, daughter 
of Capt. Samuel and Katherine (Homes) 
Smith and granddaughter of the Rev. 
Wm. Homes of Chilmark, Martha's 
Vineyard. Capt. Smith and Katherine 
Homes were married May 30, 1731, at 
Chilmark, I think. 

It is just possible that Solomon Nor- 
ton was born at Newport, R. I. He had 
a niece. Thankful Norton, who mar- 
ried Capt. Silas Perry in 1785. She is 
said to have been the daughter of Prince 
and Love (Norton) Norton. Prince Nor- 
ton was of Newport , R. I. , son of Nich- 
olas,3 Benjamin, 2 Nicholasi of Martha's 
Vineyard. Benjamin is said to have 
been of Newport, R. I. Love Norton 
may have been sister to Solomon. Sol- 
omon's father was Joseph, but not Jo- 
seph Jr., 3 Joseph^, Nicholas^. He may 
have been Josephs, Isaac^, Nicholas^. 

I would like the names of the chil- 
dren of Joseph, line of Isaac. 

(f). Savage. — Who was Capt, Thomas 
Savage, whose daughter Rachel Sav- 
age married William Goodrich, son of 
Ephraim Goodrich of Wethersfield, Ct. 
Mrs. D. E. Penfield, 
Warren, Mass. 

(f). Answer Capt. John Savage of 

Middletown, eldest son of John, mar- 
ried May 30, 1683 Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Ranney, and had a daughter 
Rachel born Jan. 15, 1704. Is this the 
Rachel referred to? 

33(a). Joyce. — Information is desired 
concerning the ancestry of William 
Joyce who married Eunice Bishop, 
daughter of Stephen and Esther (Meigs) 
Bishop at Middletown, Ct., Oct. 17, 
1754. 

(b). (Ingraham. — Wanted the ancestry 
of Betsey Ingraham, born June 8, 1781, 
I suppose, at Washington, Ct., and 
married at Hartford, Ct., April 4, 1804, 
Ja«on Carpenter of Sharon, Vt. 

I suppose her to have been from the 
line of Benjamin Ingraham who re- 
moved from Rehoboth, Mass., to Wood- 
bury, Ct., about 1740, but have been 
unable to fill the gap. M. B. J. 



(a). Answer. — A private record kept 
by William Joyce, a copy of which is 
in the possession of the Editor, gives this 
information: "My honoured Father, 
Mr. John Joyce, was Born in the City 
of London in England but uncertain 
when, he also died in said city about 
theyear 1736 or 1737." 

"My Honoured Mother, Mrs. Sarah 
Joyce was born on the island of Barba- 
does in the Parish of St. Michaels in 
Bridgtown July 38th, A. D., 1715 and 
died in Middletown in Connecticut in 
New England August 14th, A. D., 1773; 
aged 57 years and 17 days." 

33 (a). JJvU-WJieadon. — Since my last 
query on Wheadon, I have learned full 
particulars concerning the ancestry of 
Jehiel Wheadon (or Wheaton as he was 
also called) and have also learned that he 
had two wives, Rebecca and Mary. The 
first was the mother of his children, and 
I believe her name too have been Hull 
Will persons having records of either 
family look them over to discover if 
possible the maiden name of Rebecca. 
She was probably born between 1733 
and 1733, and in Connecticut. Any 
clues will be most welcome. 

(b). Hall. — What was the maiden name 

of Mehitable ■ wife of James 

Hall (William2, Johni. ) He was prob- 
ably born at Yarmouth, altho' possi- 
bly at Norwich, Ct., or Mansfield. I 
do not know the date of his birth, but 
his father removed from Yarmouth, 
lived at Norwich and died at Mansfield, 
Ct. They were married Oct. 15, 1716, 
and wills prove they had ten children. 

James died at Mansfield in 1753. 
(This should read 1743 —Editor). His 
wife Mehitable died there in 1758. The 
records however do not give her maiden 
name. Was she of a Norwich family? 

(c). Parish-Tnici/. — Christopher Tracy 
born in Preston, Ct., 1680, married Ly- 
dia Parish May 30, 1705, and had 
twelve children. Whose daughter was 
Lydia Parish? When was she born 
and when did she die? Should like 
full information regarding the ances- 
tors of Lydia Parish. Was she the daugh- 
ter of John of Grotou? He had a 
daughter Lydia, born April 30, 1687. 

(d). Grisirold. Lieut. Francis Gris- 

wold of Norwich, ( ?) Ct. When did he 
come to this country, whose son was he, 
and what was his wife's name? 

Where can I learn much of him and 
his career with dates? 

(e). HV/Zx.— Is there authentic proof 
that Hugh Welles of Hadley and Hart- 
ford was brother of Ctov. Thomas Welles? 
What was the maiden name of Frances 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



wife of Hugh Welles? E. A. S 

(c). Suggestion. Among the Admis- 
sions tc the First Church of Preston is 
this one : 

1704, Nov'r 15th, John Parish and 
Mary his wife, by letter from Ipswich. 
Possibly these were the parents of Ly- 
dia. It is a clue worth following up. 
(d). Answer. Francis Griswold was 
the son of Edward Griswold who came 
from England in 1639. He is supposed 
to have been born there in 1635. He 
was first in Windsor, then Saybrook, 
and lastly in Norwich where he died 
Oct. 1671. His wife's name appears to 
be unknown. See Stiles's .b^f^/f^n^ ^Vhld- 
mr, vol. 2, pp, 350-351. Mrs. E. E. Sal- 
isbury of New Haven is an authority on 
the Griswolds. 

(e). Answer. No. — The Hartford 
Town Records show that Hugh Wells 
married Mary Rusco, Aug. 19 ,1647. She 
was the daughter of WilliamRusco, and 
born about 1628. See Memorial History 
oj Hartford County, vol. 1, p. 257. 

24. Pride. — Can you give me any inform- 
ation concerning the Pride family of 
Connecticut? Capt. Absalom Pride 
lived at Long Rock just below Norwich 
on the Thames river, about 1800. 
H. Irving King, 
of A\ Y. Press, New York City. 

25 (a). Johnson. — Wanted the name of 
the husband of Eunice Johnson, born 
Aug. 22, 1678, daughter of Col. Eben- 
ezer and Elizabeth (Wooster) John- 
son of Derby, Ct. 

(b). Stewart. — Also the "''name of the 
husband of Phoebe Stewart, born Feb. 
1673, daughter of Robert and Betliia 
(Rumble) Stewart of Norwalk, Ct. 

c). {Roberts. — Also information of the 
ancestry or descendants of William Rob- 
erts who ]imrried before 1717, a daugh- 
ter of Simon and Persis Lobdell of Mil- 
ford, Ct. 

(d), Davis. — Also the name of the hus- 
band of Experience Davis, baptized at 
Fairfield, Ct., in September, 1714. Her 
father was Samuel Davis. J. H. L. 

26. Ferris-Royre . — On my mothers side 
my ancestors were of Connecticut Fer- 
ris's, Royces, etc. Can you help me 
to facts as to them? 

E. Q. Marston, M.D ., 
Center Sandwich, New Hampshire. 
Answer. The Ferris family was early 
in Stamford where James died in 1666. 
The Royces were in New London, 
Wallingford and Norwich. A more def- 
inite query is necessary to locate your 
particular line. 

27 (a)."^ Smith. — Who were]^the parents 



of Abigail Smith wife of Zebulon Bissell 
of Litchfield, Ct., married May 21, 
1749? Zebulon Bissell was a soldier of 
the Revolution and died at Woodbury, 
Ct. on his way home from prison-ship 
and sugar-house. Ref — Stiles' Ancient 
Windsor. 

(b). Bissell. — Who was the wife of 
Zebulon Bissell, 2d, of Litchfield, Ct., 
married June 13, 1774? 
(c). Webster. — Also parents of Sarah 
Webster, wife of Capt. John Marsh, 
married Aug. 20, 1733. 

Ref. — History o/ Litchfield Marsh 
Book. Mrs. Charles Francis Roe, 

Highland Falls, N. Y. 
(b). Answer. The wife of Zebulon 
Bissell, Jr., was Sarah Watkins. I find 
nothing about her ancestry. 

28(a). Bushuell. — Wanted maiden name 

of Temperance who married 

Stephen Bushnell, son of William and 
Catherine Jordan) Bushnell of Say- 
brook, Ct., also a list of the children 
of Stephen and Temperance Bushnell, 
with the exception of Abraham, born 
Jan. 7, 1745, who married Molly En- 
sign of Canaan, Ct. 

(b). Cogswell. — Wanted ancestry of 
Elizabeth Cogswell born June 2, 1745, 
who married Nathan Bostwick of New 
Milford, Ct. 

(c). Canfield. — Wanted ancestry of Je- 
mima Canfiold born in 1706, died Oct. 

11, 1795, married John Bostwick of New 
Milford, Ct., March 24, 1716, died Dec. 
17, 1806. 

( d) . Bos worth — Wanted ancestry of Jane 
Bosworth born in New Preston, Ct, 
1752, and married Joseph Beckley, Jan. 
5, 1769. 

(e) 3foss. — Wanted ancestry of Martha 
Moss who married Eldad Smith, Dec. 

12, 1792. Her father Moss was 

killed in the Revolutionary war, hav- 
ing enlisted somewhere in Conn. 

(f ) Royce. — Wanted ancestry of Thank- 
ful Royce born Feb. 11, 1755, who mar- 
ried Noah Tuttle of Cheshire, Ct., 
June, 1771. She was a sister of Sam- 
uel Royce, Esq., of Clinton, N. Y., 
whose daughter married Hon. Pomeroy 
Jones, author of the History of Oneida 
County, X. Y. 

Miss Ceila I. Ingham, 

Genesee, 111. 

Box 948. 

29. White — Nahum Moore married Kath- 
arine White, at the home of his father, 
Amos Moore in Simsbury, Ct. , Feb. 22, 
1764. 

She died Oct. 4, 1803, aged 57 years, 
and her tombstone is in the old ceme- 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



189 



tery at East Granby. Wanted the an- 
cestry of Katharine (White) Moore. 

A. M. G. 



A subscriber sends the following in- 
teresting extract from a copy of the Mid- 
dlesex Statistics, published in 1817. 

The first white settler of Westfield, 
part of Middletown, was Edward Higby, 
a native of Jamaica, Long Island, who 
settled about 1720 at the foot of that 
bluff, which from him is called "Hig- 
by Mountain." He deceased 1775 aged 
about 90. The home is said to be still 
standing. It was his grandson who by 
virtue of his office as tithing man pre- 
vented Aaron Burr, then Vice President 
of the United States, from passing 
through Milford with his retinue on the 
way to Philadelphia, to stop until after 
the setting of the sun before proceeding 
on his way, as traveling for business or 
pleasure on the Sabbath was by law for- 
bidden. 

Aaron Burr when stopped proclaimed 
himself Vice President of the United 
States." 

Mr. Higby who was undismayed by 
pomp or titles replied, "It makes no 
difference if you are Vice President. In 
hte name of God and the Continental 
Congress I forbid you. ' ' 

The Diary of Rev. Stephen Mix of 
Wethersfield, continued from vol. VII, 
p. 105. 

Page 16. 

[This page had been left blank until 
the rest of the book was filled up. The 
top line is entirely illegible, from having 
frayed off.] 

[and Jonathan?] Belding, 

were chosen Deacons. 

Admitted to fal Comunion. 

Jan'ry 5, 1734-5. Ebenezer Deming, & 
Dinah, wife of Josiah Talcot. 

April 6, 1735. Jno Colman Sen'r, Si- 
las Beldin, Rich'd Montague ; Sarah, 
wife of Nath'll Stilman, & Abigail! I 
think her name is), wife of said Rich'd 
Montague. 

Feb'ry 5, 1737-8. Admitted to ful com- 
union : Amasa Adams ; Sarah, wife of 
David St[ ] ; Elesabeth, daughter of 
Eben'r Deming. 

Page 17. 
(Baptisms.) 

Ethan child of Ens. Wm. Goodrich, 
June 7, 1[702]. 

Josiah, child of Eben'r Kilburn, June 
14, 1702. 

Jno child of Jno Jillit, June CI, 1702. 

Sam" 11, child of Sam' 11 Butler, July 5, 
1702. 

Jno, child of Tho : Morton, Julv 12, 
1702. 



Anne, child of Tho: Wickam Jun'r, 
Aug. 23, [1702]. 

Elesabeth, child of Tho: Wels, Cap. 
Rob'ts son; Esther, child of Joseph 
Crane, Aug. [ ]1702. 

Mary, child of Nath'll Churchil, Sept. 
6, 1702. 

Meribah, illegitimate child of Marg't 
Dikes [Dix], Octob? [ ] 1720. 

Mary, child of Jno Wat'rs, Octob'r 11, 
1702. 

Anne, child of Jno Mechy, Octob'r — - 
1702. 

Elesabeth, child of R'd Smithsend, 
(not an inhabitant) ; and Eben'r, child 
of Jac.Gris[wold] Sen'r (?) Nov'r 1, 
1702. 

Anna, child of James Steel ; Edward, 
child of Isaac Boreman Jun'r, Nov. [ ] 
1702. 

Zachariah, child of Jonath : Bunce, 
Nov'r 15, 1702. 

Joshua, child of Dan' 11 Boreman ; 
Thankful, child of Eben'r Belding, Nov'r 
22, 1702. 

Hanah, child of Israel Crane, Nov'r 
29, 1702. 

Peter, child of Nicholas Ayrault, a 
Frenchman, Dec. 6, [1702]. 

Jonath :, child of Steph : Kelcv, De- 
cem'r [1702]. 

Wilson, the child of Mrs. Hanah Row- 
landson, Jan'ry [ 1702-3]. 

Josiah, child of David Buck, Jan'ry 17, 
170[2-3]. 

Mehetabel, child [the rest frayed off]. 

Page 18. 

[M]ary, child of Jonath: Smith, Jan'ry 
31, 1702. 

[Ka(?)]th, child of Jonath: Buck Jun'r 
Feb. 21, 1702. 

Hanah, child of Jno Francis, Feb'ry 
28, 1702-3. 

Jno, child of David Tryan, March 7, 
1702-3. 

Mehetabel, child of Jonath. Rily ; Sa- 
rah, child of David Goodrich, March 14, 
1702-3. 

Charles, the child of Edward Bulkeley 
March 28, 1703. 

David, child of David Wright, April 4, 
1703. 

Elesabeth, child of Michael Griswold : 
Thankful, child of Jno. Root, of Farm- 
iugton, April 25 1703 

Elesabeth, child of Benj : Smith. April 
9, 1703. 

child of Sam' 11 Emons, of Had- 

dum ; Christopher, child of Joseph 
Grimes, May 16, 1703. 

Jonath :, child of Tho : Standish, June 
13, 1703. 

Jno, child of Mr. Jno Chester, Julv 4, 
1703. 

[Gideon?] child of Wm. Curtiss, Julv 
11, 1703. 



IQO 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT, 



^ 



Hezekiah, child of Hezekiah Doming, 
July 24, 1703. 

Eliphelet, child of Eliphelet Dickin- 
son ; Hanah, child of Ephraim Whaples, 
August 8, 1703. 

Elesabeth, child of Sam'll Buck; Jo- 
nath:, child of Jonath : Renalls ; Caleb, 
child of George Woolcott, Aug. 15, 1703. 

Elesabeth, child of Rich'd Beckly, 
Aug. 29, 1703. 

child of Jno : Stadder Jun'r ; 

child of Eliphalet Dickinson; Sep- 

tem'r 19, 1703. 

Peter, child of Nathan Hurlbut. 

Elesabeth Smith, (ab't 14 years old, 

more or less) ; & Smith, and 

Smith ; al children of Wm. Smith, Sep- 
tem'r 26, 1703. 

Elesabeth, child of Tho : Deming , Oc- 
tober [ 1703] 

[ ], child [the rest frayed off]. 

Page 19. 

Sam'll, child of Capt. Tho : Wells ; 

child of Nath'll Churchil, I suppose ; 

, child of John Rennals, Octo- 

b'r [ 1703] y'r ab'ts. 

Mary, child of Jno Howard, I suppose, 
Nov'r 7, 1703. 

, child of Jno Rose, Novemb'r 14, 

1703. 

Sarah, child of Capt Josh. Robbins ; 
Anne, child of Jno Benjamin ; Dan '11 
child of Wm. Blin, Jan'ry'— 1703-4. 

Jno., child of Wm. Warner, Jan'ry 
23, 1703-4. 

Esther, ye child of Stephen Mix ; Pela- 
tiah, child of George Kilburn, Feb'r 13, 
170[3-4.] 

Timothy, child of Sam'll Wright, Feb. 
20, 170 [3-4.] 

Peter, child of Benj : Gardner, Feb'ry 

27, 17 [03-4.] 

Jonath :, child of Jo's Kilburn, March 
19(?) [1703-4.] 

Mary, child of Jo's Belding; Abigail' 
child of Jonas Holms, April 25(?), [1704] 

Dan'll child of Steph. Hollister ; Abi- 
gail child of John Taylor ; Dan'll child 
of Wm. Smith April 30 [1704.] 

Dorothy, child of Steph. Kelcy ; Jonath 
child of Sam'll Smith, May 7, [1704]. 

Isaac, child of Isaack Ryly, May 21, 
[1704]. 

Simon, child of Simon Willard, May 

28, [1704]. 

Peter, child of Wm. Butler ; Sarah and 
Ruth, al children of Wm. Butler ; Deb- 
orah, child of Sam'll: Wms., Benj :, child 
of Steph: Buck, June 4, [1704]. 

Dan'll: child of Mr. Tho: Thompson, 
of [This line frayed off, ]June[ ,1704]. 
Page 20. 

He(?)zek, child of Mr. Jo's Talcott ; 
Eunice, child of Abr : Williams, July 
23. 

Elesabeth, child of Sam'll: Walker, 



July 30. 

Abigail, child of Wm : Butler, Aug. 6. 

Sarah, child of R'd : Smithsend, Aug. 
20. 

Martha, child of Jonathan Deming; 
Benoni, child of Abr : Crane, Sept'r 3. 

Ephraim, child of Jac : Griswold Sen'r 
Elesabeth, child of Israel Crane ; Hanah, 
child of Sam'll Belding; Abigail, child 
of James Wright, Septemb. 24. 

Mabel, child of Jonath : Belding ; 
Hannah, child of Jno Coleman, Octob'r 1. 

Susannah, child of Jonath : Bunce, Nov'r 
19 . 

[Ab]iah, child of Sam'll Boreman,. 
Nov'r 26. 

Jacob, child of Jonath : Hollister ; Ann 
(?), child of Jonath: Rennals, Decemb'r. 

Elesabeth, child fo Edward Bulkeley ; 
Hannah, child of John Jillit [Gillette], 
Jan'ry 28, 1704] -5.] 

Wm., child of Tho: Wickham Jun'r; 
Sarah, child of Jno: Francis, March 11, 
1704-5. 

Benj am :, child of Dan'll Boreman, 
March 18, ] 1704-5.] 

Wm. child of Wm. Burnham Jun'r, Ba- 
calaur's; Joseph, child of David Buck; 
Abigail, child of Wm. Powel, 8-2d, 
1705. 

Rebecca, child of Tho: Curtiss Jun'r; 
[S]am'll, child of Sam'll Collins; this 
child illegitt'm, 29 April, 1705. 

Benj : child of Mical Griswold Jun'r ; 
[ ], child of Jacob Griswold, these two 

are out 

[The next line frayed off at foot of page] 

Page 21. 

1705, Sept'r 16, Ruth, child of Jno 

Warner ; Charles, child of Jonath : Lat- 

temer, 

1705, Sentemb'r 23, Baptiz'd Jonath: 
child* of David Tryan. Sept'r 30, 
Hannah, child of James Butler. 

170-7, Feb. 9— Baptized Dan'll, child of 
Sam'll Butler; Sarah, child of Ed- 
ward Bulkeley ; Elesabeth, child of 
Dan'll Dickenson; Lydia, child of 
Isaac Bridgman ; Hanah, child of Su- 
sannah Allen [Allyn?] 

Feb. 16, Abig'l, child of Jonath : Wright. 
This as I supos, might be a month old 

March 2, Elesabeth, child of Jno Warner ; 
and Joseph, child of David Curtiss. 

March 16, Jerusha, child of James Treat, 
Jun'r. 

March 23, Elesabeth, child of John Cur- 
tiss, Jun'r ; Mary, child of Tho : Cur- 
tiss, now of Farmington ; Hanah, 
child of Eben'r Hale; Sarah, child 
of Sam'll Benton. 

[1707], April 6, Jonath, child of John 
Renals, ] Reynolds] ; Abigail, child 
of Abrah : Warren. 

1707, April 13, Jno :, child of Wm. Butler. 
April 20, James, child of Jos : Kilburn. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



191 



May 18, [ ], child of Charles Dem- 
ing. 

Page 22. 

[ ]nel, child of James Wright ; 
Sam'll, child of Mr. Wm. Burnham, 
Jun'r, June 1, 1707. 

Charles, child of Dan'll Boreman ; Abi- 
gail, child of Samuel Woolcott, June 8, 
1707. 

Miriam, child of Benj : Beckly, June 15 

Jno: child of Sarah Wilton, of Water- 
bury. She is the daughter of Old Ezek: 
Buck ; and Jos : child of Benj : Andrus, 
June 22. 

Sarah, child of Maj'r Jno: Chester; 
Ephraim, child of Simon Willard ; Josh 
(?), child of Tho: Morton; Mercy, child 
of Jno : Wright, July 13, 1707. 

Jno: child of David Buck; Abiah (?) 
child of Jonath : Hurlbut, July 20. 

Hanah, child of David Goodrich ; Da- 
vid, child of Jonath :Lattemer ; Jonath : 
child of Benj : Deming, Aug. 3. 

Jonath : child of Jonath : Colefox, Aug. 
10. 

Amos, ye child of Jos : Belding ; Chris- 
tian, child of Jonath :Curti§, Aug. 17. 

Jno:, child of Nath: Hurlbut, Aug. 31 

Lydia, child 'of Jacob Griswold, Sen'r, 
Sept, 7. 

Esther, child of Stephen Kelsie, Sept. 
14. 

Abraham, child of Abrah. Warren, 
Sept. 21 

Rebecca, child of Jacob Griswold, 
Jun'r; Mary, child of Jonath: Buck, 
Jun'r, Sept. 28 



Page 23. 
[Marg]aret, child of 



Wells? 



Oct. 

Tho :, child of Tho : Boreman ; Martha, 
child of Joseph Crane, Oct. 20. 

Charles, child of Jos. Hurlbut, Novemb 
9. 

Jno:, child of George Northway, De- 
cemb. 7. 

Jabez, son of Jabez Whittelsey ;Sam'lson 
of Jno: Mechy [Mackey?], Decerab. 14 
1707. 

Tho :, child of Ebenez'r Dickinson ; 
Sam'l, child of Isaac Bronson, Jan'y 4, 
1707-8. 

Wait, son of Capt. Tho. Wells; Pru- 
dence, child of Jno. Francis, Sen'r, Jan'y 
11, 1707-8. 

Joseph, child of Ebenezer Deming, 
Jan'y 25. 

[Sarah (?)] of Dan'l Warner, Feb. 8, 
1707-8. 

Mabel Wright, child of Josiah Belding ; 
Sarah, ye child of Jonath : Not, Feby. 15. 

Jno. , child of Mr. James Paterson ; 
Joshua, child of Jos. Andrus, Feby. 22, 
1707-8. 

[Query. — was this John Paterson the 



father of Maj. Gen John Paterson? S. W. 
A.] Yes. M. K. T.. 

Jonath :, child of Jonath : Rose ; Sarah, 
child of Jonath: Jillit [Gillette] ; Sam'l, 
illegittimate child of Mary ; the daugh- 
ter of Sam'l Tayler, [A line of shorthand] 
Feby. 29, 1707-8. 

Abigail, child of Abrah. Williams, 
March 7, 1707-8. 

Sarah, child of Rich'd Boreman ; Hanah, 
child of Tho : Hurlbut, March 14, 1707-8. 

Dorothy, child of Ebe'r Hale, March 
21, 1707-8. 

Abraham, child of Abr : Kilburn ; Mary, 
child of Jno: Stader [Soddard] ; Susanna, 
child of David Tryan ; Hanah, child of 
Jno. Kelsie, April 18, 1708. [Kelsey was in 
Beckley Quarter. S. W. A.] 

Page 24. 
Nath:, child of Sam'll Collins. This 
child, perhaps, might be above 6 men. 
old; Elesabeth, child of Abr: Morison, 
Apr. 25, 1708. 

Hezekiah, child of James Butler ; Steph : 
child of Jonath : Hollister, May 2, 1708. 
1708, May 23. Allyn, child of David 
Curtis. 

May 30. Eunice, child of Hezek : 
Deming. 

June 6. Abigail, child of Jonath ; 
Bunce. June 13. Sarah, child of 
Isaac Ryly ; June 27, Josh : child of 
George Woolcott. 

July 4. Sam'l, child of Wm. Good- 
rich, Jun'r. 

July 25. Eunice, child of Elipha- 
let Dickinson. 
1708, Aug. 22. Mercy, illegitimate child 
of Sam'l Griswold. ; [A line of short- 
hand follows this. ] 
Sept. 5. Ebene/er, child of Beuj. 
Jeans [Jaynes?]. 

Nath'l, child of Joshua Robins : 
Capt. Josh : Robius's sou ; Jehiel, 
child of Dan'l Rose ; & Lois, child of 
Tho: Staudish ; Sarah, child of Sam'l 
Boreman. These 4 Septemb'r 19, 170s. 
1708, Septemb'r 26. Wm. child of Mi- 
cael Griswold. 

Octob'r 3. Steph:, child of Sam'l 
Wright ; Gideon, child of Isaac Bridg- 
man, and David, child of Sam'l Huu. 
Octob'r 10. Nath'l:, child of Nath'l 
Hun. 
1708, Octob'r 24. Amasa, child of Beuj : 
Adams ; Abigail, child of Abigail 
Curtis, & Wm. child of Enoch Buck. 
Page 25. 
Henry, child of Henry Buck, of Co- 
han^sy, a pretty big Boy ; Abigail, child 
of Marg't Clark, widow of [A line of 
short-hand follows this.]; [ ], child 
of Abr. Crane, November 14, 1708. 

[ ]. child of Jonath: Buck, Jun'r. 
November 21. 
Christian, the child of Steph : Mix, bap- 



192 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



tized Decemb'r 26, 1708. 
Hanah, the child of Mr. Wm. Burnham, 

Jan'y 2, 1708-9. 
Lydia, child of Jno : Howard ; Esther, 

child of Steph : Buck, Jan'y 26, 1708-9. 
Sarah, child of Rob't Wells Jun'r ; Jo- 

siah, child of Benj : Smith ; Dorothy, child 

of Josiah Belding, Feb'y 6, 1708-9. 
Martha, child of Jonas Holmes, Feb'y 

20, 1708-9. 
Elisha, child of Micael Griswold, Sen'r, 

Rebecca, child of Edward Bulkeley ; Ar- 

minel, child of Josiah Churchel, Feb'y 

7, 1708-9. 
Abiah, child of Sam'l Butler. I think 

it was March 1(?), 1708-9. This I &ay, 

March 27, 1709. 

Mary, child of James Wright ; Sybil, 

child of Tho : Curtis, of Farmington ; 

Jonath :, child of Jonath : Wright ; Re- 
becca, child of Benj : Andrus, March 27, 

1709. 

[1709.], April 3. Joseph, child of Isaac 
Bronson. 

May 1. Dan'l: child of Joshua Rob- 
bins ye 2d, viz : Jno's son. 
May 22. John, child of John Atwel, 
of Saybrook. He [the father?] mar- 
ried Qu'r Crowfoot's daughter; Jno: 
child of Jno: Wright, June 5, 1709; 
Wm. child of Wm : Warner, Jun'r, 
July 3, 1709 ; Edward Scott, Serv't to 
James Butler, July 1, 1709. 
July 24, Benj : child of [Benj : ]Dem- 
ing. 

Page 26. 

[Ja]mes, child of Ziba Tryan. [Three 
lines of short-hand.] 

Wm. ; child of William Blin. Both 
these baptized July 31, 1709. 

Sam'l, child of Nathan Hurlbut, Aug. 
14, 1709. 

Dorothy, child of Jos: Curtis, Aug. 21, 
Jos: Curtis — [A line of short-hand fol- 
lows]. 

Jeremiah, child of Capt. David Good- 
rich, Sept. 11, 1709. 

Anne, child of Jabez Whittlesey; Ste- 
ven, child of Stephen Hollister ; David, 
child of Jonath : Rose ; Lucy, child of 
Isaac Ryly; Martha, child of Sam'l Col- 
lins, Septemb'r 18, 1709. 

Hannah, child of Tho : Deming ; Jere- 
miah, Rebecca, children of Tho : Stand- 
ish, and twins ; ye daughter ye eldest, 
Sept. 25, 1709. 

Oliver, child of Sam'U Woolcott ; Mary, 
child of Wm : Butler ; Elesabeth, child of 
Mary Lattemer, now Baxter, Octob'r 9, 
1709. 

Dan'l, child of Stephen Kelcy, Nc- 
vemb'r 6, 1709. 

Jonath : child of Jonath : Lattemer, 
Novemb'r 27, 1709. 

Bathsheba, child of Charles Butler, 
Decemb'r 18 ;Eunice. , child of David Buck 



Decemb'r 25 ; Oliver, child of Ebenezer 
Deming, Jan'y 1, 1709-10. 

Lois, child of Jno : Wiard, Jun'r. Jno : 
Wiard, Jun'r, now owned God to be his 
God, &c. 

Page 27. 

Dan'l, child of Jonath:, son of Jonath: 
Deming' dec. This child, perhaps, might 
be two months old, or more, when it was 
baptized, Jan'y 15, 1709-10. 

Dan'l, child of Abrah : Warrin, Feb'y 
5, 1709-10. 

Jno : child of Capt. Tho : Wells ; Sam '11 
child of Sam'll Griswold, Feb'y 12, 1709- 
10. 

Rebecca and Mary Stilman, [children 
of George. S. W. A. ] ; & Jerusha Davis, 
grandaughter to Naomi Goff, yt is gone 
away to Providence. Thi^ maide lived 
at Warwick. These thre were grown 
maides, & owned the coven' t Feb'y 26, 
1709-10. 

Elesabeth, child of Abr : Morris. 

Experience, child of Jacob Griswold, 
Jun'r ; Joseph, child of Ebanezer Hale, 
March 12(?), 1709-10. 

Robert Turner, a married man, owned 
ye coven' t, & was baptised. Alsoe Charles 
child of William Curtice, March 19, 1709- 
10. 

1710. Habbakuk, John, Rob't, Mary; 
children of Robert Turner. Children 
some of them of some years old ; but 
I supose were not baptised before 
bee. their father was not. Apr. 9, 
they were baptized. 

Sarah, child of Eben'r Kilburn, April 
16 ; Joseph, child of George Hun, April 
30 ; Gideon, child of Sam'll Hun, May 7 ; 
Jno : child of Jno : Stadder, May 14 ; Jo- 
seph, child of Joseph Hurlbut, June 11. 

Page 28. 

[J]no:, child of Joseph Cole ; who now 
owned ye cov't ; [A]biah, child of Abrah : 
Williams ; James, child of Jno : Kelcy ; 
Judah, child of Jonath : Wright ; Hannah, 
Hephzibah ; twin children of Benj ; Janes 
(i. e. Jaynes S. W. A. ), June 18. 

Elesabeth, child of Sam'll Smith, June 
25. 

Esther, child of Joseph Belding, Eze- 
kiel, child of Ezek'l Buck, Sen'r ; his 
daughter Weltoni [ ] , child of Benj : 
Beckly ; [ ] , child of Sam'll Renton ; 
Sarah, child of Jonath : Hurlbut, July 2. 

Joanna, child of David Tryan; Samuel, 
child of Jno: Jillit [Gillette], July 16, 
17J0. 

Anne, wife of Steph : Buck, own'd ye 
covenant, and was baptized, July 23, 
1710. Alsoe, in the same day, were bap- 
tized Anne, child of Sam'll Boreman, 
Jun'r ; & Anne, child of David Curtice. 

Elias, child of Ebenez'r Alexander; 
Lucy, child of Abraham Crane, July 30. 

Zebulon, child of Josh : Robbins, 3d ; 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



193 



Dan'll, child of Simon Willard, Aug. 6. 

[Majrtha, child of Jno : Warner, Aug. 13. 
Page 29. 

Sept. 3, Dan'll, child of Dan'll Rose 
Jun'r. 

Sept. 10, Rob't, child of Rob't Wels, 
Jun'r ; & Anne, child of Ebenezer Dick- 
enson, Tho : Dickenson's son. 

Octob'r 1, Jno:, child of Tho: Hurl- 
but ; & Jno : child of Jno : Frances, Jun'r. 

Oct. 15, Dorothy, child of Isaac Bridg- 
man. 

Oct, Elesabeth, child of Allin Good- 
rich, [&] Dinah, child of Jacob Deming. 

Nov'rS, Steph:, child of John Russel; 
and a child of Nath : Churchil's. I 
think the name of it was Dan'll. This 
I say ISTovemb'r 13, 1710. 

Nov. 19, Jno : child of Joseph Wsls. 

Decemb'r 10, Abigail, child of Jonat : 
Atwood. 

Decemb'r 17, Tho: child of Jonath : 
Curtice ; Sarah, child of Jno : Edwards. 

Decemb'r 24, Prudence, child of Josiah 
Churchel ; Mary, child of Jonath : Not. 

Decemb'r 31, Katharine, child of Jo- 
seph Curtice. 

[1710-11]. Jan'y 14, Rebecca, child of 
Josiah Belding ; & Mary, child of George 
North way. 

Jan'y 28, Lois, child of Hezek : Dom- 
ing. 

Feb'y 18, Rowland, child of Ziba Tryan ; 
& [M]icael? child of Micael Griswold 
Jun'r; Ephraim, child of Isaac [Riley?]. 
All of this last name excepting a p«/'^ of the 
jiT8t letter, is gone ; but it is apparent that 
this first letter was an R, or a B. S.W.A ) 
Page 30. 

Feb'y 25, Nath'll, child of Nath'll 
Boreman ;who now owned the Coven't. 

March 4, David, child of Mr. George 
Woolcot; & Sam'll, child of Jno: Dix, 
Jun'r. 

March 11, Tho: child of Jonas Holms; 
& Elesabeth, child of Sam'll Curtice. 

March 18, Deborah, child of Stsph : Buck 

1711. March 25, Peter, child of Mr. Ed- 
ward Bulkeley. 

April 1, Eliezer, child of Jabez Whit- 
tlesey. 

April 15, Zerviah, ye daughter of Benj : 
Adams. 

May 6, Wm., child of Wm : Goodrich, 
Jun'r., Zebulon, child of Tho: Curtis 
of Farmington. 

May3, [13?]Anne, child of Charles Dem- 
ing ; Sarah child of Jno : Tayler ; Rachel, 
child of Ezek'll Buck Jun'r. 

June 17, Sarah, child of Steph : Kelcy. 
[Beckley Quarter. S. W. A..] 

June 24, Dorothy, child of Jonath : Rose ; 
Ebenezer child of Jerusha Hollister. The 
mother [had] deceased. She was not 
married. This poor illegitimate orphan 
— I spoke with the Selectmen, some of 



them, that they "would ingage in behalf 
of the Town, for its Christian education ; 
which was not, I suppose, dissented from, 
by some of them. 

This child died I think before the next 
L'd day after its baptism. 
Page 31. 

July 8, Hanah, child of Eliphalet Whit- 
tlesey ; Sushanah & Mary, children of 
Sam'll W'ms. 

July 22, Lucy, child of Mr. Wm. Burn- 
ham. ; Hezekiah & Sarah, children of 
Jos : Hollister ; & Phinehas, child of Ben- 
jamin Andrus. 

July 29, B3nj : child of Joseph Kilburn ; 
Deborah, child of Nath'll Hunn. 

Aug. 5, Sarah, child of Thomas Morton. 

Aug. 19, Mary , child of David Wright. 

Aug. 26, Sarah, child, child of Ben- 
jam Deming ; & Plieebe, child of Tho : 
Clarke. 

Sept. 2, Tho : child of Maj'r Jno : Ches- 
ter. 

Sept. 9, Martha, child of Benj : Smith. 

Sept. 16, Moses, child of Jonath : Buck, 
Jun'r ; Elesabeth, child of Rob't Turner ; 
Hanah, child of Jonath : Colefox. 

Sept. 30, Abraham, child of Abrah : 
Moris, or Morison ;George, child of George 
Hun ; Anne, child of Jcnath : Lattemer ; 
Prudence, child of Joseph Garrit [Serj : 
Jos. Garret, in Fr. War. S. W. A.] 

Octob. 7, Jonath :, child of Jonath : 
Blinn. 

Octob'r 21, Joseph, child of Jno: At- 
wel, of Saybrook ; Lucv, child of Jno : 
Wright. 

Octob'r 28, Mary, child of Nathan Hurl- 
but. 

Novemb'r 4, Charles, child of Jno : 
Kelcy. 

Novemb. 11, Lucy, child of Sam'll 
Griswold. 

Novemb. 25, Hannah, child of Jno : 
Griswold ; and Mary, child of Wm : Ellis. 
Page 33. 

Janr'y 6, Obedience, child of Rich'd 
Robbins. 

Jany. 20, Eunice, child of Juo : Wiard, 
Jun'r. 

Jan'y 27, Israel, child of Juo : Rose : 
Sarah, child of Joshua Robbins, ve 3d. 

1711-12. Feb'y 3, Sarah Biggs. 'Adult. 
She owned ye cov't in these words vi''.. 
[5 lines of short-hand follow]. 

1711-12, Feb'y 3, Ai-)pleton. child of 
Rob't Wells, Jun'r James, child of James 
Butler ; Jonath : child of Sam'll W'ms. 

Feb. 17, Anna, child of David Goodrich ; 
Gamaliel, child of Rich'd Boreman. 

Feb. 24. NaMi'll, child of Micael Gris- 
wold, Jun'r: Tho:, child of Tho: Dem- 
ing; Silence, child of Abrah: W'ms 
deceased. 

1711-13. March 16, Peter, child of Ed 
ward Bulkeley: Deborah, child of Sam'" 
Boreman, as I think. 



{To he continued.) 




UNDER THE GREENWOOD TREE. 



By M. T. Maltby. 

( Germany. ) 
Dark, dread and wild the forest stands ; 
The hemlocks stretch out seeking hands ; 
The wild Black Huntsman leads his bands 
Here as of yore. 
A kneeling peasant at a shrine, 
Half hid by mingled beech and pine, 
Prays God to bless with might divine 
His Emperor. 

(Bermuda. ) 
A dimpling sea of deepest blue, 
Capricious as the opal's hue, 
Changing with every change of view — 

Aye fairer seen ; 
Still Southern woods, with cypress trees. 
And life-plant's bells moved by the breeze ; 
O'er all, the flag which watches these 

For England's Queen. 

( America. ) 
But loved beyond what these have been 
A Northern forest, with the sheen 
Of icy crystals on the green 

Of fragrant pine. 
Oh, sturdy trees, New England's pride. 
Fit symbols ye of those who died 
Content if but their work abide — 

Dear land of mine ! 



?;S'|^.r, 



'I 

ill. 




NOTES FROM THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



CONDUCTED BY MABEL WARD CAMERON. 



The Connecticut society of the Order 
of Founders and Patriots of America 
held its annual meeting at the Colonial 
Club in Hartford on the afternoon of 
April 19th, followed by a banquet in the 
evening. The business meeting at 4 
o'clock was presided over by the Rev. Dr. 
John Gaylord Davenport of Waterbury, 
governor of the society. The matter of 
greatest interest was the history of the 
year, read by Henry Baldwin of New 
Haven, in which he recounted the pro- 
gress of the society and noted the publi- 
cation by it of three papers: "Why Re- 
member the Fathers," by the Rev. Dr. 
Davenport ; ' ' The New England Puri- 
tans," by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Anderson 
of Waterbury, and "Stephen Decatur," 
by Dr. Charles Henry Smith. 

The society received an invitation from 
ex- Governor Bulkeley to attend the re- 
ception of the National Council of the 
Military Order of Foreign Wars, at his 
home. 

The old board of officers was re- 
elected, with the addition of two new 
councilors, Walter O. Faxon and Robert 
C. Glazier, of Hartford. The officers 
are : governor, the Rev. Dr. John C. Dav- 
enport, Waterbury ; deputy-governor, 
Edward Everett Sill of New Haven; 
secretary, William C. Russell of Hartford ; 
treasurer, Ernest B. Ellsworth of Hart- 
ford ; State's attorney, Sylvester C. Dun- 
ham of Hartford ; registrar, George F. 
Newcomb of New Haven ; historian, 
Henry Baldwin of New Haven ; chaplain, 
the Rev. D. W. Phelps of New Haven; 
genealogist, W. ^. J. Boardman of Hart- 
ford. 

The banquet was presided over by 
the Rev. Dr. Davenport. The paj^r of 

195 



the evening was read by the Rev. Sher- 
rod Soule of Naugatuck on "A Connecti- 
cut Heroine," and was an account of 
Prudence Crandall of Canterbury and her 
famous school for colored children. Mr. 
Soule was brought up in the vicinity of 
Canterbury, his father having been pastor 
at Hampton, and is familiar with the 
traditions of that famous school. 



The National Council of the Military 
Order of Foreign Wars held its annual 
meeting in the hall of the Connecticut 
Historical Society, April 19th, in the af- 
ternoon. The council is the executive 
body of the order and is made up of the 
officers general of the National command - 
ery. There were present at the meet- 
ing, Major General Alexander S. Webb, 
U. S. A., of New York, commander gen- 
eral ; Major General Charles F. Roe, Na- 
tional Guard of New York, vice-command- 
er general ; James H. Morgan of New York, 
secretary general ; Edward S. Sayres of 
Philadelphia, treasurer general ; Augustus 
Floyd Delafield of Stamford, vice-com- 
mander general for Connecticut ; Cap- 
tain Stephen Waterman of Providence, 
vice-commander general for Rhode Is- 
land ; and Major David Banks, Jr., of. 
New York, deputy secretary gen?ral. 
The business of the meeting was largely 
in preparation for the next meeting of 
the National commandery in Philadel- 
phia in 1902. The council admitted two 
new State commanderies to the organi- 
zation from Wisconsin and New Jersey. 
The membership of the order is made up 
of men whose ancestors were commis- 
sioned officers in foreign wars, or who 
are veterans of service in foreign wars 



196 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



themselves. The order is prosperous and 
during the last few months over 1,000 
officers serving in the Spanish-American 
v^ar have been admitted. 

Previous to the meeting, the council 
was entertained at lunch at the Hart- 
ford Club by Morgan G. Bulkeley, com- 
mander of the Connecticut State com- 
mandery of the order, and in the evening 
a reception for the members was given 
at his home on Washington street. 

In connection with the meeting, there 
was placed on exhibition in the hall of 
the Historical Society a collection of 
valuable manuscripts which would be of 
interest to the visitors. Included in the 
collection was the original agreement 
signed by the Marquis de Lafayette by 
which he came to this country to aid in 
the Revolutionary War, which was voted 
to the keeping of the society by Congress ; 
the roll of the Third Regiment of Con- 
necticut signed by all its members, headed 
by Colonel Samuel Wyllys; a gold medal 
presented to Commodore MacDonough 
after the victory of Lake Champlain ; 
the Journal of the Hartford Convention 
signed by all the delegates ; the journal 
of Oliver Boardman of Middletown ; an 
order from Governor Trumbull allow- 
ing the passage of officers under flag of 
truce for the exchange of prisoners of 
war ; Nathan Hale's diary, and many 
other interesting and rare manuscripts 
of great value. 



The Connecticut Society of Colonial 
Wars held its annual court in New Haven 
on May 1st. The business me<^ting was 
held at the Quinnipiac Club at 3 o'clock. 
Officers were elected unanimously as fol- 
lows ■ governor, Frederick J. Kings- 
bury of Waterbury ; deputy-governor, 
Theodore S. Woolsey of New Haven ; lieu- 
tenant-governor, Charles E. Gross of Hart- 
ford ; secretary, George D. Seymour of 
New Haven ; treasurer, Charles H, Trow- 
bridge of New Haven ; registrar, Frank 
B. Gay of Hartford ; historian, Professor 
Williston Walker of Hartford ; chaplain. 
Bishop Chauncey B. Brewster of Hart- 
ford ; gentlemen of the council, Arthur 
R. Kimball, Wilson L- Baldwin, and Wil- 
liam E. Seeley. 

Six new members v. ere elected : Frank 
Thornton Arms of New London, Melbert 
B. Carey of Ridgefield, Lewis B. Curtis 
of Southport, William S. Ingraham of 
Bristol, Charles L. Rockwell of Meri- 
den, and Henry L. Williams of Stamford. 

The dinner was served by Sherry at 
Harmonie Hall at 6 o'clock. Mr. Kings- 
bury presided. 

Professor Walker gave a very interesting 
talk on arms and armor of the colonial 
period. Upon motion of Charles E. Gross 



a resolution was passed by a rising vote 
that a meeting be held in June to which 
the Colonial Dames shall be invited. 



The semi-annual meeting of the Con- 
necticut Society of Colonial Dames was 
held in Middletown on May 28th in the 
Williams Memorial Library of the Berk- 
eley Divinity School. Reports were pre- 
sented by the committees on patriotic 
work, landmarks, prize essays, and manu- 
scripts. Mrs. Thomas Hooker of New 
Haven gave the report for the patriotic 
committee. She stated that the society 
has established twenty traveling libra- 
ries, and ten more would be added dur- 
ing the coming year. Mrs. Godfrey Duns- 
combe of the historical committee stated 
that there were no funds with which to 
meet the expenses of the coming year un- 
less the society increased the initiation 
fee or the monthly dues. 

Miss Julia Davenport of Hartford, the 
State president, and Mrs. Godfrey Duns- 
combe, one of the vice-presidents, spoke 
of the necessity of restoring the old 
Whitfield house at Guilford. The report 
of Miss Edith Woolsey of the prize es- 
say committee was read. She described 
the work of the committee in securing 
essays from the high and grammar schools 
of the State and announced to whom the 
prizes were awarded. For the manuscript 
committee Mrs. Susan M. Day reported. 
She stated that the manuscript records at 
Branford were being copied by an expert. 

At 2 o'clock the members were enter- 
tained at luncheon by Mrs. Walter B. 
Hubbard at her residence on Main street. 

In the afternoon the society listened 
to a paper read by the Rev. Dr Samuel 
Hart on "The Connecticut Historians." 



EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF 
CONN. D. A. R. 

The Eighth annual conference of the 
Connecticut D. A, R. was held with the 
Nor walk Chapter April 19, 1901. 

By eleven o'clock, in spite of th© 
threatening clouds, about four hundred 
ladies had assembled from different parts 
of the State in the South Norwalk Con- 
gregational church, which had been taste- 
fully decorated with flags, palms, and 
flowers for the occasion. 

As the various delegations entered the 
church they were welcomed by National 
airs played on the organ by Mrs* E. H. 
Hotchkiss ; while here and there among 
the audience friends greeted friends, and 
the day gave promise of pleasure. 

At eleven o'clock Mrs. Sarah T. Kinney, 
regent of the State, called the meeting to 
order. Seated with Mrs. Kinney, back of 
the flag-draped pulpit, was the regent of 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



197 



the Norwalk Chapter, Mrs. Samuel R. 
Weed. Prayer was offered by the Rev. 
Paul M. Strayer, followed by a soprano 
solo by Mrs. Robert S. Van Buren. A 
very cordial address of welcome was given 
by Mrs. Weed, in which she spoke of this 
meeting being held on the 19th of April, 
the anniversary of the Battle of Lexing- 
ton. Mrs. Weed also referred to the work 
being done by the Norwalk Chapter, in 
erecting tablets and placing memorials, 
as well as by bringing to light the his- 
tory of many colonial homes of Norwalk 
and vicinity. On account of the absence 
of Miss Bowman of Bristol, the response 
to this address was made by Mrs. Otis 
S. Northrop of the Mellicent Porter Chap- 
ter of Waterbury. 

This was followed by a contralto solo 
by Miss Amy Wood. In a few well-chosen 
words the State regent introduced the 
Hon. Jonathan Trumbull, president of 
the Connecticut society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution, and great- 
great-grandson of "Brother Jonathan." 
In the greeting voiced by Mr. Trumbull 
from the "Sons" to the "Daughters," 
full credit was given to the D. A. R. for 
the noble work they have done in the past, 
as well as commending the co-operation 
of the Sons and Daughters in the various 
patriotic interests common to both. 

The audience next listened to a violin 
solo by Miss Agnes Littlejohn, which was 
followed by a stirring paper on "Patriot- 
ism," by Mrs. Grace Brown Salisbury 
of the Mary Clapp Wooster Chapter. 

Mrs. Eugene Chaffee cif the Nathan Hale 
Memorial Chapter then read a sketch of 
the life of Major General Joseph Spencer, 
one of Connecticut's Revolutionary he- 
roes. Beginning with his boyhood, his 
historian carried the audience through 
his days as statesman to the position he 
held as major-general. Mrs. Chaffee said 
that a suitable memorial will now be 
erected, as the General Assembly has 
recently appropriated two thousand dol- 
lars, fifteen hundred of which is to be 
expended on a monument and five hun- 
dred dollars for a portrait of General 
Spencer. 

From this number to the close of the 
program nearly every paper and address 
assumed the nature of a Nathan Hale 
memorial. The title of Miss Dotha Stone 
Pinneo's paper being, "Nathan Hale, 
Inspirer of Men," and the story was in 
Miss Pinneos's charming and original 
manner. 

An invitation was read from the Hannah 
Woodruff Chapter of South ington, and 
accepted by vote of the meeting, that 
the next business meeting in Februarj", 
]902, be held with the Hannah Woodruff" 
Chapter. On the motion of Miss Meeker 
a unanimous vote of thanks was given the 



Norwalk Chapter for the day's entertain- 
ment. 

The morning's program closed with the 
"Recessional" sung by Mr. Albert Moss- 
man, and the entire audience adjourned 
to the Norwalk Armory, where luncheon 
was served. The table of honor was 
across one end of the large hall, and long 
tables decorated with artificial flowers 
were also set through the length of the 
hall. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

At 2 :15 the meeting was called to order 
by General Russell Frost. Led by an 
orchestra, the audience sang the Star 
Spangled Banner, and then listened to 
an able address by the Rev. Edward 
Everett Hale, D. D. of Boston. Dr. 
Hale is the son of Nathan Hale, who was 
the eldest son of Enoch Hale, who was 
the brother of Capt. Nathan Hale, the 
martyr-spy. 

The address was a very complete re- 
cord of the life of this hero who said, 
"I only regret that I have but one life 
to give for my country." 

A.fter this address General Frost in- 
troduced the Rev. Charles M. Selleck 
of Norwalk, who gave a glowing tribute 
to the character and achievements of Na- 
than Hale, and closed with a few con- 
gratulatory remarks to the D. A. R. upon 
the success of the day, and to the Nor- 
walk Chapter, upon the completion of 
their beautiful memorial. 

A letter of regret on being unable to be 
present, from Mr. George Taylor of Hunt- 
ington, L. I., was read by General Frost, 
who then introduced the Rev. S. Parkes 
Cadman, D. D. , of Brooklyn, who gave an 
address full of patriotism. 

The exercises in the armory closed with 
the audience singing the Battle Hymn of 
the Republic. 

The assembled Daughters adjourned to 
the steps of the armory where the exer- 
cises were held attendant upon the un- 
veiling of the Nathan Hale Memorial 
Fountain, given by the Norwalk Chapter 
and their patriotic friends to the town and 
city of Norwalk. The fountain was un- 
veiled by Mrs. Kinney, State Regent, 
and Mrs. Weed, regent of the local Chap- 
ter. 

With a few explanatory remarks, 
and thanking those who had made the 
gift possible, Mrs. Weed, for the Charter, 
presented the fountain, and the Hon. 
Charles Glover, mayor of Norwalk, ac- 
cepted the same in a short speech. Amer- 
ica was sung, the Rev. Mr. Selleck pro- 
nounced the benediction, and the record 
of the eighth annual conference of the 
Connecticut D. A. R. will add another 
chapter to the societies' patriotic his- 
tory. Mrs. Clarence E. Bacon, Sec'y. 



198 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



The Wadsworth Chapter of Middletown, 
as is well known, wa<5 the first chapter 
of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution to be formed in Connecticut, and 
the second in New England. 

The appointment of Mrs. D. Ward Nor- 
throp, its first regent, was made in Wash- 
ington, D. C, about a year after the 
founding of the National society of the 
D. A. R. , and this chapter was organized 
in Middletown on Feb. 1, 1892. 

From its twelve charter members, of 
whom three were charter members of the 
National society, the number has in- 
creased to one hundred members at this 
time. The whole number enrolled is one 
hundred and twenty-three. Of these 
seventeen have resigned, to be in most 
instances transferred to other chapters, 
and six have passed away in death. At 
one time we included five "Real Daugh- 
ters" in the chapter. Their names were 
as follows : Mrs. Mary McLean Willis of 
Glastonbury, Conn. ; Mrs. Amelia Adeline 
Watrous of East Hampton, Mrs. Laura 
Markham Skinner of East Hampton, Mrs. 
Abigail Foote Loomis of East Hampton, 
and Miss Mary J. Deming of East Had- 
dam. Two of these daughters of Revo- 
lutionary soldiers have passed from earth 
during the last two years : Mrs. Loomis 
in June, 1899, at the age of one hundred 
years, and Miss Deming in December, 
1899, at the age of ninety-three. Both 
retained their faculties of mind and their 
interests in the chapter. 

The work of the National society and 
that of local nature have received the aid 
nd support of the Wadsworth Chapter. 
Of the latter the task of enclosing and 
preserving from desecration and neglect 
the old Riverside cemetery, which was 
begun and helped to its completion by 
the Daughters of this chapter, is a 
striking example. 

A prize of ten dollars ($10) for the best 
essay on Governor Jonathan Trumbull, 
written by a girl of the graduating class 
of the Middletown High school, was re- 
cently offered by the chapter, and a sec- 
ond prize of five dollars (|5) was added 
by its regent. 

The officers elected June, 1900, are : 
regent, Mrs. Wm. W. Wilcox of Middle- 
town ; vice-regent, Mrs. E. B. Rosa of 
Middletown ; secretary, Mrs. W. U. Pearne 
of Middletown ; assistant- secretary. Miss 
Frances Pelton of Middletown ; registrar, 
Mrs. J. C. VanBenschoten of Middle- 
town ; assistant -registrar. Miss Jessie 
Ward of Middletown ; treasurer. Mrs W. 
T. Elmer of Middletown, and historian. 
Miss M. E. Lyman of Middlefield. 

Board of Government : Mrs. J. H. 
Bunce, Miss Elizabeth Patten, Mrs. 
Charles P. Graham of Middletown, and 
Mrs. Frank R. Hallock of Cromwell. 



The r chapter has been largely repre- 
sented ''at the National Congress and at 
the annual State conference each year. 

Many of our members have prepared 
and read at our meetings interesting his- 
torical papers. The spirit of harmcjny 
has prevailed and liberal and judicious 
aid has been given to the appeals com- 
mended to our attention during the nine 
years of this chapter's existence. 

Mary E. Lyman, historian. 

Our Stamford Chapter numbers eighty 
members. Although no great achieve- 
ments or monuments mark the year's 
work, our Timbers unite in making the 
monthly meetings a source of pleasure 
and of historical interest. 

A session of business for half an hour, 
carefully planned by the Board of Man- 
agement beforehand, has been followed 
at each meeting by a number from the 
program arranged for the year 1901 under 
the head of "England," as follows : 

January, "Home Life of Queen Vic- 
toria;" February, "Country Life in Eng- 
lish Homes;" March, ' Noted Men and 
Women of Today;" April, "Houses of 
Parliament and Bank of England;" May, 
"Lecture;" June, reading of "Prize Es- 
says. ' ' 

We have offered annual prizes to school 
children for the best essays on "Stam- 
ford During the Revolution," also stu- 
dents entering the High School for rank 
in history. We have contributed to the 
mounting of the Kearsage Gun in the 
public park ; have presented a flag to our 
Stamford boys (Company C) ; have sent 
clothing and luxuries to the soldiers dur- 
ing the Spanish-American War; and at 
present we are sending magazines and 
papers tc Manila. 

We are quietly carrying on the work 
that our ancestors in Stamford did in 
1776 — no flourish of trumpets nor beat of 
drums, but a royal hearty response to 
any call. 

We number eighty-two members : Mrs. 
N. R. Hart, regent ; Miss Mary Harwood, 
vice-regeunt ; Mrs. William N. White, 
corresponding secretary ; Miss Frances, 
recording secretary ; Mrs. John Davenport, 
historian; Mrs. Ronald Crawford, treas- 
urer. 

(Report furnished by Mrs. John Dav- 
enport. ) 

Mrs. Sarah T. Kinney, State Regent of 
the D. A. R., attended the annual meet- 
ing of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter of Hart- 
ford. She gave an account of her visit to 
the Paris Exposition as a commissioner 
from the State of Connecticut under ap- 
pointment from Governor Lounsbury, 
to be present at the unveiling of the statues 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



99 



of Washington and Lafayette. On July 
4th, when the statue of Washington was 
unveiled, American flags were flying from 
many of the public buildings, and the 
Eiffel Tower was decorated with them. 
The majority of the people in the streets 
wore small American flags or were deco- 
rated with the red, white, and blue. The 
unveiling took place about 11 o'clock in 
the morning, and a copy of the official 
program was shown the members of the 
Ruth Wyllys Chapter. The President of 
the French republic spoke and the audi- 
ence accorded him the honor of standing 
during his remarks, and also stood dur- 
ing the address of Mrs. Manning, the 
president general of the National D. A. 
R. 

After the service of the unveiling, 
Mrs. Kinney said that she drove to the 
cemetery where Lafayette is buried and 
placed a large wreath upon his grave, 
to which was attached a card telling in 
French and English that the wreath was 
the gift of the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution of Connecticut, in recog- 
nization of the services which General 
Lafayette had rendered this country. A 
bouquet of roses was placed on the grave 
of Madam Lafayette. Mrs. Kinney said 
that she formed the acquaintance of the 
Marquise De Ohambrun, the granddaugh- 
ter of the general. She visited the Mar- 
quise several times and had several visits 
in return. She thought the Marquise 
was about 80 years 'young." She was 
very young wheij her grandfather died 
and had but very little recollection of 
him. She showed Mrs. Kinney a 
picture of him which was taken after bis 
first visit to this country. The Marquise 
wears a Lafayette badge and is one of 
the thirteen in the world eligible to wear 
it. The others are the presidents general 
of the National D. A. R., the four found- 
ers, and the National French committee. 

A vote of thanks was given Mrs. Kinney 
for her tc^lk and an informal reception 
was held in her honor. 
Reports were presented by the follow- 
ing officers and committees : Mrs. Charles 
H. Lawrence, treasurer ; Mrs. Franklin 
G. Whitmore, historian ; Miss F. M. 
Olmsted, recording secretary ; Mrs. Wil- 
liam H. Palmer, chairman of the pro- 
gram committee ; Miss Mary Francis, 
chairman of the printing committee. 

Three new members have been admit- 
ted since the last meeting: Mrs. Jose- 
phine Ruggles Baker, Mrs. Robert H. 
Chapman, and Mrs. Harriet Tracy Lay. 
In accordance with the by-laws of the 
chapter, two offices were to be filled at 
this meeting — those of the regent and 
corresponding secretary becoming va- 
cant by expiration of time limit. So 
earnest had been the desire of all that 



the present regent should retain her po- 
sition, that an amendment to the by-laws 
was unanimously adopted Dec. 14, 1899, 
providing that she be eligible for re-elec- 
tion, and the chapter persuaded Mrs. 
Holcombe to accept the office again. Mrs. 
J. Gilbert Calhoun was elected corres- 
ponding secretary. The retiring secretary, 
Mrs. William C. Skinner, with Miss Jane 
Tuttle, Mrs. Ansel G. Cook, and Mrs. 
Howard H. Garmany, took the places on 
the local board of management left va- 
cant by the retirement of Mrs. Cliarles 
E. Gross, Mrs. Charles H. Smith, Mrs. 
P. H. W^oodward, and Miss Alice W. 
Stillman, whose term of office has ex- 
pired. 

A handsome folder issued by the board 
of women managers of the Pan-American 
Exposition was passed around. It con- 
tained a cordial tender of greeting and as- 
sistance to visiting daughters during the 
exposition, with special invitation for 
D. A. R day, June 14th. 



At a meeting held March 5th by Sibbil 
Dwight Kent Chapter, Suffield, reports 
were rendered concerning the National 
Congress held at Washington. Miss 
King, the historian of the chapter and 
delegate, gave a general outline of the 
business. Mrs. Harmon reported in de- 
tail &ome of the important sessions with 
D. A. R. notes, and Mrs. Street gave a 
description of the varioiis social func- 
tions. 

It being the day after President Mc- 
Kinley's inauguration, a paper was read 
descriptive of the inaugurations of all 
the Presidents from Washington to Lin- 
coln. 

The usual musical numbers inter- 
spersed completed the program, which 
was followed by refreshments and a social 
hour. 



The present Town Farm at Rockville 
was, at the period of the Revolutionary 
War, a tavern. Here Lafayette stopi^ed 
while on his visit to Connecticut, and it 
is now proposed by the Sabra Trumbull 
Chapter D. A. R. to erect there some suit- 
able memorial in commemoration of the 
visit of the French general. 



At a meeting of the National Board of 
Management, Daughters of tlie Ameri- 
can Revolution, held in Washington re- 
cently, Mrs. Hepburn-Smith, regent of 
the Freelove Baldwin Stow Chapter of 
Milford, Conn., was unanimously chosen 
vice-jiresident general to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Mrs. Person Che- 



200 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



ney, wife of Congressman Cheney of New 
Hampshire. 

Miss Alice B. Cheney, historian of the 
Orford Parish Chapter D. A. R. of South 
Manchester, has completed copying for 
the chapter the church record book and 
the society record book of Orford parish. 

The annual meeting of the Connecticut 
Society of the S. A. R. was held in East 
Haddam on June 6th, in the Nathan Hale 
schoolhouse. 

A resolution introduced by William E. 
Nichols, was unanimously passed to the 
effect that the society annually offer a 
bronze medal to that scholar in the Hale 
schoolhouse district who shall show cer- 
tain of Hale's good qualities. This boy, 
known as the Hale scholar, must have the 
flag flying on the schoolhouse 3)ole every 
day in the year. He will be given a rea- 
sonable compensation. The president ap- 
pointed William E. Nichols, Francis H. 
Parker, and Eugene Boardman as the com- 
mittee to attend to this matter. A com- 
mittee of three was appointed to arrange 
for the observing of February 22 at 
Bridgeport in 1902. 

W. E. Nichols, Charles B. Warner, Eu- 
gene Boardman, Charles C. Hart and 
Walter L. Wakefield were appointed a 



committee by the president to have charge 
of the grounds about the society's build- 
ing, making such improvements as 
might seem advisable. 

A committee was appointed to confer 
with the legislative committee regarding 
the placing of the monument to Major- 
General Joseph Spencer, whose grave 
is in Willington on the Nathan Hale 
Park. 

An invitation of the S. A. R. of New 
London to attend the celebration there 
June 17, was accepted. The headquarters 
will be at the Crocker House. During 
the meeting officers were elected as fol- 
lows : President Hon. Morgan G. Bulk- 
eley ; vice-president Hon. Daniel N. Mor- 
gan ; secretary, Walter L. Wakefield ; treas- 
urer. Colonel Henry W. Wessells ; regis- 
trar, William T. Andrews ; chaplain, Rev. 
Frederick R. Sanford ; board of managers 
A. Floyd Delafield, Isaac W. Birdseye, 
Ransom N. Fit'^.Gerald, John S. Jones, 
David H. Gould, Frederick D. Street, 
Henry N. Wayne, Hanford L. Curtis, N. 
Burton Rogers ; delegates, Hon. Morgan 
G. Bulkeley, Simon C. Sherwood, David 
H. Gould, A. Floyd Delafield, Dr. 
George J. Holmes ; alternates, James B. 
Bowen, William F. Waterbury, Henry J. 
Warren, Walter L. Wakefield, Clarence W. 
Bell. 




HISTORICAL NOTES. 



CONDUCTED BY MABEL WARD CAMERON. 



The annual meeting of the Connecti- 
cut Historical Society was lield in the 
Athcneum at Hartford, on the evening of 
May 21st, at 8 o'clock. The following 
ehictions took place : 

President — The Rev. Dr. Samuel Hart, 
Middletown. 

Vice-Presidents — James J. Goodwin, 
Hartford ; James Terry, New Haven ; 
Richard A. Wheeler, Stonington ; Morris 



W. Seymour, Bridgeport ; Theodore S. 
Gold, Cornwall ; Frank Farnsworth Starr, 
Middletown ; Ellen D. Earned, Thomp- 
son ; E. Stevens Henry, Rockville. 

Recording Secretary — Albert C. Bates, 
Hartford. 

Corresponding Secretary — The Rev. W. 
DeLoss Love, Hartford. 

Treasurer — John E. Morris, Hartford. 
Membership Committee — Joseph G. 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



201 



Woodward, Hartford ; Julius Gay, Farm- 
iiigton ; John E. Morris, Hartford ; Horace 
E. Mather, Hartford; Jane T. Smith, 
Hartford ; Albert O. Bates, Hartford ; 
Joseph L. Blanchard, Hartford. 

Library Committee — Francis H. Park- 
er, Hartford ; Williston Walker, Hartford ; 
Thomas S. Weaver, Hartford. 

Publication Committee — Albert C. 
Bates, Hartford ; Leverett Belknap, Hart- 
ford ; George S. Godaid, Hartford. 

Albert C. Bates was reappointed libra- 
rian, and the following committee en 
monthly papers chosen : P. Henry Wood- 
ward, Charles B. Whitney, Arthur L. 
Shipman, Arrangements have been made 
by which, as was done last summer, the 



Miss Edith Brand, the talented daugh- 
ter of Dr. Brand of Oberlin, Ohio, and 
was owned by her brother in whose pos- 
session it w^as during all the time he was 
pursuing his studies at the Hartford The- 
olgoical Seminary. Upon leaving the 
city he presented the picture to the Rev. 
Mr. Talmadge, assistant pastor of the 
Center church, Hartford. 

Copies have been painted which Mr. 
Talmadge intends presenting to some of 
his friends, and he has kindly permitted 
us to make this reproduction for the ben- 
efit of our readers. The execution of the 
painting has much life and vigor, and as 
it so faithfullyfrepresents a custom cf the 
past it is a most interesting work. 




MOV VAin ARE ALL.TMinGS 



E BELOW! 



rooms of the society will be open as usual 
during the librarian's vacation. 

Vice-President, James J. Goodwin has 
recently given the society a set of two 
English publications. ' ' The Genealogist, ' ' 
devoted to family history ; and ' ' The In- 
dex Library," which prints English jiar- 
ish registers and similar records. Both 
are quarterly maga,zines. 

Through the courtesy of the Rev. 
Mr. Talmadge, who owns the original 
picture, we are able to give the above 
reproduction of a painting of an old- 
time village choir. 

The original painting is the work of 



Norwalk will celebrate its 350th birth- 
day on Sept. 11, 1901, the anniversary of 
the date on which its existence was rec- 
ognized by the Connecticut court. At the 
request of the selectmen of the town the 
Historical and Memorial Library Asso- 
ciation has devised a plan for a three days' 
celebration, which will inchide orations, 
a parade, memorial papers in the churches 
and other appropriate exercises. It is 
hoped that Norwalk' s sons and daughters 
who have settled far and wide over the 
country will return to honor the old 
town. The executive committee con- 
sists of the following representative men : 
Hon. A. B. Woodward, J. R. MiU-viu, I. 



202 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



S. Raymond, Hon. J. H. Ferris, C. W. 
Bell, M. M. Lee, C. L. Glover, Dr. J. C. 
Gregory, and J. H. Light. 



Mr. Charles H. McKee of Hartford, 
has in his possession a number of Colo- 
nial doouments which he has inherited. 
They include old deeds dating back to 
1738, military commissions, and letters, 
and various memoranda. 

The commissions of Samuel Cooper of 
Chatham in order of promotion in King 
George's colonial army are among the 
documents. The first as Ensign was giv- 
en in 1774. The second and third, both 
dated 1775, raise him to the rank of sec- 
ond and first lieutenant respectively. 
These papers have the signature of Jon- 
athan Trumbull, who was then Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, and are also count- 
ersigned by George Wyllys. 

Carefully preserved are also letters 
from Lieutenant Cooper to his wife, writ- 
ten while the former was in camp with 
the Continental army at Roxbury in 
1775. Written in the stilted style of the 
period, yellow with age and worn in the 
creases of the quaintly folded sheet, they 
bring to us a page from the unpublished 
history of the camp-life, and an echo 
reaches us from the happy peaceful 
homes upon which the Revolutionary 
soldiers turned their backs when they 
went forth from town and hamlet to 
serve their country. 

The original subscription list of Wash- 
ington (now Trinity) College has recently 
come to light, and has been given into the 
hands of President George Williamson 
Smith. The contents will not be given 
to the public until the document has been 
examined by the publication committee. 

The college charter was granted in 1823 
and on account of the liberality of the 
subscriptions obtained in Hartford the 
buildings of the college were erected 
in that city. 



Mr. Stoeckel of Norfolk, has purchased 
the old homestead in West Torrington 
where John Brown, the abolitionist, was 
born. He proposes to hold the place until 
a "John Brown Association" is formed, 
when he will make a deed of gift to such 
an association. The house is in a dilap- 
idated condition, but can be restored, and 
Mr. Stoeckel suggests tliat, after such 
restoration has been made and a custodian 
put in charge, the house should be made a 
museum for relics of John Brown and his 
time. 

J. H. Vaill of Winsted has a very val- 
uable autograph letter from John Brown 
which was written to Mr. Vaill's father, 
Rev. Dr. Vaill, while Brown was await- 



ing execution in Charlestown jail. Mr. 
Vaill has had repeated requests for the let- 
ter from historical and other societies, but 
has preferred to retain it as a family 
heirloom, John Brown having been one 
of Dr. Vaill's pupils. If the Brown 
house should be made a depository for 
such relics Dr. Vaill will deposit the let- 
ter there. Other reminders of John Brown 
and his time are known to exist in Litch- 
field county and have been promised for 
the proposed museum. 

It is an interesting fact that JohnBrown's 
father, Owen Brown, went from Norfolk 
and purchased the John Brown place 
in 1799 and now after the lapse of a century 
the property has been conveyed to an- 
other Norfolk man, who has expressed a 
wish that his ownership be brief in 
order that so valuable an historic relic 
should not remain in the hands of an in- 
dividual. There are a hundred acres of 
land in the place and it is famous for 
trailing arbutus. 

John Brown was born May 9th, 1800. 
Captain John Brown, a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War, was an ancestor. 
When five years old John Brown was tak- 
en to Ohio whither his parents moved, 
and from that time his connection with 
Connecticut ceased. While yet a little 
child he made friends of the neighboring 
Indians, and when staying in the house 
in which a slave boy of his own age was 
sadly abused, he became, to use his own 
words, "a most determined abolitionist," 
and was led to swear eternal war with 
slavery, a fact which ultimately led to 
his tragic end. About 1854 he moved 
to Kansas and took up a claim eight or 
ten miles from Osawatomie ; and it was 
on account of his having established his 
home in that locality that later on in 
life he was known as "Osawatomie 
Brown. ' ' 



The diary of Major Andr6, after lying 
hidden for a hundred years, has been dis- 
covered in England. This interesting 
find was made by Lord Grey the other 
day while he was going over a lot of old 
family papers that probably had not been 
disturbed since the conclusion of the 
American war of independence. 

Lord Grey's great grandfather was a 
commander of British troops in America 
at that time and Andre served on his 
staff. This accounts for the diary being 
in the possession of the present peer. The 
diary is apparently the original, but in 
order to make sure that it is not a copy 
Lord Grey is sending over to the United 
States to secure samples of Andre's hand- 
writing, none of which can be obtained 
here. 

The diary is a story of the campaign, 
day by day, during the years 1777-1778. 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



203 



It is simply but interestingly told from 
the soldier's standpoint, and is accompan- 
ied by maps, apparently drawn by Andre 
himself and with a skill that would make 
him the equal of any military hydro- 
grapher of today. The diary ceases too 
early to throw new light upon the mo- 
tives which prompted the tragic ending 
of his career, but it gives interesting 
glimpses of the personality of one of the 
historical figures of the Revolution. 



Derby, Connecticut. — The first volume 
of the records of the old town of Derby, 
Connecticut, dating from 1665 to 1717, 
has been copied and will be published if 
a sufficient number of subsscribers is se- 
cured. The copy has been examined by 
experts and pronounced exact. It in- 
cludes Indian deeds, and various other 
matters. It is proposed to print it in 
a volume 7x10)^ inches in size, of 513 
pages, with an index of 32 three-column 
pages, the binding to be of Buckram. 
The price of the book will be |5, payable 
when it is ready for delivery, wh'.ch will 
not be before the early summer. Those 
desiring to encourage the publication of 
these valuable records should at once noti- 
fy Mrs. A. W. Phillips, Derby, Connect- 
icut. 



Through the generosity of Colonel H. 
Holton Wood of Boston, the city of Der- 
by is to have a free public library. It 
will be undoubtedly one of the finest 
buildings in the State. Colonel Wood 
has already bought the land, the site se- 
lected being in the best residential dis- 
trict ; he will also give books to the value 
of $5,000, provided that an equal sum be 
raised elsewhere for the same purpose. 
The Board of Apportionment has already 
appropriated |3500 to that end, and sub- 
scriptions from citizens have been so- 
licited. 

Those who have already subscribed are : 
Charles N. Clark, W. Sidney and Charles 
N. Downs, Edwin Hallock, Rufus W. 
Blake, Charles B. Ailing, Edwin B. 
Gager, William H. Williams, Mrs. Thom- 
as Radcliffe, Charles H. Nettleton, Miss 
Carrie Ailing, John Peterson, Edward 
M. Oldham, Albert W. . Phillips, Walter 
N. Sperry, Thomas S. Birdseye, James 
N. Wise, and Captain Sanford E. Chaffee. 

Owing to the courtesy of Mr. Charles 
T. Welles, we are able to give repro- 
ductions of photographs of the new me- 
morial tablets recently placed in Center 



church. The tablets, which are to the 
memory of the Rev. Mr. Walker and the 
Rev. Mr. Lamson, have been placed at 
the west end of the church. At the un- 
veiling a sermon was preached by the 
Rev. Dr. Albert J. Lyman, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., who paid an eloquent tribute to 
the two former pastors of the church 

An inscription in Greek is upon the 
entablature of each tablet. The trans- 
lation of that upon the Walker tablet is 
from II Corinthians, IV, 18: 'While we 
look not at the things which are seen, 
but at the things which are not seen, for 
the things which are seen are temporal ; 
but the things which are not seen are 
eternal. ' ' 

That on the Lamson tablet is from 
II Corinthians, III, 18 : 'But we all with 
open face, beholding as in a glass the 
glory of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image from glory to glory, even as 
by the spirit of the Lord." 



There must have been some good rea- 
son why a discharge relating to a soldier 
in a Massachusetts regiment, and signed 
by Washington at Newburgh, N. Y., 
should have been copied into the town 
records of Wethersfield, Conn. Perhaps 
Hector Williams was a Wethersfield man. 
On page 130, Wethersfield Town Votes 
No. 1, is the following record : 

"By His Excellency General Wash- 
ington, Commander-in-Chief of the Arm- 
ies of the United States, etc., Hector 
Williams, Soldier in the seventh Regi- 
ment of the Massachusetts having been 
certified by a Board of officers appointed 
for the examination of the Invalids of the 
Army, as unfit for any f artlier Duty either 
in the field or Garrison, good for nothing, 
is hereby discharged from the service cf 
the United States — Given under my Hand 
at Head Quarters Newburgh this 31st day 
of December 1783. 

"G. Washington. 
By his Excellency's Command 
Ben Walker A. D. C. 
Registered in the Books of the 
Regiment 
Jona Haskil, Adjutant." 



Was Consider Tiffany, the Hartland To- 
ry, a novelist? The manuscrij^t of a story 
entitled "Ernest Clay, the British Spy,''' 
has been found among other old papers 
belonging to his descendants, and is now 
in the possession of a gentleman residing 
in Windsor. 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The Hartjord Daily Times has started a 
department for genealogical research, and 
will devote one or more columns to the 
subject every Monday. This is the only 
daily paper in the Connecticut valley to 
take up this work. The department is 
under the charg3 of an expert well versed 
in New England family records, and the 
work will be of much benefit. It is, of 
course, in a line with what we, as a mag- 
azine, are prepared to do. 



There is but one perfect method that a 
grateful people can adopt who seek to 
do honor to the dead ; it is to reincarnate 
in some living organization the spirit by 
which the dead man worked, and the faith 
or achievement that made him great. 
Not by marble mausoleum or granite mon- 
ument can we pay worthj' tribute to his 
memory, these things are self limited 
and impotent for good, but by taking up 
his unfinished task and with larger ardor 
and wider opportunity carrying it on to 
the end. 

The State o f Connecticut has been the 
birth place of many great men, and in the 
long honor roll the name of Noah Webster 
has his high position : in the service 
rendered to the young by his spelling 
book and grammar, the indispensible aid 
given to the scholar tlirough the diction- 
ary, and the help and encouragement that 
thoughtful men and women have received 
by his noble work as moralist, philoso- 
pher, and politician. All that he did was 
good, and when the nation was strug- 
gling with both material difficulty and 
literary weakness the encouragement it 
received from him was one great stimu- 
lus that helped its subsequent magnifi- 
cent progress. 

The real value of his scholastic work 
in the formation of the English language 
is shown in this, that progress has not 
superseded his book with something bet- 
ter. The last edition of his Dictionary 

204 



being issued in the"! current [year, and 
truly named The International, is so 
valuable that the fame of its author 
grows in exact proportion to the increase 
of the influence of the English speaking 
world. 

It is proposed now to do something more 
than the republishing of his great book. 
A large committee formed of iafluential 
men and women, whose names are given 
below, believe that the time has come 
when in his birth place in West Hartford 
a suitable Memorial Building should be 
erected, with library, reading room, and 
all modern aids to the intellectual life. 
In that building a room could be built 
with the material taken from the home 
where he was born, and in the keeping of 
those walls, hallowed by such priceless 
associations, a copy of each of his original 
works could be placed, and so would be 
preserved the accidental associations and 
the great mental treasures that make his 
memory precious. 

A goodly measure of success has al- 
ready encouraged the committee. Th,ey 
have pledges of money and offer#[^of 
land for a site, and in time will carry 
their undertaking to a successful issue, 
but we hope that whatever they decide 
to do may be adequate to the importance 
of their task. The position of the Web- 
ster Memorial Building should be central 
and commanding, the building worthy of 
the man whose fame it seeks to perpet- 
uate, and to this end every person who 
has been helped by him should in some 
way contribute so that the Memorial may 
not be the offering of the rich and schol- 
arly only, but an expression of the grat- 
itude of poorer people whose lot in life 
he has made easier by taking away some 
of the obstacles from the path of mental 
culture and power. 

This gift from all is richly merited by 
the service the Webster family has given 
to the State. One of the ancestors of 
Noah was Governor Webster, and many 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



205 



members of the family have toiled in its 
behalf. The City of Hartford should re- 
member one of the early Hartford educat- 
ors. 

"The Noah Webster Memorial A.sso- 
ciation was incorporated in 1899. 

Article Second of its Constitution reads : 
"The object of this association shall be 
to procure subscriptions for the erection 
of, and to erect a Memorial Library 
Building in memory of Noah Webster, 
LL. D., in the Town of West Hartford, 
and the maintenance of a library and 
reading room in said Library Building. 

The corporate members elected a board 
of fifteen directors : Dr. Henry R. Barn- 
ard, Rev. William Webster Belden, 
Charles D. Hine, Charles Edward Beach, 
Philemon R. Day, Mrs. Hattie Elizabeth 
Smith, Mrs. Kate Elane Way, Gen. Jo- 
seph R. Hawley, Charles Dudley Warner, 
James M. Thomson, John O. Enders, Hy- 
man F. Smith, Mrs. Caroline Hovey 
Lines, Miss Caroline S. Hewins, Mrs 
Frances Augusta Clark ; who elected the 
following officers : 

Charles Dudley Warner, president ; 
Charles Edward Beach, vice-president ; 
Fannie A. Clark, secretary ; John O. En- 
ders, treasurar. 

Charles Hopkins Clark succeeds Mr. 
Warner, deceased, as president. 



In connection with the subject of gen- 
ealogy the following on the Pride of An- 
cestry, by Mr. H. Phelps Arras, is well 
worth reading: 

There are many persons, even among 
the most enlightened, who affect to de- 
spise the sentiment that fosters the spirit 
of reverence for one's ancestry ; who smile 
at the notion that a man should seriously 
consider it worth while to pour over old 
genealogical records and seek to establish 
the fact that the blood of good men and 
true courses through his veins ; that the 
pa||^ of his life-book are replete with the 
achievements of a noble line of kindred ; 
that he is entitled, therefore, by virtue 
of this ancestry and his individual worth 
to claim a still higher place among the 
favored ones of his state and country. 
Isn't it a suggestion of cynicism to dis- 
courage such sentiments? Should we 
not rather applaud those who strive to 
uphold the family name, who take a com- 
mendable and just pride in their ances- 
try, as forces in civic life of the greatest 
magnitude. 

There are historical as well as socio- 
logical reasons of the most urgent char- 
acter that would seem to impose upon 
every family as a serious duty the preser- 
vation of its genealogical record. It mat- 
ters not how modest that record is, so that 
it is an honorable one. 

From a sociological point of view no 
greater guide, we venture to assert, to 
right living can be adduced tlian that fur- 



nished by the pracept and example of a 
good family. Many a man not over strong 
in character has refrained in moments of 
temptation to take the fatal leap into 
darkness and ruin through a latent spark 
of loyalty to his good family name, and 
this, too, where all considerations of a 
moral or religious character have failed. 
This reliance may be more human than 
divine, and may in the case of a hopeless 
and determined wrong-doer fail in effica- 
cy, but there is no question of the pre- 
ponderance of evidence in favor of its 
power. It can be proved beyond a rea- 
sonable doubt that there are thousands 
of men and women today who are 
within the outer enclosure of a darkened 
and evil life — dishonest and cruel men and 
women in all conditions in life. Many of 
these pause at the inner and final gate, 
hesitating to throw off the mask of re- 
spectability and rush in avowed and open 
outlaws of society. It is only considera- 
tion of personal comfort and social well- 
being that dissuades them. It is not even 
the fear of God, nor is it for pity of those 
near and dear to them. It is wholly a 
matter of loyalty to the family as a whole, 
an innate, fundamental regard for the 
reputation which that family represents 
as against the isolation and odium of an 
outcast. 

For those who are of strong and lofty 
character what a splendid incentive to 
effort is the record of a long line of brave 
and able ancestors ! 

An analysis of any given number of the 
published genealogical works of the best 
families of today would undoubtedly 'dis- 
close a most gratifying, though not at 
all surprising, agreement on all the points 
contended for here. In the divisions and 
subdivisions of the various branches of 
these families there is hardly a blot — 
that is, there are few records of crimi- 
nals. By this is meant, it is safe to say, 
that there is only a fraction of the whole 
number who have openly cast the cloak of 
respectability aside and donned the garb 
of outlaw. Many names, it is true, are to 
be found that have been those of weak 
men and women, and many of them 
scoundrels, but these have contrived to 
hover on the outskirts of a reputable life, 
sham though it be, and save the family 
name from public disgrace. 

We hope the time is not far distant 
when every state in the Union will 
have its historical and genealogical mag- 
azine wherein all its sons and daughters 
may see engraved, as on an ever-present 
escutcheon, the virtues and achievements 
of those who have erone before them, and 
where they in turn shall in the course of 
time take the positions they have earned 
— to the honor of the land that gave them 
their opportunity and equipment in the 
work of life. 




'aDji^iry^ 




BOOK NOTES AND REVIEWS. 



The very generous donor of Hubbard 
Park, Meriden, has done a service tc 
those who are not able to visit it that 
will in some measure compensate for the 
deprivation, in the publication of a series 
of views representing selected "bits" of 
its exquisite scenery. So good are they 
that they might be published as pictures 
of fairy-land. They are half-tone pict- 
ures, finished to perfection, and the col- 
lection is vt^orth preservation as an art 
souvenir. 

The third edition of "In Cloisters 
Dim,'' by Charles Cnrty, Hahn, literary 
editor of the World- Herald, is having a 
large advance sale. It was the New York 
Sun that said of this volume: "A little 
book of poems, of feeling and delicacy, 
which tells a story. The title reflects a 
sacred gloom of monastery life. The 
.first poem tells how a lover kneels in a 
Franciscan chapel with the lady whom he 
loves, while three monks are chanting 
the service in the twilight ; and as they 
kneel the man knows that the girl by his 
side is praying for him. Years pass. His 
lady-love is dead. As he cannot turn to 
another, even the fairest cf women, he 
seeks the same monastery in which they 
two knelt that evening. The next poem 
shows him years after, when, "in cloist- 
ers dim," he has found peace. Then fol- 
lows the song to his lady-love in which 
he sings that for "her calm face" he bet- 
ter grows ; and later still, years after, 
the priest, still faithful to the love of his 
youth, kneels in the cloister, and pressing 
his crucifix to his lips, says : 
"Naught else I kiss* in this great world. 

My heart is wrapt in Thee ; 
But the pain within my wounded side 

None but my God can see." 

The sale of the Rev. Wm. J. Long's 
"Wilderness Way.-," is up in the fifteen 
thousands, and still active. 

The controversy about the relative val- 
206 



ues of "David Harum" and "Eben Hol- 
den" may be simplified if the debaters will 
analyze the characters. The banker is 
stronger and more original than his rival 
Eben, and the latter is more refined than 
the majority of "hired men." On the 
other hand the subordinate characters 
in the latter book are by far the best, 
and therefore there is a better balance 
and higher average worth in the more re- 
cent publication. 



There is a great fascination always in 
the power of the orator. When a man 
by force of simple words can move the 
emotions and alter the convictions of mul- 
titudes of people, every auditor envies 
the speaker the knowedge of the art by 
which such wonderful effects are wrought, 
and asks, if it is possible that the power 
can ever be his own. 

The history of oratory proves beyond 
all question that as an art it can be ac- 
quired by painstaking effort ; that like 
all other arts, it has rules and laws, sys- 
tem and method, and the student who has 
mastered its details need not fear that 
the secret will evade him when he has 
occasion to test the valae of his knowl- 
edge by the endeavor to influence his 
fellows in any branch of public life. 

The Handbook of Oratory gives in its 
summaries of the writings of the leaders 
of public speech all the really necessary 
counsel about the principles that under- 
lie the orator's power. It is the most ex- 
haustive compilation of method and 
practice ever published, and the ignorant 
aspirant for platform skill will find in 
the book the most perfect guidance to 
the acquisition of the knowledge that 
he desires ; nothing better can be found 
for his purpose. Besides this the scholar 
and the literary student will find satisfact- 
ion in it. Commencing with Aristotle 
and coming down to the present genera- 
tion, it culls from every age and nation 
those imperishable words that the great- 



BOOK NOTES AND REVIEWS. 



207 



est leaders of men in art and politics 
have uttered, words that will live forever. 
And to all who wish to have in their pos- 
session the greatest speeches of the great- 
est men, the book can be confidently rec- 
ommended. 

(The Handbook of Oratory, by William 
Vincent Byars, 557 pages. Price $5.00, 
F. P. Kaiser, St. Louis, Chicago, pub- 
lisher. 



The writer of this remarkable book 
has selected one of the most tragic his- 
torcial events for the leading theme of 
his story, and has made an interesting 
book out of the material. The protest 
of Pilate's wife against the crucifixion 
of our Saviour suggests a woman of 
courage, love of right and great nobility. 
The author has done justice to his hero- 
ine, and will be read with 9:est by those 
who see in the history of the early church 
the world's most heroic epoch. 

("She Stands Alone," by Mark Ashton. 
Published by L. C. Page & Co., Boston. 
Price 11.50.) 



Mrs Delia Bidwell Ward has written a 
very sweet and simple poem in praise of 
"The Old Homestead," and, unfortunate- 
ly, there are only one hundred copies for 
private circulation. . This is to be re- 
gretted. For every person who has well- 
trained art tastes would like to possess 
a copy — the illustrations are so quaint, 
and the printing unique, done upon pale- 
blue blotting paper and wrapped in the 
same color of a darker tint. Those who 
are fortunate enough to possess a copy 
will treasure it, not only for its artistic 
but historic value as well. The house 
pictured was the old homestead of the 
Bidwell family, built by one Jonathan 
Bidwell. And the poem has the savor 
that can only be given by the strength of 
family feeling aided by the power of 
song. The illustrations are the work of 
Mr. Chambers, of the New York World. 

("The Old Homestead," by Delia Bid- 
well Ward; published by The Triptych, 
New York. 



This is another book where the scenes 
are laid in Revolutionary War-times, 
and has less strength and attractiveness 
than most of the ot];iers. It lacks vigor 
and verisimilitude. There is not a char- 
acter in it that has special merit. The 
hero is described as a paragon of virtue 
in the introduction, but turns out to be a 
very ordinary mortal when you find him 
out. And generally speaking, the hero- 
ine ought to be ashamed of herself, and 
would be, no doubt, if she were a real 



woman. But hardly a suspicion of life 
clings to her, from first to last, so the 
reader will be mildly amused by her folly, 
but never indignant or provoked. You 
can either take it up or lay it down with- 
out anxiety or hope, and when it is fin- 
ished the knowledge that all has ended 
wsU will matter very little to you. The 
only difficult question will be — why it 
was written at all. ("Philip Winwood,'' 
by Robert Neilson Stephen. L. C. Page 
& Co., Boston, publishers.) 



The Hon. Ralph D. Smith, during his 
lifetime, gave much laborious research 
into the early history of the old town, 
and prepared an elaborate manuscript 
embodying the results of his work. The 
task had many difficulties, as Guilford, 
liko many other towns, unfortunately 
took but little care of the records that 
now would be of priceless worth. Still, 
with approximate truth, we have given 
us in the book the list of the men whose 
work in the seventeenth century laid the 
foundation for the after-prosperity of the 
settlement. Specially valuable is the sec- 
tion that deals with the educational in- 
terests, the schools, the institute, and the 
churches. 

The work is published in a somewhat 
imperfect condition, as, although it was 
no doubt the author's intention to finish 
it, yet for some reason it was never done. 
What we have, however, is of great in- 
terest and will repay attention. 

("The History of Guilford; from its 
Settlement in 1639, "by the Hon. Ralph 
D.Smith. J. Munsill, publisher. |3.00.) 



Every writer of a successful book 
should lie fallow for awhile. The author 
of 'Black Rock" weakened in the "Sky 
Pilot" as plainly as the writer of the 
"Bonnie Briar Bush" did in subsequen j 
stories. It is all very well to take ad- 
vantage of a favorable breeze, but a 
young author cannot afford in the long 
run to do work below the average of his 
first production. 



There is a great deal of artistic talent 
displayed in the make-up and matter of 
Tht' Faniiingtoii M(i(ia:i)h\ a new monthly 
issued by tlio literati of Farmington. that 
beautiful suburb of Hartford. Some of its 
articles are of great interest. "Winter 
Birds," by R. B. Brandegee is especially 
good. Miss Annie E. Trumbull contrib- 
utes an excellent story. Poetry is above 
the average quality. We wish it all 
success. 



208 



BOOK NOTES AND REVIEWS. 



In" Early Connecticut Houses" there 
are given sketches, plans, and descrip- 
tions of a number of old houses built 
during the years from 1635 to 1750, and 
that have stood until the present day. 
And some admirable features are ap- 
parent—not the least being the resolve of 
the people that the space enclosed should 
hold for its inmates so many conveniences 
as the circumstanes of the times per- 
mitted. Of course, there v^^as v^hat we 
consider waste space in the great chim- 
neys, but that was unavoidable. But 
generally the comfort and security of the 
inmates were well considered. 

We are not advocating a return to the 
old simplicity in all modern architecture, 
but we would recommend to all our 
builders of houses the idea that no part 
of a structure can be an adornment that 
is useless, and every part of it should 
reflect the best spirit of the age. 

In this book we have good pictures of 
several houses, and accurate descriptions 
of the structure of every part of the 
building, down to the least details ; and 
it will be read with pleasure by every 
person who is interested in the preser- 
vation of the history of the State and the 
doings of the people who have made it 
what it is. 

In the strength of these houses we have 
portrayed the sturdiness of the builders' 
characters ; and in their simplicity the 
rugged honesty that so sharply contrasts 
with much of the cheap show of our 
more recent years. ("Early Connecti- 
cut Houses, An Historical and Archi- 
tectural Study,' by Isham & Brown. 
Preston & Rounds Co., publishers. Prov- 
idence, R. I. ) 



Somewhat different in character from 
"Ancient Windsor," reviewed in our 
last number, is "Historical Sketches" of 
Windsor, by Jabez Hayden. But not less 
worthy, and it is even more interesting, as 
it has the charm that always clings to the 
personal element. Much of it consists of 
reminiscences of the author, and he de- 
scribes in simple style and with keen 
power, the things and people that he 
was and knew two or three generations 
ago. There is fidelity to life, and the 
anecdotes with which the pages are in- 
terspersed will amuse as well as interest. 

Some parts of the book deal with mat- 



ters of historic character, but all is t^^ld 
in the narrative style ; so, differing from 
a purely genealogical work. But the in- 
formation is evact and reliable, and there- 
fore valuable. ("Historical Sketches," 
by Jabez H. Hayden. Cloth |1.50. 
Published by The Windsor Locks Journal. 

A new magazine, The Records of The 
Past, has made its appearance, edited by 
the Rev. Henry Mason Baum, D. C. L., 
and if as well conducted in the future as 
the first number promises, it will be a 
valuable addition to the study-tables of 
all who are interested in the life of the 
long ago. Its purpose is to present— by 
clearly written articles and exact pictures 
— the story of the past, exhumed from 
mounds, cities hidden under the dust of 
centuries, and documents discovered in 
the old hiding-places where they have 
been too long forgotten. 

Men who are qualified by a lifetime's 
devotion to this work are contributors to 
this new journal and each paper in the 
initial number is worthy. We very 
heartily commend it to all who think 
that the story of the old days is too in- 
teresting to be neglected. It is published 
in monthly numbers at Washington, D. 
C. Annual subscription, $2. 



We have pleasure in announcing that a 
new novel by the Rev. Magee Pratt, the 
Literary Editor of this Magazine, is in 
press, and will be published shortly by 
us. It is a study of ministerial life as 
actually lived in this state during the last 
ten years ; made up of incidents that re- 
veal the need of a revival of true Chris- 
tian principle. 

There is no need to tell the readers of 
this Magazine anything of Mr. Pratt's 
skill as a literary artist. His articles in 
its pages are sufficient recommendation, 
and in his book he has woven a story at 
once dramatic and true. It will help us 
as publishers of the book if our friends 
will send in adv^ance orders which will 
be filled without needless delay. We ex- 
pect a large sale and will be helped by 
this method. The book will be published 
on Oct. 1st, cloth bound, with portrait, 
and will run about 60,000 words. Price 
$1.00, postpaid. 

Address Rev. Magee Pratt, Conn. Mag- 
azine Co., Hartford, Conn. 



THE HOME. 



209 



THE HOME. 



The Art of Right Living. 



BY REV. MAGEE PRATT. 

The people who live in a house where 
only the concerns of business and of 
present pleasure are objects of consider- 
ation, live a very restricted life. They 
may be both useful and estimable people, 
but they suffer from unnecessary limi- 
tations, and are confined to narrow 
bounds, beyond which are many of the 
best possessions this world enjoys- Hap- 
pily, there is never a time when the life 
of man cannot be enlarged. A natural 
elasticity is the blessing of humanity, 
but to obtain a large nature and wide out- 
look the proper natural method is to in- 
duce growth in the days of youth. 

There is something pathetic in the do- 
ings of those people who suddenly find 
themselves rich, and at once manifest a 
desire to open communications with the 
past. They buy old furniture, old pic- 
tures, and old books ; purchase portraits 
that bear the marks of antiquity, and then 
trust that a very wide circle of charitable 
friends will link on the visib le present of 
the family to the fabled past that is show- 
ing its shadows upon the wals, or lies en- 
closed in the bookcases in the house. 

Their act is the instinctive protest of 
the mind against narrowness and little- 
ness — the effort to appear larger than the 
limit of present things allows to the half- 
trained life. It is the stretching forth of 
the mind in a blind and almost involunta- 
ry way to enclose within itself the things 
that are worthy, that in concrete form 
have vanisiied away. 

The blessings of a large heart and well- 
stored mind are past all computation. 
Fluctuations of the stock-market do not 
decrease their values ; bankruptcy will 
not estrange their treasures; they are 
part of the man, and the man is so 
much greater and more valuable because 
he has them. 

Tn every house the materials out of 
which this larger life can be fashioned 
may be gathered ; they are easily accessi- 
ble to the poorest, while precious beyond 
all price, and if they are absent the house 
is barren of the best things, and has the 
visible marks of insignificance stamped 
all over it. 

The truth is, that no person is a seif- 
contained entity: the methods of pro- 
gress are by association. But as no man 
makes gold, but gathers it so that he may 
be rich, so no man makes wisdom, knowl- 
edge, culture, art ; he but picks up the 
priceless things from the places where 
dead men have laid them down, or live 



ones have deposited them. And though 
each of us, if we are skilled, can fashion 
the treasures in new and better shapes, 
yet it is past our power to make them for 
ourselves 

All the good things in the world— all 
that are and that ever have been — belong 
to every man and woman in it, and there 
is only one condition nature makes : that 
we make them our own by a process of 
assimilation. To look at them is not 
enough ; we must absorb them and so 
appropriate their values. The process in 
one sense is easy ; in another it is hard. 

Every individual man ought to be a 
better man than all the multitude of good 
and wise men that have gone before. Ho- 
mer, Plato, Aristotle, Dante, Goethe, 
Shakspeare gave the whole of all they 
had. 

David had no song he has not sung ; 
Solomon no wisdom we are not taught ; 
Paul no logic that is not written. And all 
of who are thoughtful can make the 
aggregate of every best thought and thing 
in the world our own inalienable posses- 
sion by careful study and some sacrifice of 
time. And if our modern claim of a high- 
er moral nature is a t-ue one, the poorest 
artisan should be a nobler illustration of 
moial virtue than any saint or philosopher 
that ever lived through all the vanished 
past. 

And failing this it proves that either 
the moral nature is not improved, or that 
the modern man willfully neglects the 
means of progress that lie close to his 
hand. 

One of the purposes for which this mag- 
azine lives is to help this work of making 
the good things that have been — and now 
are not — in our state life, accessible to 
everybody ; to preserve the best our fore- 
fathers enjoyed, not for the sake of grat- 
ifying an idle curiosity, but for a far bet- 
ter purpose— the ennobling and uplifting 
of the present. 

A man does not climb higher by mount- 
ing aloft on his own shoulders, but by 
lifting himself on and above his progeni- 
tors. In this state we are rich in these 
aids to progress, and the people who help 
us gather the memorials of other years 
do it that the present-time life and strug- 
gles may be easier for those who are now 
engaged in them. 

What we are doing- in a very circum- 
scribed manner others have done in a 
large and magnificent way. Everything 
of worth the world has had in its cheq- 
uered existence is yet present with us. 
Up from caves where prehistoric man 
laid himself down to die ; through the 
battlefields where the brute man fought 
his way to power ; in the cities where civ- 
ilization first wrought its beautifying 
work and taught the blessings of unity; 



210 



PUBLISHERS' NOTES. 



by the groves of laurel and olive where 
great thoughts and splendid arts were 
born ; in company of saints and Saviours 
whose words have been the regeneration 
of multitudes, the poorest child of earth 
can walk in this age of universal knowl- 
edge. No house can be complete without 
the records ; no man can really live unless 
he is familiar with them. A few dollars 
will purchase the wealth of all time ; a few 
hours each week given faithfully will 
make the best of it the property of the 
careful student. And then when all other 
things have gone from us — if health fails 
and friends forsake and the children's 
voices ring through the old rooms no 
more — still there will be with us the seers 
and sages who are always faithful and 
whose words give comfort and peace when 
nearer and dearer voices fall on our long- 
ing ears no more. 

And by what fancied gift of liberty do 
we neglect these things? A man is not 
his own. No human being has the right 
of complete self-government. What man 
now is, in his power and wonderful 
strength, is not by his own achievement. 
He has the wealth of the ages in his 
keeping ; is guardian of the riches won by 
the toils and tears of others ; he is part of 
a social compact whose highest duty is 
for all to do their share to prevent decay 
and loss ; to make the world an easier 
place for those to walk in whose feet are 
being fashioned in the womb of time ; 
and the man is recreant to his noblest 
trust who neglects himself and his own 
soul's life, and so lessens the power that 
makes the motive-impulse for the deeds 
of the unknown future. 

There are some in the world for whose 
services to the common good God has 
paid before-hand. All inherited wealth 
is but a mortgage held by the Almighty 
upon the time and talents of the fortunate. 
They are absolved from the heritage of 
toil for daily bread that they may serve 
the multitude who are almost crushed by 
hard conditions, and teach the lesson of 
human brotherhood by helpful deeds of 
love. If they forsake, their holy task and 
waste the golden hours in senseless play, 
the accumulated interest of sorrow and 
disgrace must be paid at God's own time. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTES. 



Our readers will be interested to know 
that an article on the Town of Wsthers- 
field will appear in the next issue of the 
( 'oitiwrflriif. Magaziiw. The article is from 
the pen of Rev. Lewis Hicks who for 
many years was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in that town and is fully 
conversant with Wethersfield history and 
its people. Profuse illustrations will 
brighten the sketch of this famous old 
town, which all lovers of history will ap- 
preciate. 

The second paper on Old Windsor will 



also appear in the next issue, fully illus- 
trated. 

We have a great many of the old cuts 
on hand that were used during the last 
few years, of which we are willing to 
dispose at half the original price. 

An opportunity for reliable young men 
is offered on the opposite page by a reli- 
able Hartford concern. The Connecticut 
Magazine fully endorses the enterprise and 
its backers. 



Handsome home libraries are nowa- 
days almost as indispensable to a well 
equipped home as are the chairs, tables, 
pictures and crockery. We have a great 
many inquiries regarding the binding of 
the old Connecticut Quarterlies and Maga- 
zines. It is evident that the bulk of our 
circulation occupies library space in hand- 
some covers, as each volume is completed. 
For our readers' benefit we would sug- 
gest, if you desire good binding of any 
sort, that you call on or communicate 
with F. O. Becher, the book-binder at No. 
9 Asylum Street, H artford. Conn. He has 
the art to perfection. 



The following letter from one of our 
subscribers "hits the nail on the head." 
We believe it will do all doubters good to 
read the following letter : 

Washington, D. O. 

' ' Sir : — Enclosed please find my personal 
check for two iloUars, to cover subscrip- 
tion price of theMagazine for current year. 
Have been dilatory about remitting, but 
not from lack of interest in the Magazine. 
To me it seems very valuable and I should 
regret much to need to give it up. To a 
Connecticut man, and one who has been 
about the state somewhat, the illustrat- 
ed sketches and histories of the towns 
and of the old-time notables, and other 
home data, are invaluable. The price is 
not to be considered in such a case. One 
can readily see that you cannot afford to 
prepare siicJi a publication at a price below 
two dollars. It must be regarded as a 
specialty, and all specialties cos^-and they 
are worth their cost to those who need 
them and appreciate them. 

Once you wrote me that you would 
reprint the first year's issue if you could 
obtain subscribers enough to warrant it. 
Now you say that nearly five hundred 
persons want it. I want it, very much 
want it, and with five hundred (and there 
will be more who will call for it) cannot 
you afford to print six hundred, or so, 
copies? You need not be bound to the 
orir/inal subscription price. Make it a 
dollar, or more if need be, a special price 
for a special thing. I'll gladly pay it 
and I presume others will as readily as I. 
Very sincerely, 
H. S. Stevens. 

(Formerly Chaplain 14 Conn. Inf. Vols. ) 



CAMERAS, 

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Agents Wanted. 

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With a separate detached department for ALCOHOLIC and 
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tions. Alcoholic and drug habitues can commit themselves, or 
be legally committed, for one year 01 less. 

For terms arid information, apply to 

DR. F. H. BARNES, Stamford, Conn. 

Telephone : 104-4, Stamford . 



The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America. 




WM, B. CLARK, President. 

W. H. KING, Secretary. B. O. WEEKS, Vice-President. 

A. C. ADAMS, HENKY E. REES, Assistant Secretaries. 



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Prepared especially for 

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L. 



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■■ B^ ■■ ■■ This Elegant "Watch 
r If r L CiVEX AAVAY for 

■■ wM mm k sellinc^ 51.80 worth of our 
r IB I I Perfiiiiie, or a large 
I 11 ■■ ^H cash commission, if de- 
sired. We are doing this to introduce our 
goods. UTo Money Wanted until goods 
are sold. Send your name and address and 
we will send perfume prepaid by mail, and 
when sold send us the money and we will 
send watch. You can also earn Tea Sets, 
Cameras, Graphophones, Skirts, Musical 
Instruments, etc, as per our Catalogue we 
send with goods. ^O RISK. We trust 
you and take back unsold goods. Finest 
Perfume. Best Premiums. 

THE "GOOD'' CO., 
Dept. y p 239 Broadway, New York City. 



w 



ANTED— A limited number of Nos. 3 and 4 of Vol. 2, 
and Nos. 3 and 4 of Vol. 4 of the Connecticut Quar- 
terly, for which we will pav a reasonable price. THE 
CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE. Hartford, Conn. 



Advertising Men! Watch for the Issue. Now in 
press. "Joe Rafter on Estimates: A :Money 
Maker for the Printer." 200 Estiniates on 
Printing. Cost of Production, etc. Sold by all type 
founders. 



WANTED. 



YOUNG MEN 

between the ages of 18 
and 24 who have a fair common school education and who 
wish to secure employment on a fine grade of mechanical 
work and with opportunities for advancement, may address 
DraAver ^Q, Hartford, Conn. 

We wish to correspond with none but who have mechan- 
ical inclinations, a good character and a strong desire to be- 
come proficient in their w'ork. 

Good references with addresses must in all cases 
accompany each letter. 



LADIES 

The old adage that " Beauty is only skin deep" is a 
trite, though doubtless a true saying. However this 
may be, it is an absolute certainty that 

FOWLER'S 

Tryphena Toilet Cream 

gives a skin of child-like purity. It feeds and nourishes 
impoverished, shrunken skin and cellular tissues. En- 
sures a perfect complexion. Banishes all imperfections. 
Cures all skin diseases. A dainty toilet necessity of 
surpassing luxury and incomparable richness. 

A Skin Corrective. A Skin Tonic. A Skin 
Food. A Skin BeautiAer. The most astonishing 
transformations in personal appearance are brought 
about by its steady use. 

It speedily banishes Pimples, Freckles, Blackheads, 
Yellow or Muddy Skin, Moth Patches, Eczema, Red- 
ness, Roughness, Tan, Sunburn, Moth Spots and 
Wrinkles. It is also particularly recommended for 
Chapped Hands, Face and Lips, Scaly Eruptions, Hives, 
Ivy Poison, Mosquito and other Insect Bites, Cold Sores, 
Burns, Chafing, the nursery (where the tender skin of 
baby proves its true worth), Itching, Salt Rheum, and 
all affections of the skin, etc., in general. 

Its effect is not to cover up imperfections, but to so 
correct them and their cause by its purifying and emoli- 
ent properties as to leave the skin exquisitely soft, 
smooth, pure, and in its natural healthy condition. It 
imparts the tint of the lily and blush of the rose to the 
plainest face. It is the skin food which gets to the very 
root of all skin difficulties. All possible objections in 
skin foods have been eliminated and every possible 
virtue added. In fact, it is the daintiest toilet requisite 
that ever graced " my lady's " dressing-table. For sale 
by Druggists and dealers in toilet articles generally, 
throughout the U. S. and Canada. Price, fifty cents per 
large sized bottle. SAMPLE BOTTLE SENT FREE. 
Address, FOWLER, Manufacturing Chemist, IVIoodus, Conn.i 



y: 



We Trill Rend tbli adjustable table lamp 
to any address in the U.S., express pre- 
paid, upoa receipt of $3. 95 



5dve 
lyour 
eyes 



—concentrate the 
rays of light where 
light is needed — by 
using an 



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Adapted to use at any desk, table, piano, type- 
writer, bench., etc., where incandescent electric 
light is obtainable. Increases light 50 per cent. 
Adjustable to any positioiii Com plete ly shades 
the eyes. Handsome 
illustrated cata- 
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yVia>, Ui O. H> •ddressin the U.S.,upon receipt of $8.26 

/////////////imiiiimiii 



18 



BEAUTIFUL PHOTO 
ENGRAVINGS .?» «?» 



Illustrating a handsome Booklet, showing how the 
deaf-mutes interpret the Lord's Prayer in the ]anguage 
of signs. 

Every boy or girl— or man or woman will enjoy it. 
Postpaid, 15 cents. 
CONN. MAGAZINE CO., HARTFORD. CONN. 



CUTS AT HALF PRICE. 

The Connecticut Magazine offers for sale at half price 
cuts that are now on hand which have appeared in past 
issues of the Magazine. Write fob prices. 

The Connecticut Magazine, 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



^ti.:r GAME 

For Solitaire or Two or 
More Players. 
Price, = - = 25 cts 



NUMERICA 



Ask your dealer for it or 

write to 

THOMAS J. GRIFFITHS, 

Utica, N. Y 

Price, - - = 25 cts. 



FREE 



To every young wife brooding over that first 
tiff caused by the morning coffee : 
To everybody who has tried so many different 
kinds and found none to suit, 



WE OFFER THIS REMEDY: 



ALWAYS USE EMPRESS COFFEE. 

25, 33 and 38 Cents. 

SOLD ONLY IN DEPARTMENT STORES OR lO L.B., 25 EB. OR 50 LB. 
AIRTIGHT CANS WILL. BE SUPPL,IED DIRECT. 

EUGENE ROSEDALE & CO., Growers, Importers and Sole Proprietors, 

181 FRONT STREET. NEW YORK. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



No 

Matter 

What 



your politics may he yotfll Uxsgh to 
** split yotir sides " over JUDGE during 
the campaign of J900. JUDGE has 
politics in pictures for the politician, 
humor for the humorist, and all-aroand 
good-natured satire for everybody. 
JUDGE'S cartoons are features of every 
political contest that a good American 
should not miss* 

JUDGE is published weekly and is 
to be found the world over. It is sold 
at JO cents per copy, or by the year 
at $5.00. 

Remember, please, that 

Judge is 
the Prince of 
Caricaturists 



DIRECT ROUTE TO THE WEST 

with only one change of cars between 
Hartford and Chicagfo. 





TO NEW YORK DAILY. 



% The shortest, cheapest, and most convenient; 
^route. Train leaves Hartford at '12.40 p. m., connectsv^ 
f^at Campbell Hall with fast express over O. W. and/^ 
VWabash road, arriving at Chicago next day 9 p. m.^ 
^Only one night on road. 

' Central New England Railway 

Poughkeepsie Bridge Route. 
For information apply to 
, W. J. MARTIN. Gen'l Passenger Agent 

fi> Hartford, Conn. 





Stopping at all Connecticut River Landings. 



I,OW RATES. 

Quick Dispatch. 

Passenger and 
Freight Line. 



SECURITY. 
COMFORT. 



REFRESHING 
SI.EEP. 



Passenger accommodations First Class. 



Shipments received on pier in New York until 6 p. 
M. andiorwarded to all points mentioned on Connecti- 
cut river, and points North, East, and West from Hart- 
ford. We also have through trafliic arrangements with 
lines out of New York or points South and West, and 
shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and 
Bills of lyading obtained from offices of the Company. 
For Excursion Rates see daily papers. 

HARTFORD AND NEW YORK 
TRANSPORTATION CO 

steamers "MrcDLETOWN" and "Hartford"— 
I^eave Hartford from foot State St., and 5 p. m. — Leave 
New York from Pier 24, East River, at 5 p. m. — Daily 
except Sundays. 



THE MAN WITH THE HOE^' 




should be " up-to-date " in matters rel.iting to the farm. 
A good Agricultural paper cnes the latest improvements 
in fatming implements and the best and most economical 
methods of tilling the soil. 

The Connecticut Farmer does this, paying more 
particular attention to the needs of the farmers of this state. 

Our Tobacco Department gives a complete resume of 
all the news of interest to the tobacco grower, also many 
articles on the most improved methods 

We have a very complete Gran-je page, giving the 
freshest news from the various Granges. 

Our subscription price is only $1 00 a year to new sub- 
scribers. Trial subscription of three months, 25 cents. 
A postal will bring yon a sample copy. 




HARTFORD, CONN. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine M-heu writing advertisers. 



Below are pictured workmen 
in the process of laying 



mm ifiism fieiie mm iiiFiifi, 




JOHN B 



WRITE FOR SAMFi.E TO 



«Ss SON, 



NO 
LEAKY ROOFS 

from 

Summer Showers 

if you use Carey's 

Cement Roofing. 

It is a non-conductor of 
heat and cold, and is abso- 
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proof. It is very easily 
applied, as the illustration 
shows. 

WITHSTANDS 

ALL THE 

ELEflENTS. 

FREK SAMPLES TO 
PROPERTY OWNERS. 

235 and 237 State St., 
HARTFORD, CONN 






NO OTHER 

FURNITURE POLISH 

so GOOD OR CHEAP. 

is best because it removes quickly, cheaply and permanently 
spots, scratches and streaks from veneered and varnished 
surfaces, and produces a high, lasting lustre that makes any 
piece of furniture look like new. 

The dingiest coat you ever saw will varnish with an 
application of a few drops. It takes but a little oil and less 
rub, and " 3 in 1 " has none of the disagreeable varnish odors 
of other polishes. It is sweet-smelling, and leaves no damp- 
ness, gum or grease to rub oft on the clothes. Try "3 in 1" 
as a 

I>IANO POLISH 

and the results will make you happy. 

v*nv-K!* SAMPLE sent to any address for two-cent 
B IX 1 1 stamp to pay the postage. Your dealer has it. 
Ask for the big bottle at the little price. 

G. W. COLE CO., 
156 Washington Life Building, New York City. 




I'.JfffllllWffllllWffMIIP^ 



"W 



IPPIIH 



'n 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



18 ffi*^ ,3 




:||S^ 




tt J_— ^^■-il 




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SOME PEOPLE eat because they 
think they ought to, not because 
they want to. They do it mechanic- 
ally. They have no appetite but yet 
they feel they must eat to sustain life. 
Food does very little good under such 
conditions. 

Sometimes a loss of appetite is the 
beginning of a physical break up. It 
is then, some simple, practical remedy 
like Ripans Tabules is needed. These 
Tabules stimulate the flow of gastric juice 
in the stomach, create a zest for food, 
whip up the liver and clear out the 
intestinal tract. They strengthen and 
invigorate the body and make it clean 
within. They cost but little, lo for 5 cents, 
and are genuinely good. 

At all drug stores. 




WANTED :-A case of bad health that R'lT'A-N'S will not benelit. 
T^?^^.^°^*'^ P^'" ^"'^ P^'olong life. One gives relief. Note the won! 
R-I-P-A-N-S on the package and accept no substitute. R-I-P-A'N-S, 10 
for 5 cents, may be had at anj- drug store. Ten samples and one thou- 
sand testimonials will be mailed to any address tor 5 cents, forwarded 
to the Ripans Chemical Co., No. 10 Spruce St., New York. 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing advertisers. 



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WHAT AILS YOUR HAIR? 



Upon receipt of this FORM carefully filled out, and enclosing a few hairs, or a 
sample from the daily combings, we will send you a dainty BOTTLE of Cranitonic 
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In a microscopical examination of 1,000 
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Catalogue of Embroidery Novelties and the "Story 
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P. O. Box, 51. HARTFORD. CONN. 



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NNECTICUTi 
GAZINE 







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llustrati 
iblished 

AT 

Hartford 
Conn. 



The Connecticut IMutuai 

Life Insurance Company 



Has received from its policy-holders since its organization 
in 1846, $216,751,123.41; it has returned to them or 
their beneficiaries $214,279,820.43, or 98.86%, besides 
which it has in hand $65,277,179.21 for the protection of 
those that remain. What it has returned and what it 
holds equals 128.98% of what it has received for pre- 
miums. Its expenses have been but 9.13% of its total 
income. 

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JACOB L. GREENE, President. 

JOHN IV1. TAYLOR, Vice-President. 

HERBElitT H. WHITE, Secretary. 

DANIEL H. WELLS, Actuary. 




A MAGAZINE OF CULTURE 



In speaking of Connecticut the great Historian, Bancroft, said "There is no State 
in the Union, and I know not any in the World, in whose early history, if I 
were a citizen, I could find more of which to be proud and less which I 
should wish to blot." 



This is the mission of The Connecticut Magazine, and in the following pages 
every line will be found to glow with a wonderful vitality and vigor. Dur- 
ing the coming year, and beginning with next issue, now in preparation, the 
magazine will enthuse with remarkable originality and literary values. 

There is enough of the past history of the State and its present greatness to 
supply material for* our pages for many years to come. We cordially invite 
all dwellers in the steady old Commonwealth, and those who have gone be- 
yond her borders, to unite with us and aid us in making the State's only 
magazine a power in the land. 

The publishers of The Connecticut Magazine have secured many writers of 
merit for the year 1903, who will contribute a variety of valuable illus- 
trated articles such as we believe will make it surpass any other volume 
hitherto published. A partial list of subjects includes 



\ half century of Connecticut 

politics. (Illustrated). Charles Hopkins 
Clark, Editor The Hartford Courant. 
W^OODSTOCK AND ROSELAND PARK. (Il- 
lustrated). William Harrison Taylor. 

>OME OLD MATTABESECK FAMILIES. (Il- 
lustrated). Margaret Ellen Jackson. 

PHE ORIGIN OF SURNAMES. Lucy B. 

Sayles. 
iANBURY. J. Moss Ives. 
BIOGRAPHIES OF THE GOVERNORS OF 

CONNECTICUT (Illustrated). Frederic 

Calvin Norton. 

JGHTS AND LAMPS OF EARLY NEW 
ENGLAND. (Illustrated). C. A. Q. Nor- 
ton A description of one of the most 
valuable collections of old lamps in the 
world. 

^EW LONDON AS A SHIP-BUILDING CEN- 
TER (Illustrated). H. C. Weaver. 

)EVELOPMENT OF THE TOBACCO IN- 
DUSTRY IN CONNECTICUT. (Illustrat- 
ed). E. H. Jenkins, Ph. D., Director of 
Experiment Station. 

nSTORIC TAVERNS IN NEW ENGLAND. 
Thomas Morgan Prentice 

TRINITY COLLEGE. (Illustrated). Rev. 
Samuel Hart, President Connecticut His- 
torical Society 



YALE COLLEGE. (Illustrated). C. H. Smith, 
LL. D., Larned Professor of American 
History, Yale College. 

OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. (Il- 
lustrated). N. H. Allen, Organist and 
Composer. 

THE STATE LIBRARY AND SOME OF ITS 
TREASURES. (Illustrated). George S. 
Godard, State Librarian. 

WOMEN POETS OF CONNECTICUT. (Il- 
lustrated.) Florence Peltier Perry. 

FAMOUS CONNECTICUT INVENTORS. 
Hon William E Simonds. 

REV. HENRY WHITFIh.LD, AND THE 
OLD STONE HOUSE. (Illustrated). Rev. 
Frederick E. Snow. 

EARLY CONNECTICUT NEWSPAPERS. 
William Newnham Carlton, Librarian of 
Trinity College. 

EARLY TRANSPORTATION ON THE CON- 
NECTICUT RIVER. (Captain John M. 
Parker. 

COUNTRY LIFE IN CONNECTICUT SIXTY- 
FIVE YEARS AGO. (Illustrated). F. G. 
Markham. 

ANCIENT CONNECTICUT CHURCHES. 
(Illustrated) Rev. Magee Pratt 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE COOKING 
STOVE. (Illustrated). E F Atwood. 



iNSPIRING NOBILITY OF HOME AND STATE 



THE 

Connecticut Magazine 



Number iii-iv December Series of 1902 

An illustrated Bi-Monthly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its 
various phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius 
and Industry. Edited by Francis Trevelyan Miller and under the busi- 
ness management of Edward B. Eaton. Following is a list of contents 
in this edition, lavishly illustrated and ably written. 



Art Cover Designed by E A Sherman. 

The Connecticut Shore at Woodmont . . . . . . . Frontispieck. 

Illustration by Rai,ph S Beach. 
First Civil Settlement of Connecticut . . . i^Ewis wji^der hicks 213 

Thirty-eight illustrations by Jared B. Standish, AlbEkT Morgan and others. 
Immutability A Poem frank burnham bagi^ey 233 

Illustrated by the Author. 
Poger Sherman— A Connecticut Man— A Maker of the 
Nation r. eston phyee 234 

Seven Illustrations by HERBERT R.\NDAi.r. and W11.1.TAM G. Dudi^ey. 
An Ode to Meriden Peak dr fred'k h. wiuliams 249 

illustration loaned by Walter Hubbard. 
Connecticut's Huge Industry Under the Sea . . commander h. h b.arroi.1. 252 

Photo of the Author. 
Country Life in Connecticut . . . . . The editor 257 

Eight illustrations by Mrs. Kendai,e, K. T. Shei^don and others. 
Yale College In "OW Saybrook .... vSamuee hart, m. a , D. d, 266 

Eight illustrations by photographic artists. 
A Traitor's Daughter haroi^d e. croets 273 

Drawings by the Author. 
Little Journeys to Ancestral Firesides . . . charlES E. benTon 284 

The Governors of Connecticut Fred'k caevin norTon 291 

Thirteen illustrations— reproductions by HERBERT Randat.i, from paintings. 
Connecticut's Position in the Manufacturing World . wm. a. countryman 323 

A Poet^s Return to Home of Childhood . . . anna j. gran n is 328 

An Ericsson Propeller on Farmicgton Canal . . fred'k j. kingsbury 329 

Four illustrations furnished by Author. 
Brave Knight of Seventeenth Century . . . lucy b sayi^es. 334 

Two illustrations by WesIvEY B. Fox. 
Connecticut Artists and Their "Work— Department fay HERBERT randali, 339 

Gibon» Artist-Naturalist of Connecticut . . . john coleman adams, d. d. 340 

Fourteen art reproductions by permission of G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
William Hamilton Gibson A Poem Reprinted . ROSSiTER Johnson 355 

Miniature Painting in Colonial Days .... Harriet e. g. whitmore 356 

Art Notes HERBERT randale 362 

Before the Storm A Poem Reprinted . . . adah eoujse Sutton 363 

Application has'been made for admU^ion to the second class rate$ 0/ postage. 



THE 



Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 



DECEM BER 



Series of i 902 



There are ii8 Illustrations in this edition excelling and surpassing 
in number any publication from an American press during the year. 
Every article is one of vital interest and is presented with a vigorous 
literary style. Produced by the Connecticut Magazine Company, 
730 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 



JOHN HOWARD, M. D. 



Alicia Adams, Betrothed to Nathan Hale . art f.ditor 

Illustration reproduced from painting. 

The Old New England Home A Poem 

Book Notes and Literary Criticisms, 

'Captain Craig," reviewed by Fi^ORENCE PKLTier Perry, 

"Mrs. Tree," reviewed by Magee Pratt, 

"Christian Indians of New England," reviewed by Magke Pratt, 
"V/illiam Hamilton Gibson," reviewed by Fi^orence Peltier Perry 
'Ancient Legends," reviewed by The Editor, .... 

"Political Freshman," reviewed by Thk Editor, .... 
"Orthodox Preacher and Nancy," reviewed by The Editor, 
"Genealogy of Hamilton Family," reviewed by The Editor, 
"Genealogy of B^ujimin Family," reviewed by The Editor,. 
"Genealogy of the Wright Family," reviewed by The Editor, 

The Bobolink A Poem burton i,. couIvINS 

A Meadow Fancy A Poem . , ' . . richard burton 

Brainard— A Poet of Hartford*s Early Literati • Francis parsons 

Illustrations furnished by the Author. 

Early Coinage of Money in America . . kg markham 

Photo of the Author. 

Beautiful Homes of Connecticut, .... the Editor 

"The Orchards" at Lakeville, 

French Chateau at Norfolk 

Old Batterson Mansion at Hartford, 

First Connecticut Heavy Artillery Monument. 

Studies in Ancestry— Department by Edwin Stanlky Weli.es, 

Consisting of genealogical research and establishing famil}- records 

The Quill of the Puritan Editorial 

Introductory of United States Senator JOSEPH R. Hawley 

Hon Mr. Pivott of Connecticut, by Fk ancis Trevklyan Mim.er, 

When Youth is Done Poem By Elizabeth Aldrn-Curtis Brenton 

Purity of Taste in Literature, by Charles Clark Munn, 

The Harbor Light Poem. By Horace Jrwell Fknton, 

Literary Appreciation of Mirk Twain, by William Dran Howrlls, 

Attitude of Americans Toward Unenlightened, by JoEL Eno. M A , 

Reorganization and Incorporation Announcement • Businp:ss Manager 



364 

365 
366 
366 
367 
367 
867 
368 
368 
368 
368 
369 
369 
369 
370 
371 

381 

387 
391 
391 
392 
395 
396 

403 
403 
403 
405 
406 
408 
409 
413 
417 



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piano and Theory. 



HARTFORD CONSERVATORY 
OF MUSIC, 

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Hartford, Cox&n. 



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HARTFORD CONSERVATORY QUARTET. 




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FLORENCE CROSBY COOKE, Contralto- 
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must have been very gratifying. 

THK HARTFORD CONSERVATORY QUARTET can be engaged for Secular 
and Sacred Concert Work. For terms, dates, etc . address W. V. Abei,!,, Director, 
Hartford Conservatory of Music, Hartford, Conn. Y. M. C A, Building. 



..TAPESTRY^ PAINTINGS.. 

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yard each of 50 different kinds of our most choice Patterns for $7.50. 



Tapestry Materials. 



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iMMM 



To tKe Home Prideful 
and tHe True Patriotic 



Are you sincerely interested in attaining 
fQr your Home State a leading position in the 
glorious annals of a Great Nation ? 

This is just what The Connecticut Maga- 
zine is doing. There is not a publication in our 
land with a more commendable purpose. We 
have outlined important developments for 
1903. Here is a plain question of Patriotic 
Principle. Are YOU willing to co-operate in 
giving our State a Magazine of Literary Quality 
gaining country-wide reputation and instilling 
Home Patriotism into the hearts of Our People? 



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ecticut. How many otyo\x are willing; 
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becoming a patron to the publication during the coming year 
to the extent of requesting a copy of each issue sent to the 
home address which is given below-to be paid for upon receipt. 

Name - - Address 



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2 14 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 




BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF WETHERSFIELD 



our oldest river towns. But if 
that sometime overlooked statement, 
when clearly brought to light, did 
not serve to quiet the persistent 
contention, there is no good reason 
why later researches of accredited 
historians should not summarily do 
so. The position of the late Pro- 
fessor Alexander Johnston, and the 
conclusions of Professor Charles M. 
Andrews, reached by the latter after 
patient and thorough search in the 
annals of Massachusetts as well as 
those of Connecticut, should leave 
no doubt in the mind of any impar- 
tial student that the first steps 
toward effecting a permanent settle- 



ment in this region were taken as 
early as the autumn of 1634 by John 
Oldham, who had made an overland 
journey to the vicinity, from Water- 
town, Mass., the previous year, when 
he had been captivated by the 
beauty and fertility of the Connecti- 
cut valley. Coming back with eight 
companions in the autumn of 1634, 
Oldham and his fellow adventurers 
prepared and sowed a parcel of 
ground at Pyquag (the Indian name 
for the region now called Wethers- 
field), erected some huts and re- 
mained through the winter, with the 
evident intention of establishing a 
permanent colony ; an intention 





SILAS DEANE JUDGE STEPHEN MIX MITCHELL 

From paintings in possession ol the Connecticut Historical Society. 



THE F/RST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 215 



which further appears in the fact 
that in the following spring he re- 
turned to Watertown for reinforce- 
ments, which he led, to the number 
of fifteen or twenty persons, to 
Pyquag, thus insuring the perma- 
nency of the colony, and thereby 
entitling it to the honor of being, 
what Professor Johnston is evidently 
disposed to call it, '*the first civil 
settlement in Connecticut." 

That Oldham and his companions 
should have chosen to locate where 



artificial fertilization unnecessary, a 
higher bench of land well situated 
for dwellings and cultivation, and a 
succession of ridges still farther 
towards the west, also well adapted 
to tillage and commanding views of 
wide extent and rare loveliness — all 
these favorably situated parts con- 
stitute the Wethersfield of to-day, 
and together make up an ideal site 
for a prosperous agricultural com- 
munity. 

But the original settlers and those 




BROAD STREET GREEN 



they did can excite no wonder in the 
minds of those who have familiarized 
themselves with the territory lying 
south of Hartford and on the banks 
of the beautiful Connecticut — a 
tract which must have had even 
more of natural beauty in 1634 than 
it has to-day, after it has been de- 
nuded of the larger part of its 
forests and the changed course of 
the river no longer forms the wide- 
mouthed bay which then constituted 
one of its chief attractions. But 
hundreds of acres of meadow-lands, 
upon which the annual freshets 
deposit a rich sediment that renders 



who soon joined them were too 
numerous, and too eager for landed 
possessions, to rest contented with 
any comparatively small section, 
like that which is included within 
Wethersfield's present boundaries 
With so much outlying territory un- 
occupied it was but natural that 
they should have spread themselves 
out until, near the end of the seven- 
teenth century, the township in- 
cluded an area of more than eighty- 
four square miles, and embraced the 
territory now included within the 
limits of Glastonbury, Rocky Hill 
and Newington, as well as parts of 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



the present-day Berlin and Marlbor- 
oug-h. But this extensive Wethers- 
field, which was several times larger 
than the district to which the Gen- 
eral Court had given the name of 
Wythersfield in 1636-7, was alto- 
gether too large for conveniences of 
Worship and ease of attendance upon 
the all-important town meeting. 
Hence the township of Glastonbury 
w^as set off in 1693, later subtractions 
were made for the formation of 
other of the towns above named, 



population of the place, which had 
been increased from its small num- 
bers by the addition, within fifteen 
years, of larger bodies of colonists 
from England and Massachusetts, 
was also greatly reduced by the de- 
parture of several companies who 
went out from 1638 to 1659 — some to 
Quinnipiac, and others to establish 
new settlements in Milford, Stam- 
ford and Branford in Connecticut, 
and Hadley in Massachusetts. But 
such losses were partially made up 




Photo by Jared B, StandisJi. 



HISTORIC OLD ELM 



and, last of all, in 187 1 Newington 
was incorporated, and Wethersfield 
was thus reduced to its present di- 
mensions, which are by no means 
narrow, for the township still con- 
tains the rich acres which tempted 
Oldham and his companions to brave 
the dangers of a journey through 
the primeval forests that they might 
establish a new colony in the free 
atmosphere of this beautiful valley. 
And not only was the territory of 
ancient Wethersfield diminished by 
a loss of much of that which, from 
time to time, it had acquired, but the 



by the influx of new comers ; so that 
in 1660, the date when the organized 
exodus of Wethersfield's people 
came to an end, a well established 
population of good proportions occu- 
pied the territory which then figured 
under the name. 

It may be a common mistake of 
present-day writers to over-estimate 
the virtues of the early settlers of 
New England ; but proof is not 
wanting to show that the colonists 
of Wethersfield were indeed of a 
high grade of respectability. Even 
the small band of " adventurers," as 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 217 




Photo by 
Albert Morgan. 



THE COVE 



they have been called, who migrated 
with Oldham, included men who 
became prominent either in connec- 
tion with this town or with other 
colonies, and their names have come 
down to us associated with the lives 
and deeds of descendants who have 
brought great repute to the little 
State of Connecticut. And in the 
lists of those who came to Wethers- 
field from 1635 to 1660 are names to 
which are prefixed such titles as 
point to a generous sprinkling among 
them of men of education and 
ability. No less than six ministers 
were residents of the town during 
this period ; four of whom, Peter 
Prudden, Richard Denton, John 
Sherman, and John 
Russell, Jr., be- 
came the spiritual 
leaders of four of 
the new colonies 
which were the 
offshoots of the 
one in Wethers- 
field. And the 
same lists contain 
the names of not 




a few who, either by their own 
services to church or state, or through 
the lives of their near or more remote 
descendants down to the present day, 
warrant our conclusion that, as a 
whole, the settlers of Wethersfield 
ranked well with other Puritan immi- 
grants who crossed the sea from 1630 
and on, to escape the tyranny of the 
mother country. 

That they were people of principle 
might be inferred from the fact that 
they dealt honorably with the In- 
dians, in the purchase of their lands 
instead of seizing them vi ct arinis 
from the aboriginal proprietors. 
Moreover, the interest which they 
took in religious matters and in the 
education of their children, 
even before they could 
have thoroughly 
established them- 
selves in comfort- 
able homes or 
come into posses- 
sion of any thing- 
like a competen- 
cy, points to a 
high degree of 



2i8 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



intellectual and spiritual 
ambition, if not also to 
quite the average culture 
of the intelligent class with 
whom they were identified 
before coming to Connect- 
icut. They did not, in- 
deed, come to their Eldor- 
ado fully organized as a 
church, as did the colonists 
who settled in Windsor and 
Hartford, but the little 
band that arrived in 1635 
contained two ministers, 
so that, after the winter of 
1635-36, the colony was 
never without spiritual 
leadership ; and, judging 
from the records and tradi- 
tions which we have of 
certain ecclesiastical con- 
tentions and consequent 
migrations under one and 
another of the four minis- 
ters aboved named, we 
may well conclude 
th 





THE FIRST I'ULl'IT 



THE OLD CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 
Photo by Jared B. Standish. 



convictions of the Wethersfield settlers 
were deep and were held to be of 
primary importance. However, a 
church was organized in 1641, which 
has maintained a prosperous life up to 
this day, and is now one of the strongest 
of the country churches of Connecticut. 
This body had been organized but a 
short time before its first house of wor- 
ship was erected ; concerning which the 
son of Rev. Henry Smith, the first 
settled pastor wrote in 1698-99: *'ye 
firste Meeting House was solid mayde to 
withstand ye wicked onsaults of ye Red 
Skins. Its foundations was laide in ye 
feare of ye Lord, but its Walls was 
truly laide in ye feare of ye Indians." 
This religious stronghold was built 
of logs, and was made somewhat 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT ^19 



churchly by a bell which called the 
people to worship within its walls. 
In 1685-1686 a more pretentious 
edifice was substituted for it ; and 
this in turn, after a use of about 
seventy-five years, gave place in 
1761, to the substantial and beautiful 
structure which has since been 
occupied by The First Church of 
Christ (Congregational), of Wethers- 
field. The second building is worthy 



finest specimens of colonial architec- 
ture that can be found in New Eng- 
land. Unhappily, at least from an 
antiquarian's standpoint, the interior 
of the church was remodeled in 
1838, and the alterations were of 
such a character, being neither 
antique nor particularly attractive, 
that it seemed wise in 1882 to reno- 
vate the interior, both for the com- 
fort and enjoyment of the congrega- 




THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND 



of special remembrance, because in 
1 7 16 that part of Yale College was as- 
signed seats within it which was then 
maintaining a temporary existence in 
the town, under the direction of 
Rev. Elisha Williams, who after- 
wards became the president of the 
consolidated college at New Haven. 
Its corner-stone, with the date en- 
graved upon it, is still in existence, 
and parts of its oaken timbers are 
doubtless preserved in the strong- 
framework of the present structure. 
Of the latter building it is not too 
much to say that it is one of the 



tion, and to make a few correspond" 
ing outside alterations. But the 
work was so reverently done with 
reference to the past that the interior 
of the building has even more of the 
antique flavor in the treatment 
which was accorded its walls and 
ceilings, than it had before the reno- 
vation was attempted ; while, at 
the same time, it is most satisfactory 
to the eye and in ever}' way more 
comfortable to the worshiper. The 
exterior alterations and additions 
did not materially change the appear- 
ance of the body of the building, 



2 20 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



and in nowise affected the beautiful Chris- 
topher Wren spire which, for one hundred 
and forty years, has been the central and 
predominant landmark of the Wethersfield 
plains. Much might be written of the 
notable occurrences which have 
given a historical importance to 
this dignified edifice, but space 
will only allow the statement that 
both John Adams and George 
Washing-ton shared the hospitality 
of its walls. The former wrote in 
his diary, August 15, 1774, — "We 
went up the steeple 
of Wethersfield 
meeting house, from 
whence is the most 
g-rand and beautiful 
prospect in the 
world, at least, that 
I ever saw." Wash- 




ROMAN 

CATHOLIC 

CHURCH 





BAPTIST CHURCH 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

ing-ton was greatly impressed by the 
singing- of the large choir, and was 
doubtless edified by the sermon which 
he heard from the pastor, Dr. John 
Marsh, on the words: "Blessed are the 
poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven." 

It is doubtful whether any church of the 
Congregational order has been favored with 
a line of ministers that, on the whole, were 
better educated or were more devoted to 
their work than those who have served this 
ancient church. Without reference to any 
who came to occupy its pulpit after the 
opening of the nineteenth century, it may 
well be noted that three of the pastorates — 
those of Stephen Mix, James Lockwood, and 
John Marsh — covered the period between 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 22 



FIRST METHODIST MEETING 
HOUSE AND PARSONAGE 



1694 and 1821, that 
of Dr. Marsh alone 
reaching the great 
length of forty- 
seven years. To 
the first of this 
illustrious trio the 
church is indebted, 
among other 
things, for the 
earliest ecclesi- 
astical records which it possesses ; 
the second became the spiritual 
father of a great multitude, through 
his own labors and in co-operation 
with Whitefield, whom he invited to 
his pulpit, and he is also known to 
have declined the presidency both of 
Yale and Princeton out of the love 
which he had for his Wethersfield 
flock ; and of the third, Dr. Marsh, it 
has been written that "he was a pro- 
found judge of human nature, and 
controlled the conflicting waves of 
public opinion with unerring skill, 
and acquired, by his frequent recon- 



whose lives reflected no 
little glory upon the 
church and town of 
Wethersfield, lie under 




appropriately inscribed tablets in the 
cemetery behind the church, a place 
that has been a Mecca to numbers 
of their descendants, some of whom, 
by their own worthy lives and deeds, 
have reflected back honor upon their 
distinguished ancestors. 

But it is not to be supposed that 
the precincts of Wethersfield have 
always been held as f)reserves for 
the exclusive ecclesiastical fishing 
of Congregationalists. As early as 
1746 a Separatist preacher ventured 



^\v 


t \mJ 




Tim 


PI 





THE ACADEMY 



ciliation of village feuds, the noble 
title of peacemaker." The ashes of 
these three useful and eminent men. 



to expound his doctrines in the town, 
without the consent of Dr. Lock- 
wood, and was imprisoned for his 



222 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 




OLD BOOK PLATE 

In possession of the Connecticut Historical 
Society. 

temerity. But the seed of a new 
movement had been sown, which, in 
1784, bore fruit in the organization 
of a Baptist church, the members of 
which were then permitted to as- 
semble by themselves. This body 
now worshipsrin a comfortable build- 
ing that was erected in 1876 and 
stands on the site of its first meet- 
ing-house. 

After obtaining something of a 
foothold in 1790, through the preach- 
ing of Jesse Lee and Freeborn 
Garrettson, the Methodist Episcopal 
faith and polity gradually gained 



adherents and was finally enabled 
in 1824 to build a church, which was 
modernized in 1882 and made into 
the well-appointed structure in 
which the congregation now wor- 
ships. 

Although there were not a few in 
the town previous to the year 1869 
who believed in the Protestant Epis- 
copal polity, and who encouraged 
the occasional efforts that were made 
with a view to organizing a church, 
yet it was not until the above year 
that Trinity Church Parish came 
into being, and not until 1873 that 
its tasteful and substantial brown- 
stone chapel was erected. 

The last communion to establish a 
church in Wethersfield was the 
Roman Catholic, which, under the 
name of "The Sacred Heart of 
Jesus," began its work in 1876, and 
completed its house of worship in 
1881. 

The fact should be stated in this 
connection that all of these five 
ecclesiastical bodies have provided 
their ministers with comfortable 
dwellings — a fact which accords 
with the proverbial habit of Weth- 
ersfield people, of looking after the 




riioto by Jared B. Standish. 



THE COVE \K\ MOONLIGHT 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 223 



material necessities of those who re- 
side in the community. 

Reference has already been made to 
the fact that the claims of education, 
as well as those of 
religion, engaged the 
attention of the Weth. 
ersfield colony at an 
early date. Indeed, it 
is a matter of record, 
that the first school- 
house had become unfit 
for use as early as 1660. 
It must, then, have 
been one of the very 
first concerns of the 
little band of colonists 
to give their children 
the benefits of as good 
an education, as it was 
then possible to pro- 
vide. Subsequent 
town votes indicate an 
equal willingness to 
incur any expense nec- 
essary for the erection of suitable 
school buildings in the different parts 
of the township and for the remunera- 
tion of competent teachers, to the 
end that every child might receive a 
good common 
school education. 
So well has the 
original aim been 
maintained that 
it is doubtful 
whether any 
town in the state, 
of equal popula- 
tion, has a larger 
number of young 
people who are 
qualified to teach, 

and are now engaged in teaching, in 
different parts of the land. The only 
remaining school building of bygone 



days, with an interesting history, is 
'' The Academy," which was erected, 
partly out of public funds and partly 




HIGH SCHOOL 




OLD FISH HOUSE 



by subscription, in 1802-03. Besides 
having served, at different periods, 
as a shelter for a public high school 
and a free high school, it has also 
been occupied by private schools, 
one of which was 
kept by Frederick 
Butler, Esq., the 
author of several 
historical and bi- 
ographical works 
of contempora- 
neous import- 
ance; an d an- 
other, a school for 
the education of 
young women, 
was established 
in 1824 by the Rev. Joseph Emerson. 
Mr. Emerson had previously founded 
and conducted a school of like char- 



2 24 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 




CONNECTICUT STATE PRISON 



acter in Byfield, and later at Saugtis, 
Massachusetts, which has been called 
" a parent school in the history of 
female education," and justly so, not 
only because its establishment mark- 
ed an era in the broadening of the 
education of young women, but 
also because it equipped for valuable 
service many young ladies, who in 
turn became efficient teachers ; 
among whom were Zilpah P. Grant, 
the founder of a famous school at 
Ipswich, and Mary Lyon, whose 
work at Mount Holyoke abides in 
the splendid college at South Hadley. 
Coming to Wethersfield at the earn- 
est request of his friend. Rev. Caleb 
J. Tenney, D. D., then pastor of the 
Congregational Church, and other 
leading citizens, Mr. Emerson gave 
the benefit of his noble character 
and rich experience to the educating 
of a large number of young women, 
some of whom are still alive to 
testify, by word and life, to the value 
of the thorough work that was done 
by him in the upper room of the 
Academy building, which is now a 
village hall ; the lower room on the 
south being occupied by the Town 
Clerk, and the one on the north by 
the Public Library. To take the 
place of the old Academy, and furn- 
ish the needed accomodations for the 
growth of the town, a commodius 
and substantial high school building 
was erected in 1893. 



Apropos of the reference to the 
Public Library, it should be noted 
that a Union Society Library had 
been established in Wethersfield 
previous to 1784, when its books are 
known to have been in' circulation. 
A gentleman now living, remembers 
when as a boy, in 1825 and after, his 
Saturday afternoons were spent in 
the upper room of the old white 
schoolhouse on High Street, giving 
out the books as they were called 
for. But through the failure of the 
society to replenish its store, the 
usefulness of the library gradually 
ceased, public interest in it was lost, 
and so, in 1850, the books were sold 
at auction. Numbers of them may 
be found here and there, with the 
old book-plate pasted on the inside 
of the cover, being highly esteemed 
as souvenirs of one of the early 
attempts to diffuse knowledge by 
means of a circulating library. 

It was but sixteen years after the 
disposal of this library before Chaun- 
cey Rose, of Terra Haute, Indiana, 
kindly remembered Wethersfield, 
his native town, by a gift of sixteen 
hundred well selected books, as a 
nucleus of a new library ; to which 
he added the sum of ^1,500 for 
subsequent enlargement. Additions 
from other individuals, together with 
town and state appropriations, have 
brought the public library now in 
use up to a high degree of efficiency, 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 225 



where it is able to meet the reason- 
able demands of the community for 
standard and current literature. 

It will not be supposed, however, 
at least by those who are familiar 
with the thrifty habits which abound 
in Connecticut, that the good people 
of Wethersfield have been wholly 
absorbed in religious and educational 
pursuits. With all their strivings to 
get understanding there has been 
mingled a generous amount of am- 
bition to get on in the world, and a 
corresponding activity in this direc- 
tion. Indeed, the town has ever 
been, and is to-day, a very hive of 
industry. The exceptional facilities 
which its position on the ''Great 
River" and its fertile soil have 
offered for obtaining good returns 
for labor have been well recognized 
and wisely taken advantage of. The 
river has indeed ceased to be the 
important channel of communica- 
tion between the town and other 
parts of the world, near and remote ; 
but from 1648, and almost, if not 
quite, up to within the recollection 
of persons now living, 
ship-building was an 
important industry ; 
and trade, not only 
with home ports, but 
also with distant 
parts of the earth, 
was carried on by 
Wethersfield merch- 
ants and sea captains, 
some of the latter be- 
coming famous in the 
annals of commerce. 
One of them, Captain 
Joseph Stillman, was 
the grandfather of 
James Otis ; and it 
was Mary, the daugh- 



ter of Captain Joseph Allyne, who 
married the same distinguished Mas- 
sachusetts patriot. Shortly before 
the Revolutionary war a flourishing 
trade was maintained by citizens of 
Wethersfield with the West Indies, an 
export trade in flaxseed had been 
begun with Ireland ; lumber and pot- 
ashes were carried to England ; and 
other products to Gibralter, Barbar}', 
Venice and Bilboa, and elsewhere. 
The chief exports, in addition to those 
named, were beaver and deer skins, 
beef, pork, fish, pipe staves, bricks, 
grain, onions and horses. The chief 
imports were such necessities and 
luxuries as salt, sugar, molasses 
and the then-considered important 
necessity of rum. The catching and 
exporting of alewives, which added 
measurably to the income of not a 
few of Wethersfield's families, is 
even now an important industry at 
the time of high water in the spring ; 
Buck's Fishery, on the Cove, still 
being prominent in this business, as 
it has been for a period of nearly 
two hundred and fifty years, al- 




TUfc: FAMOUS WEHH lUH Si: 

Where General Washington planned the Yorktown campaig:n. 
Photo by Albert Morgan. 



226 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



though it has lost much of the profit 
which was formerly attached to it 
when salmon and shad abounded in 
the river. Little besides this indus- 
try remains to recall the many 
profitable uses to which the Connec- 
ticut was put in the early days of 
the colon}^ Shad fishing- is carried 
on to some extent in the spring, and 
a wharf, under the control of a local 




THE PORTER-BELDEN HOUSE 
AND FIREPLACE 



company, furnishes a convenience 
for river boats to discharge and re- 
ceive the few passengers and small 
amount of freight which seek this 
mode of conveyance. But the steam 
and electric roads which enter the 
town and furnish ample facilities for 
travel and commerce have com- 
pelled the writing of "Ichabod" 
upon Wethersfield's once prosperous 
river business. 

The same word may also be ap- 
plied to most of the manufacturing 
enterprises which, from time to 
time, have flourished in this ancient 
township ; for while Wethersfield 
now has but two manufactories of 
any importance, a mattress factory 
and a copying press manufactory, 



not counting the busy shops in the 
State Prison, which has been located 
here since 1827, yet many important 
mechanical industries were located 
in the place in former days. As 
early as 1637 a dam was built on 
Mill Brook, in the southern part of 
the town, to furnish power for the 
operating of Leonard Chester's grist 
mill, the remains of which may still 
be seen but a short distance 
west from the Hewitt Brothers' 
mattress factory. This is said 
to have been the first dam that 
was built in Connecticut. In 
1682 the industry of tanning 
was begun, and was of so much 
importance at the time of 
General Washington's visit in 
1 78 1 that he was taken to in- 
spect the process, in which he 
is said to have been deeply in- 
terested. In 1697 a fulling 
mill was set up by Richard 




Seymour, and Jacob Griswold built 
another in 1712, or later, in that part 
of the town that is now called 
Griswoldville, which was the pre- 
cursor of like industries in cloth- 
dressing, weaving and knitting lines 
which were conducted by members 
of the Griswold families up to the 
year 1856. Brick-making was begun 
soon after the settlement of the 
town ; fur and felt hats were made 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 227 



for a number of 
years: and, after the 
opening of the last 



umes of B. L. Raynor's 
'* Life, Writings and 
Opinions of Thomas 




century, pins, edge 
tools, hammers 
ploughs, wagons, 
chairs and other 
useful articles were 
manufactured. The 
extensive coffee and 
spice-grinding in- 
dustry, which has 
ducted in Hartford 
Wethersfield. And 
last, but by no 
means least, books 
of decided merit 
were printed here 
during a period of 

RESIDENCE OF 
GEO. B. KELLOGG 



since been con- 
, was begun in 



Jefferson." But 
these last re- 
ceived a New 
York imprint, as 
it was thought 
that this would 
add to their sala- 
bility. It should 
be said, however, that the decline in 
Wethersfield's commercial and manu- 
facturing enterprises 
has been offset, to some 



THE CHESTER PLACE 



Iffflll 



HOME OF GEN. W. T. FENN 

about forty years, among 
which were the two vol- 




THE H.\RRIS PLACE 



extent, by the in- 
terest which a good 
number of her citi- 
zens have in Hart- 
ford concerns; this 
town now being 
almost a part of 
the city by reason 



2 28 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



^. 




JUDGE SHERMAN W. ADAMS 

ut numerous ties which bind the 
two together. 

But it remains true that, while 
quite a body of her citizens are 
interested in Hartford enterprises, 
and she is becoming more and more 
of a residential vSuburb of the rapid- 
ly growing city, Wethersfield as a 
whole is distinctively an agricultural 
township. And in choosing to have 



Bulwer Lytton's characters is repre- 
sented as saying, '' agriculture is a 
healthful and noble pursuit, honored 
by sacred nations, and cherished by 
the greatest men in classical times." 
To neglect a soil so fertile, so easily 
worked, so well adapted to the rais- 
ing of a variety of crops, and so 
near to the best markets, in order to 
establish and engage in occupations 
which are more wearing and less 
likely to secure a comfortable living 
and a good degree of independence, 
would stamp the inheritors of Weth- 
ersfield's rich lands as being less 
wise than were their fathers. But 
here have remained upon the ances- 
tral acres an unusually large propor- 
tion of the descendants of the first 
settlers; deriving their own living 
chiefly from the soil, and sending out 
a surplus of products for the susten- 
ance of other lives, and for the in- 
crease of agricultural prosperity in 
many parts of the world. Besides 
raising large quantities of the more 
common edible roots and much first 
class tobacco, and giving increasing 
attention in late years to what is 




STAIRWAY IN THE CHESTER HOUSE 



it retain its early character its 
inhabitants cannot be accused of 
having acted unwisely, for, as one of 



known as market-gardening, Weth- 
ersfield land owners have long been 
well and favorably known through 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 229 



was 
the 



their successful seed-growing, and 
by the enterprise and reliability of 
the firms through which their farm 
and garden seeds have 
been distributed through- 
out the country and be- 
yond. Notwithstanding 
the fact that the seed 
business is now overdone 
by the multiplication of 
companies all over the 
United States, there are firms 
of good standing left here to 
maintain the reputation that 
gained by the pioneers in 
business, who from 1830, and after- 
wards, paved the way for others to 
follow in their steps. Another in- 
dustry that has helped to give prom- 
inence to Wethersfield's name in the 
agricultural world is that of stock 
breeding. The herds of Ayrshire, 
Holstein, Jersey and Swiss cattle 
which have been imported to the 
town, and the animals bred there- 
from, have proved to be equal to 
any that have been produced on 
this continent, and the wide dis- 
tribution given them by sale has 
greatly contributed to the improve- 
ment of the country's stock. One of 
the results of the common interests 
which bind together so many of 
Wethersfield's 
citizens is a 
flourishing- 
chapter of the 
Grange, which 
meets in a build- 
ing of its own, 
where such in- 
terests are said 
to be furthered 
and good fellow- 
ship promoted, 








THE CHESTER TOMHSTONE, 164S 



SKATERS AT THE COVE 

to the mutual benefit of its members. 
But with all the attention that has 
been given to their own immediate 
affairs, the people of Wethersfield 
have never been lacking in patriotic 
fervor, nor in having among their 
number those who were able and 
willing to contribute valuable aid, 
personal and pecuniary, to the State 
and Nation. Indeed, this town has 
borne a very important part, through 
her representatives, in the conduct 
both of civil and military affairs. 
Of the five members who constituted 
the General Court in the spring of 
of 1636, one, Andrew Ward, was from 
Wethersfield, and still another, Wil- 
liam Swayne, became a member in 
the following autumn. One gover- 
____ nor, Thomas 

Welles, was tak- 
en directly from 
the town in 
1655-56, and a- 
gain in 165S-59. 
Ini774and 1775 
she was repre- 
sented in the 
Continental 
Congress by 
Silas Deane;and 
from 1783 until 



230 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



1789 by Stephen Mix Mitchell, who 
also served as representative in the 
National Congress from 1793 till 1795. 
In the same capacity her eminent cit- 
izen, Judge Thomas Scott Williams, 
served his country from 181 7 till 1819; 
and the last two, together with John 
Chester and Thomas Belden Butler, 
were members of the Supreme 
Court of Connecticut, Mitchell, 
Williams and Butler each attaining 
to the honorable position of chief 
judge. And the above are by no 
means all the names of those who, 
in the earlier days, brought great 
honor to Wethersfield in their con- 
duct of civil affairs. And a long line 
of distinguished service can be 
traced out in the deeds of numbers 
of her citizens upon whom public 
responsibilities have since been laid. 
In this brief sketch the story can- 
not begin to be told of the part that 
Wethersfield men have borne in the 
wars which have disturbed the peace 
and industries of the American peo- 
ple. In the earlier contests with the 
Aborigines, during the French and 
Indian wars of a later period, in the 
severe and long-continued effort of 
the Colonies to gain their indepen- 
dence, and in the grapple of the 
nation with armed rebellion —in all 
these struggles Wethersfield quotas, 
both of men and money, were always 
forthcoming, to the securing of the 
desired results. Yes, in the Civil 
War more than her proportion of 
soldiers was furnished. The treas- 
ured names of colonels, majors, cap- 
tains, chaplains and lieutenants who, 
in one and another war, gave distinc- 
tion to the families and town from 
which they went out to do and dare, 
are far too numerous to be mentioned 
in this article. But what student of 



Connecticut history has not read of 
Rev. Gershom Bulkeley, the brave 
surgeon and chaplain of the Connec- 
ticut troops which fought in 1675 
with the Narragansetts ; of Rector 
Elisha Williams, chaplain of the 
Connecticut forces under Pepperell, 
and of Captain, (afterwards Colonel), 
Elizur Goodrich, of the same " New 
England Army," in the expedition 
against Louisburg ; of Captain, 
(afterwards Colonel), John Chester, 
at Bunker Hill, whose company is 
said to have been "by far the most 
accomplished body of men in the 
American Army ;" of Colonel Eze- 
kiel Porter Belden, an intimate friend 
of Layafette ; and of Colonel Samuel 
B. Webb, on the staff of General 
Washington ? Such names are sug- 
gestive of Wethersfield's devotion to 
the great causes which appealed to 
something far deeper than selfish 
interest in the times which tried 
men's souls. 

Two forms of material aid which 
gave expression to Wethersfield's 
patriotic sympathies deserve especial 
mention. When, in 1774, Boston 
Harbor was closed by act of 
Parliament, and the residents of that 
rebellious town were thereby threat- 
ened with starvation, the people 
of Wethersfield sent them, through 
Captain Israel Williams, a generous 
quantity of wheat, rye and Indian 
corn, with the promise of further 
contributions at a later date ; which 
seasonable aid was gratefully ac- 
knowledged in July of the same 
year by no less a person than 
Samuel Adams. Another valuable 
service was rendered the cause 
through the contribution, by Silas 
Deane, of ^380, towards defraying 
the expenses of the expedition 



THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 231 



which ended in the capture of Fort 
Ticonderoga, — an expedition that 
was projected in Hartford, by Silas 
Deane and three citizens of that 
neighboring town. But for this aid, 
and the further sum of ^500, which 
was raised on a note, to which six 
persons affixed their signatures, one 
of whom was Ezekiel Williams of 
Wethersfield, the project might not 
have been attempted, and a brilliant 
page of American history might 
never have been written. It is of 
interest to remember that some of 
the fruits of Ethan Allen's victory 
were distributed in Wethersfield, in 
the shape of a body of British prison- 
ers who were billeted among her 
people. 

But the event w^hich, more than 
all others in her history, led to 
momentous results, was the council 
of war that Washington held in May, 
1 781, when, with General Knox, Du- 
portail and others, he met General 
the Marquis de Chastellux and Field 
Marshall de Rochambeau from the 
French army in Newport, and Gov- 
ernor Jonathan Trumbull, Colonel 
Jeremiah Wadsworth, Colonel Sam- 
uel B. Webb, and others from 
Connecticut, and planned the cam- 
paign which ended in the surrender 
of Cornwallis at Yorktown. For 
four or five days, including one Sun- 
day, Washington was a guest at the 
house of Joseph Webb, whose hospi- 
tality was gracefully acknowledged 
by him, after his return to camp, in 
a letter, as follows : " I cannot con- 
clude without assuring you that I 
have a high sense of your politeness 
and attention to me, while I was in 
Wethersfield, and that I should at all 
times be happy to see you at Head 
Quarters." 



It is a matter of local pride that 
the Webb House, on the lot once 
owned by Major Samuel Wolcott, is 
still standing, and that no impious 
hand has materially changed its 
architectural appearance. Upon the 
wall of the chamber in which Wash- 
ington slept hangs the same paper 
which adorned the room in 1781, its 
large figures in rich maroon being 
remarably well preserved, consider- 
ing the lapse of time. On the south 
of this historic building is the large 
house that was owned by the re- 
nowned Silas Deane. A quarter of 
a mile to the north, on the site 
of the original fort that was erected 
by the early settlers for protection 
agrinst the savages, is another well 
preserved specimen of Wethersfield's 
ancient homes — the Porter-Belden 
house — in which there is a fire-place 
that was designed by Count Rum- 
ford, America's early scientist. Many 
other substantial houses of eigh- 
teenth century make, testif.y to the 
prosperity which characterized the 
town in former days ; and it is 
greatly to be regretted, that neces- 
sary changes have required the 
destruction of certain other famous 
houses, where hospitality once reign- 
ed and notabilities lived and enter- 
tained. The front steps of one of 
them — the home of Rector Williams 
—are used to ascend to the south 
door of the house of the Hon. Silas 
W. Robbins, which stands on the old 
Williams lot. Up and down these 
stone steps passed many a noted 
person, but none more worthy than 
the Rector's second wife, Elizabeth 
Scott, whom Philip Doddridge had 
once desired to marry, but who con- 
sented to come to America as the 
consort of the colonel -parson after 



232 THE FIRST CIVIL SETTLEMENT IN CONNECTICUT 



his patriotic services with the English 
g-overnment were concluded. It is 
recorded that " she was a lady well 
known in the literary and religious 
circles of England, as she was in 
this country ; and some of her writ- 
tings still remain to testify to her high 
intellectual, superiority, and moral 
excellence." One other thing of 
lively interest, that has to do with the 
memories of the past, is the old bell 
in the tower of the Congregational 
church, which, with a short intermis- 
sion, has rung the curfew since 1786. 
Although its warning to put out 
the lights and retire is no longer 
heeded as formerly, yet were it 
to remain silent at the hour of 
nine many a heart would feel that 
something precious had passed from 
life. With its daily call to rest, 
and its other calls to worship 
there are mingled, indeed, many sad 
notes that speak of departed days. 



But it has ever been in the way of 
ringing in new joys, new hopes and 
new improvements upon the old con- 
ditions of living. It cannot ring 
back the ancient Wethersfield with 
its cherished customs, habits, homes 
and the dear men and women of the 
old school whose ashes rest in God's 
acre ; but, by the blessing of God, it 
shall ring in many good things that 
will make it easier and pleasanter to 
live, and it will welcome new lives 
to repeat over and over again, in 
their own strivings,the story of honor- 
able achievement which has made 
Wethersfield's past so well worthy 
of record. Then may it continue 
to peal on, calling to rest and wor- 
ship, reviving holy memories, incit- 
ing to honorable endeavor, until it 
shall usher in the final triumph of 
the kingdom of righteousness and 
peace! 



*To the writings of the late Judge Sherman W. Adams the writer of this article would gratefully 
acknowledge his indebtedness for many facts, which, but for Mr. Adams' patient researches, could 
have been gathered only at the expense of much time and labor. 

For many of the photographs and for much care given to the arrangement and engraving of the 
illustrations credit is also gratefully given to Mr. Jared B. Standish of the Hartford Engraving Com- 
pany, a resident of Wethersfield, and a descendant of Capt. Miles Standish. 




233 





imtKUTABILITV. 





\k aoWg records of %e cer^turies ! 

\fe living witAGSSCS of a^es <Jea(3 ! 

^^ l^irvgly coAvmi^es trve^wbose stout brave Ggbt 

for lif€,tbrows l)ope'^ ctcmt^l 1ig])t evb^-^^ 

Upon our pcvtbs full of oI)sc unties! 




I 



l^rhs:]) us tb?\t ^tis by ^viiry conflict won 
Tbe knotted sinews gmw, vblc!) give strcn^tb^ caVi 
An^ confident, mvd in tbe fl^xs]) e^nd ro^r 
Of storA.feel, witb sure toucb, tbc co/alncf ht^n 
or tbe restorincr re^in ^nd ftxltbful sun. 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN— A MAKER 

OF THE NATION 

HE TOOK PART IN THE DRAFTING OF FOUR GREAT 
DOCUMENTS OF OUR EARLY NATIONAL HISTORY- 
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS— DECLARATION OF INDEPEND- 
ENCE — ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION — CONSTITUTION 

BY 

R. ESTON PHYFE, A. B. 

Vice-Principal and Teacher of History at the Hartford High School 




Mr. Phyfe tells the interesting story of the remarkable life of Roger Sher- 
man in a most entertaining manner. He states that for many of the facts in 
the article he is indebted to Mr. Boutell's volume on the same subject which 
contains many letters and other documents from Mr. Sherman and his con- 
temporaries. He also extends his appreciation to Mr. Albert C. Bates of the 
Connecticut Historical Society for the use of the many books and papers of 
the Society that have given him much valuable assistance in the preparation 
of this article. Mr. Phyfe is the chief teacher of history and the Vice- Princi- 
pal of the Hartford Public High School. He comes from a long line of 
Scotch ancestry and his early life was spent in central New York. His 
higher education was received at an academy in Delhi, New York, and at 
Yale College, from which he was graduated in 1890, and came to Hartford. 
Mr. Phyfe receives numerous invitations from organizations to address them 
on historical subjects. Among such organizations addressed by him the 
past year is the Hartford Smith College Club.— Editor. 



IT was the good fortune of but 
one man to be privileged to 
take part in the making of the 
four great documents of our early 
national history : the Declaration 
of Rights — formed by the convention 
of 1774 — the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, and the Constitution. And this 
good fortune came to this man not 
simply in the train of favoring polit- 
ical circumstances, but because of 
acknowledged merit of great excel- 
lence. The man was Roger Sher- 
man, a sterling patriot, whose history 
should be familiar to every true 
American, and especially to every 
patriotic citizen of Connecticut. 
Roger Sherman was born in New- 



ton, Mass., April 19, 1721. He was 
the son of a shoemaker and farmer, 
and great grandson of a prominent 
citizen of Watertown, Mass., who had 
emigrated from England about 1634. 
The English ancestry of the farnily 
was of a very substantial character, 
and included among its numbers 
several members of Parliament. 
From another branch of the family, 
springing from the parent stock in 
England, descended General Sher- 
man and his brother, the Ohio states- 
man. When old enough Roger 
Sherman learned the shoemaker's 
trade, and became an assistant to 
his father in making shoes and 
working on the farm. He continued 
in this dual work until he was 



235 




PJioto by Randall. 



Hitherto unpublished portrait of 
ROGER SHERMAN 



Painted by Professor John F. Weir, Curator of the Yale School . 
of the Fine Arts, from a miniature by Trumbull 

Painting now in possession of Mrs. Timothy Dwight and herewith 
reproduced by special permission 



236 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



twenty-two years of age. At this 
time — his father having died two 
years before — he removed with the 
family to New Milford, Conn., 
whither his elder brother had gone 
a year before the father's death. 
The formal education of the boy 
was such as was afforded by the 
common country schools of the time. 
But this part of his education must 
have been very small as compared 
with the undirected part which he 
wrought out for himself. It is told 
of him that while at work at his 
shoemaker's bench he studied from 
a book lying beside him. The story 
is in perfect harmony with his ambi- 
tion and industry, and we would feel 
sure that he thus doubly improved 
his time, even if the story had 
never been told. The first President 
Dwight of Yale College said of him : 
" In early life he began to apply 
himself with unextinguishable zeal 
to the acquisition of knowledge. In 
this pursuit, although he was always 
actively engaged in business, he 
spent more hours than most of those 
who are professedly students." As 
self-acquisition forces independent 
reasoning, young Sherman became 
an eminently practical scholar, whose 
knowledge was well sorted and al- 
ways available for ready use. We 
are, therefore, not surprised to find 
the following concerning him from 
the pen of John Adams : " Destitute 
of all literary and scientific educa- 
tion, but such as he acquired by his 
own exertions, he was one of the 
most sensible men in the world." 
He seems not to have done anything 
worth mentioning with any other 
language than his own, but the fields 
of history, science, philosophy, law 



and theology, all, sooner or later, 
claimed his attention. 

The shoe shop on the Sherman 
farm was no doubt the scene of 
much interesting conversation and 
discussion, for, as out of the abund- 
ance of the heart the mouth speak- 
eth, young Sherman would have 
much to talk about, concerning his 
studies and current events, with his 
father and the more intelligent of 
their patrons. It was now the period 
between the second and third of the 
French and Indian wars. Across 
the water George II was on the 
English throne. It was when Sher- 
man was nineteen years of age that 
England began with Spain the war 
of Jenkin's Ear. This war, and the 
attendant circumstances of Walpole's 
ministry, as well as the affairs of 
England and the colonies in general, 
and of Massachusetts in particular, 
would all be discussed in the Sher- 
man shoe shop. As to what sort of 
a shoemaker he was we do not know, 
but surely the thinking awl, like the 
"thinking bayonet," must be an ex- 
cellent one. 

Sherman's appearance in later 
years would be foreshadowed at this 
time in a tall, strong frame, and a 
thoughtful, intellectual countenance. 
Most likely he dressed in homespun, 
with knee breeches, and other char- 
acteristic features of colonial dress. 
Before he was twenty-one, so he 
once told his family, he had acquired 
the mastery of his passions. So at 
this time he must have shown that 
calmness of nature, that evenness of 
temperament, so manifest In later 
years, and which once led a man 
who had been storming at him to 
remark, " The devil himself couldn't 
provoke you." His great popularity 



A MAKER OF THE NA TION 



237 




FROM STATUE BY C. B. IVES ON EAST 
FACADE OF STATE CAPITOL 

in after times makes it highly prob- 
able that he was held in honor by 
his associates of these early years. 
He himself undoubtedly enjoyed the 
life of the community, for he often 
revisited this home of his childhood, 
and to this place he came back from 
Connecticut to marry the wife of his 
youth. 

For a few years after his removal 
to New Milford, Roger Sherman 
must have followed the shoemaker's 
trade, for, in a deed for land bought 
by him in 1746, he is designated as a 
shoemaker. But he gradually gave 
up this vocation, as his time came to 



be taken up more and more with 
higher things. Like Lmcoln of a 
later day, he became a surveyor — 
thus putting to practical use his 
knowledge of mathematics — and in 
1745 we find him a '* Surveyor of 
Lands " for his county. f 

The vocation of surveyor was a 
very remunerative one in those days 
and no doubt the considerable sums 
of money that Sherman earned in 
this capacity contributed much to 
his start in life. This vocation, too, 
brought him into contact with men, 
and revealed to them his ability and 
character. And apparently no sooner 
did the people of his town come to 
know his worth than they began to 
put him into office. And so numer- 
ous were the offices bestowed upon 
him, one after another — grand jury- 
man, fence-viewer, selectman, etc., 
etc. — that one must suppose he was 
one whom his townsmen trusted and 
delighted to honor. By letter of 
recommendation from the church at 
Newton, with which he had united 
after his father's death, he joined 
the church at New Milford. He be- 
came in it a prominent member and 
office-holder. About this time we 
find him a buyer and seller of lands. 
In all public enterprises he not only 
took interest but actively aided in 
their advancement. 

During the decade between 1750 
and 1760 he carried on a general 
mercantile business, at first with a 
brother, and after the latter's death, 
in 1756, alone. 

Besides putting to practical use in 
surveying his knowledge of mathe- 
matics, he utilized his knowledge of 



tNew Milford was at this time in New Haven 
County. It was included in Litchfield County 
when the latter was organized in 1752. 



238 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



astronomy in publishing" an almanacj 
for the years 1750 to 1761, for which 
he himself made the astronomical 
calculations. This almanac, of from 
sixteen to twenty-four pages, accord- 
ing to the year, contained monthly 
calendars, changes of sun, moon 
and tides, eclipses, festivals and fasts 
of the Church of England, weather 
predictions, etc. Each monthly cal- 
endar had at its top a stanza of 
poetry, while interspersed with the 
weather predictions were moral re- 
flections, of which the following are 
specimens : '' Public good is to be 
preferred before private interest." 
" Plain, downright honesty is the 
beauty and elegancy of life." " Hon- 
our of blood without the ornament 
of knowledge is but a glorious igno- 
rance." "Good laws, well executed, 
are the bulwarks of liberty and 
property." "Self-interest will turn 
some men's opinions as certainly as 
wind will a weathercock." 

" Are obloquies despised, they die 
suppressed. 

But if with rage resented, they're 
confessed." 

These reflections may be origi- 
nal. If not they were selected by 
Mr. Sherman, and so in either case 
they reflect his thoughts. This 
almanac seems to have been pat- 
terned, in some respects, after Ben- 
jamin Franklin's " Poor Richard's," 
with which, for a period, it was 
contemporaneous. No doubt its an- 
nual appearance was warmly wel- 
comed, as it would be one of the few 
pieces of current reading matter to 
be found in many Connecticut house- 
holds. After an eager perusal it 



^Copies of this almanac for five different years 
are to be seen at the rooms of the Connecticut 
Historical Society. 



would probably be hung in a con- 
venient place for ready reference. 

In the almanac of 1753, the author 
gives an argument against the ac- 
ceptance by Connecticut people of 
the bills of credit from New Hamp- 
shire and Rhode Island. He shows 
that while 54 shillings of these bills 
equalled an ounce of silver in 1750, 
now it takes 73 shillings of them to 
equal the same quantity of silver, so 
great has been the depreciation of 
the bills. He declares that the 
people of Connecticut have probably 
lost ^176,000 in two years in using 
this unstable currency. So, he natur- 
ally asks, " Is not that a large tribute 
for the inhabitants of said colony to 
pay to those two governments?" 
The year before he had issued a 
similar article in pamphlet form, 
from a press in New York, in which 
he had referred to the loss sustained 
by Connecticut in using the bills of 
neighboring colonies, and had ar- 
gued against the idea, in the minds 
of some, that the people of Connec- 
ticut were bound to accept these 
bills as legal tender. Thus did the 
breadth of view of the enterprising 
young merchant show itself, and 
thus did he take a staunch stand in 
behalf of his colony's financial wel- 
fare. 

Probably soon after he engaged 
in the mercantile business he began 
the study of law, for we find him 
admitted to the bar in 1754, when 
thirty-three years of age. The next 
year he was chosen justice of the 
peace for his county, and also elected 
to represent New Milford in the 
General Assembly of the Colony. 
He was thrice re-elected by the 
people of New Milford to the latter 
ofBce. When thirty-eight he became 



A MAKER OF THE NA TION 



239 




240 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



a member of the Court of Common 
Pleas. Note the development : shoe- 
maker, surveyor, merchant, landed 
proprietor, lawyer, legislator, judge. 
In 1 761, after his very successful 
career of eighteen years in New 
Milford, during which period the 
highest honors in town and county 
had been bestowed upon him, he re- 



and in the same year he was made a 
judge of the Superior Court. He 
was returned an assistant, or Sena- 
tor, at every successive election for 
eighteen years, and he remained on 
the bench of the Superior Court 
until 1789, when the necessity of his 
position as member of the House of 
Representatives caused him to re- 




FROM COPY OF PAINTING BY EARLE, 3787 



moved to New Haven. He was now 
forty years of age. He continued 
here a mercantile business which he 
had begun the year before. His 
law practice he now gave up. 

The honor of being an assembly- 
man was here renewed to him 
in 1764. In 1766 he was chosen to 
the upper house of the Legislature, 



sign the judgeship. 

In addition to these honors, Mr. 
Sherman was active and prominent 
in his church ; treasurer of Yale 
College from 1766 to 1776; in con- 
nection with a brother judge of the 
Superior Court, a reviser of the 
statutes of Connecticut ; and Mayor 
of New Haven, from the incorpora- 



1 



A MAKER OF THE NATION 



241 



tion of the city until his death ten 
years later. He was also, during 
the war, a member of the Governor's 
council of safety. 

But it is the national career of 
Roger Sherman that stands out most 
conspicuous, although the great 
variety of offices bestowed upon him 
at home by his fellow citizens attest 
as naught else can the esteem for 
integrity and wisdom in which he 
was held by those who knew him 
best. He was elected a member of 
the Continental Congress which met 
in Philadelphia in 1 7 74. His attitude 
had been strongly in favor of Colon- 
ial protest against English oppres- 
sion. In 1770 a committee of six 
New Haven merchants, of whom 
Roger Sherman was one, endeavor- 
ing to enforce a non-importation 
agreement, had issued an address to 
the merchants of Wethersfield and 
Hartford which contained these 
words, relative to the keeping of the 
agreement : '' It is the cause of our 
country, it is the cause of liberty, it 
is the cause of all : and our country 
betrayed, our liberty sold, and our- 
selves enslaved, what have we left ? " 
In 1772, in a letter to a Boston 
patriot, Mr. Sherman had written : 
" It is a fundamental principle in the 
British Constitution, and I think 
must be in every free state, that no 
laws bind the people but such as 
they consent to be governed by, 
therefore, so far as the people of the 
colonies are bound by laws made 
without their consent, they must be 
in a state of slavery or absolute sub- 
jection to the will of others; if this 
right belongs to the people of the 
colonies, why should 'they not claim 
it and enjoy it? If it does not be- 
long to them as well as to their 



fellow subjects in Great Britain, how 
came they to be deprived of it ? " 
John Adams tells us in his diary 
that when he was on his way to the 
Congress of 1774, Roger Sherman 
visited him at "the tavern " in New 
Haven where he stopped, and told 
him he thought the Parliament of 
Great Britain had authority to make 
laws for America in no case what- 
ever." Mr. Sherman's acts in the 
Congress of 1774 were in harmony 
with these previously expressed 
views, and the Declaration of Rights 
— setting forth the inalienable privi- 
leges of the Colonists — was drawn 
up by a committee of two from each 
colony represented in the Congress, 
of which committee Mr, Sherman 
was one of the Connecticut mem- 
bers. 

Mr. Sherman was returned to the 
Congress of 1775, which took charge 
of the war that had already broken 
out. Being a loyal New Englander, 
he opposed at first the election of 
Washington as commander-in chief, 
not from any objection to him of a 
personal character, but because the 
army at Boston was all from New 
England, and had a General satis- 
factory to themselves. Mr. Sherman 
served in Congress up to November 
I, 1 781, and again during the session 
of 1783-4. The esteem in which he 
was held is shown by the great num- 
ber of prominent committees on 
which he was placed, and the numer- 
ous and important boards of which 
he was appointed a member. Con- 
spicuous among the latter were the 
board of war and ordinance and the 
treasury board, and, among the 
former, one to devise ways and 
means to raise ten million dollars ; 
another to consult with General 



242 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



Washington, General Gates and Gen- 
eral Miflin for the campaign of 1776 ; 
and particularly the committee to 
draft the Declaration of Independ- 
ence — on which he was associated 
with Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin and Robert Liv- 
ingstone — and the committee made 
lip of one from each colony to pre- 
pare articles of confederation. So 
not only did Roger Sherman help to 
make, in a general way, the four 
great documents of our early na- 
tional history, but he helped to draft 
the first three and had an important 
part, as we shall see, in the framing 
of the Constitution. 

As the Articles of Confederation 
were very inadequate as a form of 
government — the National Govern- 
ment having no control of commerce 
and no authority to enforce its de- 
mands or requisitions upon the 
states, and as, in consequence, the 
country was fast drifting towards 
anarchy it was deemed best to hold 
a constitutional convention in which 
the whole matter might be carefully 
considered and whatever form of 
government should appear best be 
adopted. This convention met in 
Philadelphia in 1787, and Mr. Sher- 
man was one of the three delegates 
from Connecticut, the other two 
being William Samuel Johnson and 
Oliver Ellsworth. Of the fifty-five 
members of this convention in which 
the self-educated Sherman was to 
play a conspicuous part were, so 
John Fiske tells us, twenty-nine col- 
lege graduates, representing, as he 
says, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, 
Princeton, William and Mary, and 
beyond the water, Glasgow, Edin- 
burgh and Oxford. With the schol- 
arlv men of this convention, how- 



ever, Roger Sherman must have felt 
a certain collegiate kinship, for by 
an honorary degree of Yale College 
he was a Master of Arts. Washing- 
ton was chosen president of the con- 
vention. The oldest delegate, and 
next to Washington the most re- 
vered, was Benjamin Franklin, now 
one year past the four-score years 
and ten. Next in age to Franklin 
was Sherman, sixty-six years old. 

It was deemed best, soon after the 
convention met, not to try to make 
use of the Articles of Confederation, 
but to make a new constitution. 
There were naturally many ques- 
tions that engaged the attention of 
the convention, but the one that pro- 
voked the warmest discussion and 
was the most difBcult to settle was 
that regarding state suffrage in th^ 




;^ 



A CHAIR BELONGING TO ROGER SHERMAN, SAID 
TO HAVE BEEN HIS OFFICE CHAIR 

In possession of the Connecticut Historical Society. 



A MAKER OF THE NATION 



243 



new congress. Naturally the large 
states like Virginia and Massachu- 
setts were anxious to see represen- 
tation in both branches of the new 
national legislature based on the 
population. The less populous states 
were opposed to this, claiming they 
would be at a disadvantage under 
such an arrangement, as a few large 
states with a majority of delegates 
would always be able to outvote the 
small ones. They said such a plan 
was as manifestly unfair as 
would be the granting of 
individual suffrage accord- 
ing to wealth — the giving of 
one vote to a poor man, 
many to a rich one. The 
discussion became very 
heated. A New Jersey 
delegate, who had favored 
strengthening the Articles 
of Confederation and con- 
tinuing their use, said that 
if the large states should 
be given an influence in 
proportion to their size, 
their ambition would be 
proportionally i n c r e a s e d, 
and that the small states ^^ 

would have everything to 
fear. The large states might unite 
if they pleased, but they should 
remember that they had no authority 
to compel the others to join them. 
New Jersey would never confederate 
on the plan before the convention, 
for, if she did, she would be swal- 
lowed up. He would do everything 
in his power to defeat the plan both 
in the convention and after he 
returned home. Wilson, of Penn- 
sylvania, replying, asked ironically 
if the people of Pennsylvania were 
not equal to those of New Jersey, 
if it required one hundred and fifty 



of the former to balance fifty of 
the latter. He said that if the 
small states would not federate 
on the proposed plan Pennsylvania — 
and he presumedother states — would 
not federate on any other. Bedford, 
of Delaware, speaking for thes mall 
states, said that if the large states 
should dare to break the existing 
confederacy the small states would 
find some foreign ally who would 
take them by the hand. King, of 




RESIDENCE OF ROGER SHERMAN ON CHAPEL 
STREET, NEW HAVEN 

Massachusetts, replying to this, said 
he was s.orry that the delegate from 
Delaware had suggested the solicit- 
ing of aid from a foreign power. 

The two sides were now pitted 
against each other in a deadlock. 
Martin, of Maryland, said: "You 
must give each state an equal suf- 
frage or our business is at an end." 
Roger Sherman was led to remark : 
''Then are we come to a full stop. 
I suppose it was never meant that 
we should break up without doing- 
something." But the convention 
was not destined to end in failure. 



244 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



Success was to come through com- 
promise, and the natural compromise 
was one that would give the states 
representation in the House in pro- 
portion to their inhabitants, and 
equal representation in the Senate. 
This the delegates from Connecticut 
had sagaciously foreseen would be 
the final outcome, and toward this 
end they had worked. In fact, the 
real deadlock came in the working 
out of this compromise, over the 
vote, on a resolution by Oliver Ells- 
worth, that there be equal state 
representation in the Senate. The 
vote was a tie, with Rhode Island 
and New Hampshire not repre- 
sented. The matter was then re- 
ferred to a committee. This com- 
mittee saw that if all the small states 
had been represented, the Ellsworth 
resolution would have resulted in 
favor of the small-state party. Then, 
again, the large states had already 
secured, provisionally, proportional 
representation in the House. So 
the committee reported favorably to 
the large states regarding the House, 
and favorably to the small states as 
to the Senate. The convention 
adopted the report. Madison's notes 
on the convention show that Roger 
Sherman was the one who initiated 
the line of action that led to this 
harmonious arrangement, now called 
the Connecticut Compromise. Such 
an idea had been in Sherman's mind 
for years. In 1776, eleven years be- 
fore, he had said in a debate on the 
Articles of Confederation, " The vote 
should be taken two ways, call the 
colonies and call the individuals and 
have a majority of both." The re- 
sourcefulness of Sherman as a mem- 
ber of the convention is here shown. 
In view of it we can appreciate the 



statement of Hollister, the historian, 
that Sherman had ''more well di- 
gested thoughts to communicate 
than any other member." 

When the question of whether the 
Vice-President should be the presi- 
dent of the Senate was being consid- 
ered in the convention, it was 
objected that on account of the close 
mtimacy between the President and 
the Vice-President it would be abso- 
lutely improper for the latter to 
preside over the Senate ; as much 
out of place as it would be for the 
President to preside over Congress. 
Regarding this Madison says, " Mr. 
Sherman saw no danger in the case. 
If the Vice-President were not to be 
president of the Senate, he would be 
without employment, and some 
member by being made president 
must be deprived of his vote, unless 
when an equal division of votes 
might happen in the Senate which 
would be but seldom." 

In these views Mr. Sherman was, 
of course, with the majority. This, 
however, was not always the case, as 
one would naturally expect. For 
instance, he thought that the mem- 
bers of the lower House of Congress 
should be chosen not by the people 
but by the legislatures of the several 
states. He said of the people : 
''They want (lack) information and 
are constantly liable to be misled." 
The major part of the convention 
did not share his belief. But, in 
general, he was with the majority 
and time has proved the wisdom of 
their views. 

A person looking over Madison's 
very full account of the convention 
is impressed with the prominent part 
taken by Sherman at almost every 
stage in the proceedings. Between 



A MAKER OF THE NA TION 



245 



j An Afironomical DlARTj 

i OK, AN 

jALMANACK 

1 For the Tear of our Loslp Christ, - 

' , I 7 5 3» 

Being the firfi- aft^r Bjssextile^ or LfeAP- 
I Year : And in the Twenty- Sixth Year 
of the Reign of our moft Gracious Sove* 
I reign King GEORGE //. | 
jWhcreia is contained the Lunations^ EciipfipsJ 
j Mutual Afpeds of the- Planet?, Sun and. 
I Mooa*sRifiiig,8f Secting^Rifm 2, Setting & 
Southing of the ^evenStars, Time of High- 
Water, Courts, Obfervable DaySy. Spring 
Tides, Judgment, of the Weather; 0c. . 
Calculated for the LaLof 41 Deg.NoVtii,&th 
Meridian oi New- London inCoNN£CTicuT» 



1. 



By ROGER SHERMAN. 



Time fprnfg ffCmL)iiiknejrs,& £r«n3 ancientHigh 
At-d foChM alone with th« ftfft Beams of L^fet > 
n .9o/'i b ighs CiS^^r fese fsij^M ihe fiDwitig reios. 
And drftvt; hH Cfaurfessthro' the ^itheresl Plains, 
Wfiofe Kndiifii Bcatfis afF-d our feeble' Eyes 
ArtdfiU our ^iiids with Wonder and Sufprix% 
And Itillbts Wheels. on |hek f^ift Axles Ro{l 
Witti Mirer h?ifte to reach the dellin'd Gc«i *, 
Pift ars tjie \^nds. thsif rap5<| ^Sosrfc they ben^, 
Crobdaa the Scenes t ^ f>mg «)»5 fa tail End. 

:- ,■• MKW-;LsOK0Q"N: 






iW r^: 



FAC-SIMILE OF FRONT PAGE OF SHERMAN'S ALMANAC 

(Courtesy Connecticut Historical Society). 

May 30, when he took his seat, and 
September 17, when the convention 
ended, there were seventy-nine full 
sessions. At each one of fifty-eight 
of these sessions Sherman addressed 
the convention from one to three 
times, not counting the mere making 
or seconding of a motion. These 
speeches were all short — judging 
from Madison's briefs of them — but 
they were weighty, for Mr. Sherman 
never spoke unless he had something 



f^ to say, and when he did 

speak he gave only the 
concentrated essence of 
his thoughts. And he al- 
ways talked directly to the 
point. Jefferson, in a letter 
written years later, recall- 
ed Sherman as always 
being at the post of duty. 
His presence and activity 
in thi«s convention would 
certainly indicate this. 
And we must remember 
that at this time Mr. Sher- 
man was three-score and 
six years of age. Think 
of this old man sitting in 
this convention during the 
heat of July and August 
and watching the proceed- 
ings as intently as a mother 
does her creeping child, 
ever alert, ever watchful, 
pondering deeply each 
phase of development. 

Later Roger Sherman 
helped to secure the ratifi- 
cation of the Constitution 
by his state, both as a 
member of the State con- 
vention and by contribu- 
tions to the press. Thus 
he worked, in state and 
nation, in shaping the 
Constitution which has 
given to our country her glory and 
her strength. And however highly 
we may prize this Constitution we 
can never fully realize how great a 
blessing it was to the infant repub- 
lic. This was known only to those 
then living who had, to their sorrow, 
been face to face with the impo- 
tency of the confederation, the 
chaotic condition of the currency, 
the dissensions among the States 



246 



ROGER SHERMAN-^A CONNECTICUT MAN 



and the financial distress and misery 
that everywhere prevailed. Wash- 
ington knew it for he had thus 
expressed himself : " It is clear to 
me as A B C that an extension of 
federal power would make us one of 
the most happy, wealthy, respectable 
and powerful nations that ever in- 
habited the terrestrial globe. With- 
out them we shall soon be everything 
which is the direct reverse. I pre- 
dict the worst consequences from a 
half-starved, limping government, 
always moving upon crutches and 
tottering at every step." To us of 
to-day the national possession of a 
strong constitution seems a very 
commonplace thing, but to men like 
Washington and Sherman who had 
known the paralysis of the general 
government under the Confedera- 
tion, it must have seemed of price- 
less value. How rejoiced the heart 
of Sherman must have been when 
this Constitution, upon which he had 
labored so much and from which he 
hoped so much for the country, 
was made the main law of the land. 
And we rejoice that to the intelli- 
gence of those worthy men of the 
convention of 1787, the Constitution 
will ever remain a standing memo- 
rial. Under this new Constitution, 
which went into force in 1789, 
Roger Sherman became a member 
of the House. During his two years 
in this position he showed the same 
independence of character, the same 
zeal for the public good and the 
same breadth of mind as had mani- 
fested themselves in his previous 
career. He favored the payment of 
every dollar of the national debt, the 
assumption of the state debts by the 
nation and the establishment of a 
national bank. Hence, he was a 



supporter of Alexander Hamilton in 
his splendid administration as first 
Secretary of the Treasury. In 1791 
he was elected a United States Sena- 
tor, which office he held until his 
death two years later in 1793. 

Roger Sherman had a fair com- 
plexion, and was tall, straight and 
well proportioned. Although he was 
not handsome, a contemporary said 
of him that he had an agreeable, 
manly countenance. He was modest 
and reserved in manner. He had a 
keen sense of humor, as is shown by 
the following incident : After a 
proposal had been made in Congress 
to grant a sword to a certain general 
who had served as a special messen- 
ger to bring news of the victory of 
Saratoga, but who had travelled so 
slowly that word of the victory had 
reached Congress long before his 
arrival, Sherman suggested that a 
more fitting present would be a pair 
of spurs. Mr. Sherman was twice 
married. The first wife was a Miss 
Hartwell, by whom he had seven 
children. His second wife was Re- 
becca Prescott of Danvers, Mass. 
The following interesting account of 
the first meeting of Mr. Sherman 
and Miss Prescott is given in Bou- 
tell's life of Sherman : Roger Sher- 
man had been visiting his brothen 
the Rev. Josiah Sherman, at Woburn, 
Mass., for three weeks, and had 
started on his return to New Haven. 
Josiah had accompanied him a little 
way on his journey, and the broth- 
ers, having stopped, were just going 
to bid each other good bye and 
separate, when a vision of loveliness 
in the person of the eighteen-year old 
Harriet Prescott appeared on horse- 
back, on her way to visit her aunt, 
Josiah Sherman's wife. Roger Sher- 



A MAKER OF THE NATION 



247 



man was presented to her. Very 
soon thereafter he concluded that it 
wasn't absolutely necessary after all 
for him to go back to New Haven at 
once, and that he would accept 
Josiah's invitation to remain a little 
longer. And there flowed that way 
a tide in the affairs of a certain man 
which he took at the flood and which 
led on to matrimony. There were 
eight children of this marriage. A 
daughter became the mother of Hon. 
William M. Evarts, another the 
mother of Senator George F. Hoar 
of Massachusetts, another, still, the 
mother of the late Roger Sherman 
Baldwin, governor of Connecticut 
and United States Senator, and 
father of Judge Simeon E. Baldwin. 
Other descendants of Roger Sher- 
man have likewise been noted. Here 
are facts favoring the idea that 
blood counts — as it undoubtedly 
does. 

Roger Sherman is one of the finest 
examples of self-made men to be 
found in American history. Born in 
humble circumstances he raised him- 
self by his own strength of mind and 
character to positions of the highest 
usefulness in county, city, state and 
nation. Going from a country shoe 



shop he became the peer of the 
wisest counselors of the land, be- 
came the honored associate of such 
men as Franklin, John Adams and 
Washington. 

One would suppose that he must 
have been endowed by nature with 
most charming and gracious ways, 
that he was so successful in winning 
the favor of men. Such, however, 
was not the case. He was even 
awkward in manner. His winning 
traits seem to have been industry, 
clearness of thought, honesty and 
good judgment. 

One writer says of him : " Of the 
high estimation in which he was 
held there needs no other proof than 
the fact that he was elevated by the 
people of Connecticut to almost 
every office within their gift. Of 
the fidelity and ability with which 
he discharged his public duties, there 
needs no better proof than his re- 
election to all offices he would con- 
sent to take as long as he would 
accept them." President Stiles of 
Yale wrote of him as "an extraordi- 
nary man, a venerable, uncorruptible 
patriot." Thomas Jefferson re- 
marked of him that "he never said 
a foolish thing in his life," Nathaniel 




TOMB STONE OK ROGER SHERMAN IN GROVE STREET CEMETERY, 
NEW HAVEN 



248 



ROGER SHERMAN— A CONNECTICUT MAN 



Macon of North Carolina, that *' he 
had more common sense than any 
man he ever knew." 

Among pithy sayings of Roger 
Sherman are the following : 

"When you are in a minority, talk, 
when you are in a majoritj'', vote." 

" I know of no better way to pre- 
serve credit than to pay debts, and 
not to run in debt more than is abso- 
lutely necessary." 

" Popular opinion is founded in 
justice and the only way to know if 
the popular opinion is in favor of a 
measure is to examine whether it is 
just and right in itself. I believe 
that whatever is just and right the 
people will judge of and comply 
with." 

Comparing import duties with di- 
rect taxes, he said in Congress in 
1789, " the consumer pays them (im- 
port duties) eventually, and they pay 
no more than they choose, because 
they have it in their power to deter- 
mine the quantity of taxable articles 
they will use. A tax left to be paid 



at discretion must be more agreeable 
than any other." 

Regarding constituents instructing 
their representatives, he said, " I 
think when the people have chosen a 
representative it is his duty to meet 
others from the different parts of the 
Union and consult and agree with 
them to such acts as are for the gen- 
eral benefit of the whole community. 
If they were to be guided by 
instructions there would be no use 
in deliberation ; all that a man would 
have to do would be to produce his 
instructions and lay them on the 
table and let them speak for him. 
It is the duty of a good rep- 
resentative to inquire what measures 
are most likely to promote the 
general welfare and after he has 
discovered them to give them his 
support. Should his instructions, 
therefore, coincide with his ideas on 
any measure, they would be unneces- 
sary ; if they were contrary to the 
convictions of his own mind he must 
be bound by every principle of 
justice to disregard them." 




AN^ODE TO MERIDEN PEAK 

AS SEEN FROM THE HILLS IN BRISTOL 

LOOKING DOWN THE VALLEY TOWARD 

THE MOUNTAIN TOWERING MAJES- 

, TICALLY NEARLY TEN MILES AWAY 



BY 



DR. FREDERICK H. WILLIAMS 



Oh, Mount ! Across whose placid brow 

The rising sun salutes me now ; 

For thrice ten years, at eve and dawn, 

I've seen thy silent shadows drawn, 

Qreat brooding wings o'er sleeping plain 

That wax with eve, with morning wane. 

I've watched thee in the mystic light 

That moon and stars bequeath to night. 

Seen winter's icy crystals set 

Thy head in silvered coronet. 

I love thee when the spirites of Dawn 

Dance o'er thy peaks with laughing Morn ; 

I love thee in the crimson bliss 

When Vesper takes her parting kiss. 

I saw the mad tornado's crest 

Beat fiercely on thy honest breast. 

And, sullen with thy stern disdain. 

Go, shrieking murder down the plain. 

Silent, as Egypt's Sphynx, ye stand 

Thy ward o'er yet more ancient land ; 



^ 



250 




CASTLE CRAIG TOWER, LOOKING WEST, AS SEEN FROM HUBBARD PARK 



AN ODE TO MERIDEN PEAK 251 



So stern, that ever to my youth 

Ye typified eternal truth. 

Say ! do the ages ever find 

Thee steadfast as Infinite Mind? 

Dost thou compass the Aeon's range? 

Art thou the changeless Soul of Change? 

The pallid moon scarce lights thy crest, 

Soft purpling shadows veil the west, 

A ghostly mist that upwards steals 

In priestly robes thy form conceals. 

The pearly dew globes drop like tears 

As Time unveils thy vanished years. 

How tiny is the drop of rain 

That falls upon the sea or plain ! 

When you blazed o'er the ancient night 

Resistless seemed thine awful might ! 

Yet, softly came the gentle rain 

And kissed thy brow once and again ; 

It slowly stayed thy conq'ring heat. 

It laved and cooled thy burning feet. 

Again the sedge grew on the lea. 

And slowly crept th' encircling sea 

Around thy feet. Then up thy sides . 

Resistless rolled her cooling tides. 

Till cold and still, o'er sea and plain, 

Ye stood the captive mute of rain. 

And once again an Aeon's time 

Ye ask for rest, and rest is thine. 

Yet, though ye seem Time's honored fane. 

Nor thou nor I know when again 

Shall come another Aeon's birth, 

Or which, the last, shall view this earth ; 

For, In eternal round of change. 

Hath Spirit not the Atom's range? 

Lo thou art mortal, like to me. 

With Time yet rests the victory. 




CONNECTICUT'S HUGE INDUSTRY UNDER THE SEA 

NEARLY SEVENTY THOUSAND ACRES OF LAND UNDER 
LONG ISLAND SOUND DEVOTED TO OYSTER FARMING 

BY 

COMMANDER HENRY H. BARROLL 

(United States Navy) 




Commander Barroll is residing in Norwalk, having been placed on the 
retired list of the United States Navy, at his own request, on July 5th, 1899. 
Graduated from the United States Naval Academy in June, 1871, he has 
acquired an enviable reputation in the naval service. In 1875 he was a 
member of the party under Lieutenant Frederick Collins, ordered to survey 
a line for an interoceanic canal across the Isthmus of Darien. He was also 
a member of the party on the U. S. S. " Gettysburg," making determina- 
tions of longitude by means of telegraphic cable from Key West through 
the Antilles as far south as the line of Trinidad. "With the U. S. Coast Sur- 
vey he was later engaged in making sailing directions for the east coast of 
the United States between Cape Henry and the Dry Tortugas, and in 
locating the oyster beds in Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds, Chesapeake 
Bay. He commanded the Coast Survey steamer " Hitchcock " triangulating 
the Mississippi River, and took part in the quelling of the Chinese riot in 
1883. In 1891 he was in charge of the branch Hydrographic office at Norfolk, 
Virginia, later proceeding on the U. S. S. "Petrel "as navigator to Hong 
Kong, China. In 1895 he was appointed one of the aids to Captain H. C. 
Taylor, President of the Naval War College at Newport. In 1897 he was 
attached to the " Helena," cruising in Yucatan Canal, and was on the 
"Dolphin " during the Havana blockade. He participated in the bombard- 
ment at Santiago, and was navigator of the U. S. S. " New York," cruising 
with the squadron of battleships through the West Indies and along the 
Spanish Main.— Editor. 



AMONG the many huge indus- 
tries in Connecticut the 
most unique is under the 
deep seas, and its well equipped 
plant lies submerged in the waters 
of Long Island Sound. With nearly 
70,000 acres of land devoted to the 
great enterprise, employing at times 
600 men and half a thousand vessels 
of various sizes and shapes, the dark 
depths off the coast of Connecticut 
are not only making large fortunes 
for the promoters, but paying heavy 
revenue into the state exchequer. 

Connecticut is a mine of wealth ; 
its rock beds contain many of the 



precious minerals ; its soil is rich in 
produce, and from its good, red 
earth have sprung the sturdiest and 
most rugged of manhood whose in- 
genuity has caused the wheels of 
progress to whizz and whirl until 
to-day this grand old state of the Pur- 
itan is one of the most compact little 
hives of industry in the world. 

And now the Connecticut Yankee, 
in his unlimited ambition, rolls up 
his trousers over good, sturdj^- sun- 
burned limbs and wades out into the 
adjoining waters to find new fields 
to satisfy an ever developing energy. 

Connecticut furnished the oysters 



CONNECTICUT'S HUGE INDUSTR Y UNDER THE SEA 253 



for the coronation banquet of King 
Edward VII of the British empire, 
thus the old mother country is 
forced to still depend upon the re- 
sources of one of its former colonies. 
The commercial phase of the oyster 
industry, however, is to be entertain- 
ingly told by another writer in 
another article and therefore I wish 
to interest you more with one of 
the most remarkable and fascinating 
stories of nature, the birth and the 
life of this quaint little denizen of 
the Sound. 

First, to impress you with the im- 
portance of this little bivalve, let me 
say that Connecticut has about 64,- 
000 acres of privately planted oyster 
beds, and about 5,000 acres of natural 
oyster beds. The principal natural 
beds are the Fairfield, Bridgeport, 
Stratford and Roton Point, the 
largest being that off Stratford, 
which comprises 3,055 acres. The 
importance to the state of this in- 
dustry is shown in the fact that 349 
vessels have license to work upon 
the natural beds of the state, and 94 
steamers are licensed to take oysters 
in Connecticut waters. 

The extremely unprotected state 
of those beds of oysters which have 
been planted by private individuals 
is so great that it is necessary for 
the state government to throw about 
them all the safeguard that fines 
and other penalties can insure ; yet, 
even with the best laws in their 
favor, the oyster planters have much 
to contend with, since severe storms, 
and the ravages of the marine ene- 
mies cannot be made amenable to 
the laws, and may in a short while 
destroy the labor of several seasons. 

Several of the Atlantic States have 
passed laws specially to protect this 



industry. In Connecticut no person 
is allowed to gather oysters from 
the natural beds, except at a certain 
season of the year, and even then in 
some localities only by means of 
tongs, as dredging has a tendency 
to roll the oysters over, and also to 
set free larger quantities of sedi- 
ment. 

The season during which the nat- 
ural beds of Connecticut shall be 
allowed to rest extends from the 
twentieth day of July till the tenth 
of September of each year, and 
therefore the open season has just 
begun. The Housatonic river is a 
designated locality from which oys- 
ters may not be removed at any 
time, except by the use of tongs. 
An efficient oyster police is main- 
tained to see that these laws are not 
violated. 

The natural beds are the property 
of the state, and in the proper season 
any person having a license may 
seek for oysters on this territory. 
From the natural beds many oysters 
are annually removed by the plant- 
ers as "seed " for their planted beds. 
In one year 550,000 bushels of 
"seed" oysters were obtained from 
the natural beds for planting. In 
another year three natural beds 
gave employment to 200 boats, aver- 
aging three men to a boat, or to 
some 600 men, for a period of three 
months. 

The territory owned by the oyster 
growers is recorded in the state 
records, the same as property owned 
on the surface of the land, and 
taxes are levied and collected -the 
same as from real estate. 

Though we are all familiar with 
the oyster as an article of food, yet 
there are perhaps many who, while 



254 CONNECTICUT'S HUGE INDUSTR Y UNDER THE SEA 



fond of the luscious bivalve, have 
hardly. ever given a thought to its 
early life, and the manner in which 
it earns a livelihood. 

The oyster, or, according to its 
zoological nomenclature, Ostrea, be- 
longs to that class of mollusks known 
as the Lamelli Branchiata — a class 
of bivalves incapable of locomotion- 
Naturally, therefore, the oyster is a 
bivalve which has one of its shells or 
valves attached to some species of 
support, and remains ever in the 
same place, till removed by a cause 
other than its own volition. 

Some years ago the U. S. Coast 
Survey Schooner Palinurus, under 
command of Lieutenant Francis 
Winslow, of the U. S. Navy, was 
assigned to make a series of observa- 
tions, with the object of determining 
the most favorable conditions, as 
well as the various causes of injury 
to the natural oyster beds. Being 
attached to the Palinurus as assist- 
ant to Lieutenant Winslow, I had an 
opportunity for studying the early 
growth of the oyster, and also to 
note the ravages made by its marine 
enemies, of which I will tell in the 
second of this series. 

The spawn, or "spat," of the oys- 
ter, its reproductive element, is a pale, 
yellowish fluid, a portion of which, 
when viewed under the microscope, 
shows a multitude of particles in 
revolution, and resembling small 
turbine wheels in rapid motion. It 
was for some time supposed that the 
oyster was hermaphroditic ; but sub- 
sequent investigation has shown that 
there are male and female oysters ; 
the female producing small, pear- 
shaped eggs, and the male producing 
re-productive germs. In each case 
the reproductive element is simply 



voided into the water, and thus it is 
only when the germs may happen 
to come in contact that the young 
oyster is formed. 

If you could come with me to the 
bottom of Long Island Sound you 
would find that the newly born 
oyster does not resemble the bivalve 
of commerce. At first it is, indeed, 
a swimmer, and rises to the surface 
of the water by means of minute 
hair-like appendages, with which it 
wafts itself along. It retains this 
state, and this method of locomotion* 
for a space of time ranging from one 
to six days ; probably influenced in 
the duration by the temperature of 
the water or some other natural 
cause. It finally seeks some mater- 
ial upon which to attach itself, and 
the character of this substance se- 
lected determines its existence. If 
it is so unfortunate as to select a 
resting place upon a muddy bottom 
it will be choked and smothered, or 
die from want of food. If it rests 
upon a clean, hard surface, where 
there is also room for its growth, it 
will live, and attach itself firmly ; 
the swimming, hair-like appendages 
converting themselves into a strong 
ligament w^hich keeps the oyster 
from being easily torn away. 

As the oyster is in his earliest 
stage a swimmer, it is then not 
strictly correct to class him as in- 
capable of locomotion. Indeed, zo- 
ologists have proven that ages ago 
the oyster was during its entire life 
a swimmer, but natural selection has 
preserved of the species only those 
that attached themselves to rocks. 
It may also seem superfluous to state 
that the oyster has no means of 
locomotion ; yet some species of mol- 
lusk are provided with a tough 



CONNECTICUTS HUGE INDUSTRY UNDER THE SEA 255 



muscle, known as the *' foot," by 
which the shell-fish may make small 
leaps from place to place. Even 
this faint means of locomotion, how- 
ever, is denied the present-day oys- 
ter after he has once chosen a resting 
place, and, therefore, his life is at all 
times completely dependent upon 
the conditions of his environment. 
Various causes may seriously affect 
his health, and even his existence. 
Added to these disadvantages he has 
also numerous enemies other than 
mankind which prey upon the spawn, 
the young mollusk, and even upon 
those of more mature growth. 

Nature seems to have compensated 
for this severe drain upon a species 
so incapable of either flight or de- 
fense, by endowing it with .wonder- 
ful reproductive power. The female 
oyster produces millions of eggs — 
one authority estimates the number 
produced by one oyster in a single 
season to be 16,000,000, while the 
reproductive germs voided by the 
male are even more numerous. 

When the minute swimming oyster 
sinks and attaches itself to some 
firm substance, the revolving motion 
referred to becomes slower and soon 
ceases altogther ; and instantly after 
attachment can be seen the forma- 
tion of shell, with which the delicate 
young organism proceeds to protect 
itself. The shell is formed con- 
stantly from the inside — that is, 
layers of mother-of-pearl are being 
continually deposited on the inside, 
each layer as the oyster grows being 
a little larger than the preceding 
one, thus making the growth a con- 
tinual one from the hinge outward ; 
and thus the shell about the hinge 
is quite thick, while the edges are 
always thin and sharp. 



The young oyster grows rapidly, 
and though only microscopic at biith 
will, under favorable conditions, in 
some six weeks be one-third of an 
inch in diameter, and will measure 
from one to one and a half inches at 
the end of a year. Its food consists 
of animalculae and minute particles 
of vegetable matter brought to it by 
the sea water, through gills, of which 
it has four rows, situated just within 
the mantle — that corrugated or fluted 
edge next the shell. 

The tough ligament, which is some- 
times erroneously called the heart, 
and by which the oyster draws its 
shells so closely together, is called 
the ''adductor muscle," and near 
this muscle is the liver, and also the 
heart — the latter being easily recog- 
nized by the brown color of its 
auricle. The oyster has no jaws, or 
teeth of any kind, but has a mouth, 
placed under a kind of hood, which 
is formed near the hinge, where the 
two edges of the mantle join. 

The cultivation of oysters by plant- 
ing them on artificially constructed 
beds has been practiced from ancient 
times. According to Pliny, the first 
person who formed artificial oyster 
beds was Sergius Grata, who estab- 
lished them at Baie, near the present 
city of Naples, in the time of Augus- 
tus Caesar. So the Connecticut cul- 
tivated oyster has a long geneology. 

There are planted oyster beds in 
Great Britain, France, Germany and 
Holland, and also in Australia. In 
the American continent oyster plant- 
ing is practically confined to the 
Atlantic and Gulf states. There are 
vast natural beds in Georgia and 
Florida, which, havino- continued al- 
most entirely unmolested for cen- 
turies, have caused great banks of 



256 CONNECTICUT'S HUGE INDUSTR V UNDER THE SEA 



shell to be formed. These oysters 
are small, and are termed "Raccoon 
oysters," from the supposed fondness 
of the raccoon for this species of 
food. The oysters in the vicinity of 
Mobile and Pensacola are small, 
though larger than the Raccoon 
oyster of Florida, and are known as 
"Cove oysters." Those found near 
Chincoteague and Assateague — the 
eastern shore portion of the Virginia 
sea-coast, are very large, and ex- 
tremely long, the shells being fre- 
quently over a foot in length. These 
are, from their size and shape, 
jocularly denominated "Cape Ann 
Boots." 

During the spawning season the 
spat can be seen floating in the 
water, and it is at this time that the 
trout and mullet, its earliest ene- 
mies, make their attack upon it. 
These, and perhaps other fish, feed 
upon the spat, swimming with mouth 
open, and straining the spat through 



their gills. When the young oyster 
is attached, and begins the forma- 
tion of his hard shell for protection, 
he is assailed by the " drill," the 
periwinkle and the star-fish. 

In my next article on this fasci- 
nating subject, of which so little is 
known, although it is right here at 
home with us, I shall tell of these 
little murderers of the sea, sea can- 
nibals that exist on defenseless oys- 
ters. This will be of especial interest 
to children who wish to become 
acquainted with the mysteries of 
this world of ours, even as we find it 
here in Connecticut. Undoubtedly 
nearly all of my readers have gath- 
ered innocent looking little star-fish 
along the shore during the last few 
months of this summer season. Did 
you know that the apparently life- 
less and cowardly beach tossed crea- 
ture is a sea scavenger, a sea pirate, 
a regular sea devil ? 



Country Life in Connecticut 




T is averitable 
Switzerland at our 
own doors," says 
a writer in speak- 
ing of the Litch- 
field hills. " Wild and beautiful 
there is no tiresome similarity, 
for the hills and valleys are 
fashioned in a variety of pictur- 
esque shapes ; there are the 
glens and the beautiful moun- 
tain lakes scattered about in 
profusion. Perhaps in no 
country are the sunsets so 
lovely as here. It seems, as 
the radiant orb of the day sinks 
behind the blue mountains in 
the west, as if God had selected 
this particular sky for a canvas 
on which to paint His great 



masterpieces. And then there 
follows the beautiful twilight, 
and all the earth is bathed in a 
tranquil glory. The fields which 
have been clothed with a 
carpet of delicate green and 
the brilliant hues of the wild 
flowers are now studies in pur- 
ple and shimmering gold ; the 
Persian robe of autumn has 
been thrown over them. There 
is the haze about the distant 
hills which the true artist 
strives to put upon his canvas. 
Soon the lakes will become 
great glassy floors of ice, and 
the raindrops freezing on the 
trees will transform the land- 
scape into a fairyland, the 
forest gleaming and sparkling 
in dazzling splendor." 



" Touched b}^ a light that hath no name, 

A glory never sung ; 
Aloft on sky and mountain wall 

Are God's great pictures hung. " 




The illustrations on the following pages are from the booklet entitled "Summer 
Homes," by permission of the publishers, the Central New England Railroad. Starting 
from Hartford and continuing along the line of the Central New England are some of the 
most beautiful summer retreats in America, which during the summer months are visited 
bj- thousands of the lovers of majestic nature. 



258 




259 




26o 




TUNXIS FALLS, NEAR WINSTED 



Fhoto by K. T. Sheldon 



26l 




PASH-BISH 



Photo bv Mrs. Ken Jail. 



262 




263 




264 




265 




YALE COLLEGE IN OLD SAYBROOK 

THE FIRST GRADUATING CLASS WAS A 
"CLASS OF ONE," RECEIVING BACHELOR'S 
DEGREE FROM THE INSTITUTION IN 1703 

BY 

SAMUEL HART, M. A., D. D. 

(President Connecticut Historical Society). 




Rev. Samuel Hart, is one of the leading scholars in Connecticut, 
having been a member of the faculty at Trinity College, Hartford, and now 
Vice-Dean of the Berkeley Divinity School at Middletown. He was born at 
Saybrook, June 4, 1845. Following his graduation from Trinity he became 
a tutor, adjutant tutor and later professor in the institution. He has been 
registrar of Diocese of Connecticut since 1874; custodian of Standard Prayer- 
book since 1886; secretary of American Philological Association, 1873-1878 ; 
president of same, 1891-1892 ; secretary of the House of Bishops, 1892 ; elected 
Bishop of Vermont, 1893, tiut declined the appointment ; published editions 
of Juvenal (1873) > ^^ Persius (1875); and of Bishop Seabury's Communion 
Office (1874, second edition, 1876) ; Historical Address at Quadri-millennial of 
Saybrook, Connecticut (1885) ; and of Guilford, Connecticut (1889) ; Historical 
Sermons de Bishop Seabury (1S83-1886). Dr. Hart is now president of the 
Connecticut Historical Society. — Editor. 



SAYBROOK was a town two- 
thirds of a century old when 
it was selected as the site for 
the Collegiate vSchool of Connecticut. 
The first fort had been destroyed by 
fire, and the second fort had ceased 
to be regarded as of special military 
importance. The ''persons of qual- 
ity" who were expected from Eng- 
land had not arrived, and probably 
none of them had ever attempted to 
set sail, at first because the revolu- 
tionary movement in England had 
met with success, and later because 
it had proved itself a failure. The 
settlement had been incorporated 
into the river colony, and New 
Haven had also been obliged to sub- 
mit to the force of circumstances 
and to become part of Connecticut. 
About a half of the inhabitants, with 
Mr. Fitch, their pastor, had re- 
moved to the head-waters of the 





STATUE OF ABRAHAM PIERSON, FIRST 
RECTOR OF YALE 



YALE COLLEGE IN OLD SA YBROOK 



267 



Thames, and founded Norwich on 
her nine miles square of land. 

Those who remained, more of 
them grandchildren than children of 
the first settlers, were living, some 
indeed on the squares and lots laid 
out on the point within the place 
where Lion Gardiner's mill guarded 
the neck of land, but some also to 
the west in the Oyster River dis- 



pretentious in size and style, for it 
was sixty feet by thirty, and had 
two gables, with a porch over the 
front door and a balustrated turret. 
Lady Fenwick's grave stood by it- 
self on Tomb-hill, where she had 
been buried in the enclosure of the 
first fort ; but the bodies of the 
others who had died out of these 
two generations of men had been 









i^~~ 




SAYBROOK FORT, BUILT 

trict, some to the north on the 
Pettipaug road, and some in East 
Saybrook or Lyme, across the river. 
Mr. Thomas Buckingham who was 
called to take Mr. Fitch's place, had 
ministered four years before ordina- 
tion, and now, as a thirty years 
ordained pastor, was at the head of 
the community. A new meeting- 
house had been built, close to the 
site of the former structure, more 



1648, DEMOLISHED 1S70 

laid in the lot set apart for a bury- 
ing ground, and still used for that 
sacred purpose. The life of Say- 
brook probably differed little from 
that of other towns along the coast, 
except that the fact that it was on 
a main line of travel by land and 
that it had easy communication with 
other places by river and sound and 
sea seemed to give the inhabitants 



268 



YALE COLLEGE LN OLD SA YBROOK 




■i^m^M 



A REMAINING GRINDING STONE FROM LION 
GARDINER'S FAMOUS OLD MILL 

the opportunity of a wider outlook 
into the neighborhood and the world. 
Here, doubtless in Mr. Bucking- 
ham's house, the site of which is 
marked on the sketch by President 
Stiles, "here reproduced, on the 
eleventh day of November, lyor, the 
" undertakers " named in the charter 
of the Collegiate School held their 
first meeting. Seven of the ten cor- 
porators attended, and they accepted 
their trust, voted that Saybrook 
should be the home of the institu- 
tion, and elected Mr. Abraham Pier- 
son, the pastor of the church in 
Killingworth, to be its head or rector. 
Here presently began the work of 
instruction with one student, to 
whom others soon joined them- 
selves. And thus, at the bounds of 
the west, on the further side of the 
long river, looking back to the seats 
of learning in the mother country 
and to the Cambridge of the more 
ancient colony, but also looking for- 
ward to the new lands yet to be 
traversed and the new learning yet 
to be discovered and applied, the 



College was founded. And here it 
continued for fifteen years, with 
varied experiences, under one rector 
to whom his church would not give 
permission to discharge all the duties 
of his office by coming into resi- 
dence and who required some of the 
students to be with him eight rniles 
awa}^, and another who held but a 
temporary appointment and lived at 
a greater distance. It was a time of 
foundations, but in spite of many 
difficulties the foundations were well 
laid. 

The roll of benefactors of the insti- 
tution was well begun by Saybrook 
men. Mr. Nathaniel Lynde, the 
wealthiest man in the place and a 
member of a family which had al- 
ready attained honor in Massachu- 
setts, elected first treasurer of the 
College, presented a fine lot with a 
house for the use of the institution, 
while it should remain in the place 
where it had been established. Major 




BOULDER MARKING FIRST SITE OF YALE COLLEGE. 
FOUNDED 170I, REMOVAL 1716. 



VALB COLLEGE IN OLD SA YBROOK 




f^Site of first church huilt JC^zH 
L— arid, second church J6KJ. _J 

SKETCH OF SAYBROOK POINT, FROM PRESIDENT STILES'S ITINERARY, 1793. (THE FORT SHOULD HAVE 
BEEN PLACED TO THE SOUTH OF THE MIDDLE LANE, NOW CALLED CHURCH STREET) 



John Clark, descendant of one of the 
first settlers, transferred the right to 
two thousand acres of land in the 
Mohegan country, which had been 
given to him by the Chief Attawan- 
hood (or Joshua Uncas) in grateful 
recognition of services rendered to 
him and his people. And we hear 
also of the gift of a large tract of 
land near Woodstock from Major 
James Fitch, of the family of the 
first minister. We cannot determine 
when the Collegiate School took 
possession of the home generously 
provided for it ; it was probably oc- 
cupied soon after the work of in- 
struction was begun, and some little 
time before the minute of its formal 
acceptance appears on the records. 
If tradition may be trusted, it was 
the home of the tutors, and also pro- 
vided rooms for the library and for 
purposes of instruction. We are 
told that the windows were of oiled 
paper, as some of the books which 



had been given for the infant col- 
lege had "suffered by concentration 
of the sun's rays through imperfect 
glass while they were at Mr. Rus- 
sell's house in Branford." Some 
provision was made for the storage 
of philosophical apparatus, if we 
may accept the hints that there were 
provided a prism, a telescope, an 
orrery, and apparatus to illustrate 
centrifugal forces. The students 
were doubtless gathered each day 
for prayers ; but it was probably in 
some room designated for lectures 
or recitations, as we read of no sepa- 
rate chapel. On Sundays their col- 
lege prayers were not omitted, and 
they probably had expositions of the 
Westminster Catechism at these, and 
later, it may be, lectures on the 
Saybrook platform ; and twice, with- 
out doubt, they attended in the 
meeting-house and listened to the 
ministrations of Priest Buckingham 
or Priest Mather — for bv this sacer- 



270 



YALE COLLEGE IN OLD SA YBROOK 



dotal title would they speak of their 
pastor — or to some one who, at- 
tracted by the atmosphere of learn- 
ing, came to take Lord's Day duty 
there. Those of the undergraduates 
who were in residence lived in fami- 
lies in the neighborhood ; a goodly 
number of them, indeed, could live 
at their own homes, but it would 
appear that for the others it became 
more and more difficult to find ac- 



philosophy. Such natural science as 
was then known was brought to their 
notice, and perhaps with special 
reference to medical skill, as most of 
the ministers of that day were ex- 
pected to have some knowledge of 
the art of healing. And astronomy 
was taught, too, according to the 
Ptolemaic system ; one wonders 
whether it is not more than a coin- 
cidence that the tutor who intro- 




LADY FENWICK'S TOMB IN ITS PRESENT POSITION 



commodations, and that the food 
problem was a troublesome one. 

Of course the young men studied 
Latin ; they were requiied to read 
Latin and to write Latin, and were 
supposed to talk Latin ; they also 
read the Greek Testament and some 
classical Greek, and very possibly 
they were not quite allowed to 
escape from Hebrew. They had 
solid instruction in solid theology, 
and some training, it may be pre- 
sumed, in rhetoric and in moral 



duced (about the year 1715) the 
teaching of the Copernican system 
was the tutor of whom the students 
complained that he was not properly 
qualified for the duties of his posi- 
tion. When the three or four years' 
course was over, the young men 
were thought to be qualified for the 
Bachelor's degree in Arts in accord- 
ance with what would be expected 
at Cambridge in Massachusetts or 
at Oxford and Cambridge in Eng- 
land. The fellows, or trustees, re- 



YALE COLLEGE IN OLD SA Y BROOK 



271 



sponsible for the bestowal of the 
degrees, were responsible for the 
examinations on which they were 
based. And probably it was to as- 
sert an academic right and claim an 
academic privilege, after the manner 
of a university, that in 1702, although 
there were no students yet ready to 
take degrees, four bachelors' of 
arts of Harvard College were given 
their second degrees, and Nathaniel 
Chauncey, who had studied privately, 
presenting himself for examination, 
was adjudged worthy to be admitted 
master of arts. The first graduat- 
ing class was a "class of one," John 
Hart, who had been for two years an 
undergraduate, receiving the first 
bachelor's degree from the institu- 
tion in 1703 ; and immediately after 
this he was appointed the tutor, or 
assistant to the rector. The early 
commencements were probably held 
in the meeting-house, although there 
is some reason for thinking that Mr. 
Buckingham's study furnished the 
place for some of them. At any 
rate the meeting-house soon became 
the stated place for the exercises, as 
we know from a letter of Benjamin 
Lord that in his day Rector Andrew 
presided over them there. By that 
time, the number of students having 
increased, there were two sessions 
on commencement-day, as indeed 
was the custom long afterwards ; 
and the candidates produced a saluta- 
tory and a valedictory, with disputa- 
tions, "none in English." Probably 
the range of languages displayed on 
the stage was not as wide as in later 
years, but with Latin and Greek, 
varied occasionally by Hebrew, a 
sufficiently serious impression must 
have been made. Mr. Lord says 
that the rector placed a book in the 



hand of each candidate, but gave no 
diplomas. But even if not presented 
in public, diplomas were prepared, 
written in Latin upon parchment, 
signed by the fellows, and given to 
the recipients of the degrees. Some 
of the most ancient are still in ex- 
istence, among them Mr. Chauncey's 
and Mr. Hart's. Mrs. Chesebrough 
tells us that the first commencement 
dinner, prepared by Mistress Buck- 
ingham, consisted of shell-fish, veni- 
son, succotash, and boiled Indian 
pudding. 

The building presented by Mr. 
Lynde was occupied for scholastic 
purposes until the college was re- 
moved to New Haven, when, under 
the conditions of the gift, it reverted 
to the donor. We do not know how 
long it remained standing ; Dr. 
Stiles in one of his journeys speaks 
of seeing the cellar ; but the site 
was not forgotten, and was con- 
stantly pointed out by the older 
inhabitants of Saybrook. On its site, 
now included in an addition to the 
ancient burying ground, but in such 
a position that an open space can be 
reserved around it and that it can 
be readily seen from the street, 
there was placed last year a boulder 
from the hills above the village, 
bearing a handsome bronze plate 
suitably inscribed ; and commemora- 
tive exercises on the two hundredth 
anniversary of the first meeting of 
the original corporators fitly closed 
the observance of the bicentenary 
of Yale University. 

At the fifteen commencements 
held in Saybrook, from 1702 to 17 16 
inclusive, fifty-five young men took 
their bachelors' degrees (or fifty-six, 
if we include Mr. Chauncey of 1702); 
of these nine were sons of residents 



272 



YALE COLLEGE LN OLD SA YBROOK 



of Saybrook, and one was a grand- 
son ; one became pastor of the church 
there, and five others were appoint- 
ed tutors in the school before the 
year of its removal ; that is to say, 
nearly a fifth of the graduates were 
Saybrook boys, and more than a 
quarter of them had Saybrook at 
some time for their residence. The 
hope that the place would become a 
great seat of learning ceased when 
the Collegiate School was removed 
to New Haven. Into the details of 
the controversy as to the permanent 
home of the institution and of the 
decision which was reached, this is 



not the p lace to enter ; the change 
was doubtless unavoidable, and his- 
tory has justified it. Those who 
were so anxious to retain the institu- 
tion in the home of its early years 
may have lacked a sufficiently clear 
idea of what President Stiles called 
a " Domicilium or Coenobium Aca- 
demicum," which might be more 
easily secured in a larger place, and 
they may not have been aware of all 
that a college required in order to 
have, as Dr. Colton Mather phrased 
it, ''a collegious way of living." 

Saybrook bore no unimportant 
part in Yale's early history. 









tmitor:5 

Ml/GHTER 



A STORY 

ILLUSTRATED SY YK. ^UTMOK- 



"""ijarola^ t; Cio^. 



Sometime ago, lu/ii/e j'-uuunaging through the garret of one of Aeiu Haveii s old 
Colonial homesteads, I eame across an old oaken chest in one of its dark jiooks, and 
among other relics I found an unfinished manuscript, faded with age^ written in the 

year ijyg by one Lucy Chandler, whom I find to have been the only daughter of Joshua 
Chandler, the Tory traitor, whose attempt to betray New Haven to the British was a 

failure. 

It was evidently written the day after the British troops^ — commanded by Go-c'crn- 
or-General Try on, of New York — evacuated the toiun. Looki}ig up this family Ifi/id 
they resided in a large, two-story, frame house, which once stood facing the green 
nearly opposite old Center Churc-h, on the site of the Tonti/ie Hotel. Since Colonial 
time it has been 7noved and now stands 07i College street near Groi'c. 

The first five pages of this quaint manuscript are missing — the story commencing 
on the mor7iing of July ^th, the day the British troops la?tded. It tells the details of 
what happened that day and the one following, and here again the rest is missing — 
abruptly ended in the middle of a sentetice, as though the writer might ha-i'c been in- 
terrupted by death. I have studied out the faded lines and re-written it and named it 
''A Traitor' s Date g liter.''' It reads thus: 



MORNING has come at 
last, and I am well 
pleased, for all night it 
has thundered and lightened with 
much violence. This morning is 
clear, — without a cloud in the sky — 
and the warm sun is slowly drying 
the wet grass. Everything looks 



fresh and beautiful, and the birds 
seem glad and sing their morning- 
song as they fly from bush to bush. 
Father sits with me near the south 
window, in the great chair which 
did come out from the mother 
country by the last packet, waiting 
for Hannah (our faithful black) to 



274 






^^V 




A CONNECTICUT GIRL 

IN THE 

DAYS OF THE REVOLUTION 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



2 75 



summon us to our morning meal, 
which 1 can hear her preparing in 
our great kitchen. My brother Eli 
is in the top of the great maple tree 
which stands in the garden, watch- 
ing for Gen. Tryon's fleets to arrive 
in the harbor. Joseph, my other 
brother, is taking care of our two 
cows. Eli has just come in, and now 
he and father are talking, I will 
write their speech as I remember 
it: 

"Well'' — asked my father, shift- 
ing in his chair. " Not a sail, sir. I 
cannot see far to the southward ; the 
trees hide the Sound from view." 

** God's death ! 'Tis strange, very 
strange," muttered my father. "I 
counted on them yesterday." 

"'Tis possible they are delayed in 
getting away from Whitestjne," 
ventured Eli. 

'' 'Tis possible they will arrive to- 
day, and then — mark me well — ye 
shall see this mob of damned Conti- 
nental prigs run." (Our slave has 
summoned us to breakfast so I lay 
down my quill till we have finished 
our meal.) 

Two days are gone since I writ 
last — two days and two nights of 
terrible war, destruction and drunken 
carousal. And as I again pick up 
the thread of my tale I rejoice and 
thank the Most High that 'tis all 
agone. I go back to where I last 
writ and will tell you as near as I 
can what happened during those two 
fearful days of blood. 

After we had finished our meal 
and returned to the sitting room, 
my father and brother Joseph, had 
harsh and ungodly words over a re- 



cent campaign of our brave Gen. 
Washington, who was doing great 
wonders with a small, rugged, half- 
fed army of ardent patriots. Father 
was very wroth and stormed round 
like an angry bull. Joseph was as 
calm as father was angry. 

"How dare ye side with these low 
dogs " — cried my father. 

" I did not mean to anger you, sir, 
but you must admit that 'these 
dogs ' — as you call them — have good 
chances." 

"No, no, — never, sir" — yelled my 
father, pacing the floor. 

" I don't agree with you ; before 
Gen. Tryon can land a man there'll 
be an army of farmers on the beach 
large enough to drive him and his 
whole army back to their ship — that 
is, if all plans carry well as — " 

"What mean ye, lad?" inter- 
rupted my father, whose anger had 
been replaced by curiosity. 

"Jim Hillhouse and his men have 
picketed the whole coast for miles, 
and by my faith, sir, if Gen. Tryon 
lands he'll get a reception that he 
little expects. Sir, they have a man, 
Jim Barnes, on West Rock with a 
spy glass, and there be messengers 
there ready to ride into the country 
at a moment's notice." 

" How know you all this ? " de- 
manded my father. 

" Every one knows it, sir. Young- 
Morris has formed a company in 
college and they that have not 
joined are with Hillhouse. Moul- 
throp has been sent over to Fort 
Hale, and Capt. Bradley's out toward 
West Bridge. I tell ye, the peo- 
ple suspect something, else they 



276 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



wouldn t be taking- all this upon 
them ; and I wager some are shrewd 
'nough to suspect ye." 

*' Bah ; 'tis all frother. Did ye join 
the company ? " 

"Of a faith, I did," answered my 
brother. 

" Ha, ye'd right, lad." 

" Aye, and mark me, young Mor- 
ris will find out I'm no friend of his 
'fore this throng be done." " I hate 
him," cried my brother, — bringing 
his fist down on the sideboard with 
enough force to knock a China 
pitcher belonging to my beloved 
mother to the floor, breaking it into 
pieces. I was in fear for Mr. Mor- 
ris — who is my betrothed — for I had 
not seen him for nigh a fortnight, 
and what I had heard made me anx- 
ious to see him so I might warn him. 
Rushing from the room, I went into 
the hall and sank down on a big 
settle that stands there, and tried to 
think. Father had forbidden him 
entrance, and warned me not to see 
him again, so I was at loss to know 
how I was to see him. 

I knew not what my brother in- 
tended doing. I heard Dada and 
Eli talking in the sitting room, and 
thinking I might learn more I lis- 
tened to their speech. 

" I'st true Young Morris is raising 
a company at Yale 1 " 

" Aye, father, 'tis true — " answer- 
ed my brother. 

" Ye have joined ? " 

"No, father." 

"Can ye not see 'tis a goodly 
chance to learn their plans, sir ?" 

"Aye, sir, but I like not such kind 
of business, and I will not do it." 



" Ye shall do as I command — ye 
rascal " — yelled my father. 

" Amos Morris is my friend ; think 
ye I'd play spy on him ? Did he not 
save my life in yonder harbor nigh a 
year gone ? No, sir, I will not ; 
'twould be ungody, sir." 

" Bah ! " was father's disgusted re- 
sponse. 

I arose, and went through the 
kitchen into the garden, — which was 
in the rear of the house — and sat in 
my favorite seat, and tried to think 
how I could see Amos. I was deep 
in thought when I heard a crackling 
sound in the hedge that ran north 
and south at the back end of the 
garden. I started up — wondering 
who could make so bold as to tres- 
pass — when I saw, with much joy, 
that it was Amos who was coming 
toward me. How glad I was. 

"How did you get here?" quer- 
ied I. 

" Flew in little dame ; did you not 
hear my wings ? — and your father ? ' 

" Is in the house — why ? " I was 
much surprised to hear him ask for 
father, for he'd never done it before. 
Noticing a strange look in his eyes, 
I asked him what he wanted to know 
for. 

" He is suspected by the people of 
being a spy for Gen. Tryon." 

How my heart thumped ; I must 
have turned pale, for Amos came 
nearer me and clutched my wrist in 
a vise-like grip and looked me 
straight in the eyes for a moment, 
and then fairly hissed, " I see I am 
right — he is a traitor." 

"I did not say so," I stammered 
forth. . 



I 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



277 



" No, but your eyes did ; why did 
you turn so pale ? " 

" I thought I saw — a bug on my — " 

" 'Tis a falsehood, say I. Lucy, I 
did not think ye'd lie to me. Are 
you, too, in the plot ? " 

*' No, no, — no, before God who is 
my hearer, I am in ignorance of my 
father's action ; — only — " 

"Only what?" cried he, picking 
me up. 

"Oh, don't ask me" — I pleaded, 
wishing I were a thousand miles 
hence. For a moment he regarded 
me, and then said in a sorrowful 
tone that made me suffer : — " No, 
Lucy, I will not ask your secret, but 
let him beware ; if he is caught his 
fate will be a hangman's rope." 
For a moment I was as one dazed. 
I sank down on the ground at his 
feet. I had not given thought of 
my father's great danger as I now 
saw it. In my mind I pictured him 
standing on the gibbet — with the 
jeering crowd below. Oh ! it's too 
terrible to dwell upon. Rising sud- 
denly, I dashed my arms around his 
neck, and when I had swallowed the 
lump that nearly choked me, I cried 
out to him to save my father. 

** You will not betray him ! don't, 
for my sake, Amos. Promise me 
you won't ; they would kill him." 

*' Aye, ye are right ; they would 
kill him" — grimly answered he, as 
he led me to the seat. 

"But you won't do it ; — oh, prom- 
ise me you won't do it " — I cried. 
'"Twould kill me." 

" 'Tis my duty ; he is a spy and 
must — " 

" No, no, don't say that." 



" But the house is watched. What 
was Eli doing up in that tree not an 
hour agone ? " 

I was too much surprised to an- 
swer. How came he to know ? I 
sat there staring at him in amaze- 
ment. Was he, too, watching us ? 
Did he see him ? A thousand ques- 
tions were running through my 
mind. 

"I saw him, mother saw him" — 
he went on — "up there in its top- 
most branch with a spy glass search- 
ing the Sound for something ; 'tis 
the enemy. I see through it all now 
— they are expected to-day. All of 
you will be transported to (?) mines 
if ye are proven spies. If ye have 
anything to do with Tryon, in God's 
name quit it afore it be too late." 

"You won't tell — oh, don't tell — 
for me " — I pleaded. 

" I pledged myself — I would break 
my oath — " 

"For me — oh, you will promise." 
He hesitated a moment and kissed 
me, and I knew I had won. 

" Yes, I do promise. I will break 
my oath to save your father." He 
spoke very low and sadl}^ and it 
wounded me much, for I could see 
he was suffering as well as I. 

"What's wrong in there?" I lis- 
tened, and could hear my father 
swearing great oaths at brother Eli, 
and was much ashamed and shocked 
to have Amos hear my father talking 
thus. I was at loss as to what I 
should say, but finally turned it 
away by saying it was family aft'airs. 

I did not want to tell him the real 
cause, for I knew he had a goodly 
temper, and I knew not what he 
might do. 



278 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



We arose and went to the northern 
end of the garden — that we might 
not hear father's ungodly tirade — 
and sat down on the green grass 
under the great maple that my 
grandfather planted in 1650. Sud- 
denly we heard a great commotion 
over toward the green, and saw a 
body of men grouped around Mr. 
Billing, who sat upon his great 
sorrel, and seemed to be talking ex- 
citedly. Suddenly the crowd opened 
for him and he galloped madly down 
the street, while the men ran away 
in different directions. 

" 'Tis the enemy at last ; I must 
begone." The next instant a horse- 
man — he went so fast I could not see 
who it was — flew past yelling that 
the enemy were coming. A few 
minutes later we learned that Gen. 
Tryon's fleet had appeared and part 
of them were preparing to land off 
West Haven, and seemed to be 
making for Fort Hale. 

Amos kissed me, and before I had 
time to warn him of Joseph he was 
off, making straight for the center 
of the green. 

The town was in confusion ; church 
bells were ringing ; alarm guns 
boomed in several directions ; dogs 
barked, the cattle bellowed, and 
even the chickens looked afrighted 
and scudded for shelter — as I have 
seen them when a storm was com- 
ing—men rushed madly about, some 
hatless — without their coats — but all 
armed with their long muskets. All 
seemed to be making for the green, 
where already men were forming 
into line. Not a few girls were there 



to cheer their sweethearts in the 
ranks and decorate them with little 
nosegays. Drums were beat and 
mid the cheers of the small boys 
they marched off toward West 
Bridge, followed by the crowd. A 
few moments later President Dag- 
get of Yale College went galloping 
by, grasping in one hand a long 
musket, in the other the reins that 
guided his old lean horse. I shall 
never forget him as he looked that 
day with his hair streaming in the 
wind ; he is now a prisoner of His 
Majesty's troops. Then came Mr. 
Trowbridge from the West Bridge 
road, his horse covered with foam, 
yelling like mad to Amos — ''To 
arms ; the enemy are coming." He 
reminded me of Paul Revere, the 
Massachusetts patriot who rode 
through Cambridge. He had no 
sooner passed than Mr. Thorpe, Cap- 
tain Moulthrop's lookout on Beacon 
Hill, came dashing down the road 
yelling that the British were off Fort 
Hale. 

I ran into the house, fearsome that 
some one might kill my father. En- 
tering thq sitting room I found him 
walking the floor, wild with delight. 
A moment later I heard firing over 
toward West Bridge. Father heard 
it and commenced acting like a mad 
man. 

"Ha, ha — we shall see," he cried, 
as he danced around ; suddenly stop- 
ping before me, he said, " where's 
Eli?" 

" I know not. Father, are you not 
afraid ? Know you that this house 
is watched, and you are suspected of 
being a spy ? " 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



279 



r 



He laughed at me. " Bah ! What 
care I for all their suspicions ? " 

"Tryon has landed at Fort Hale" 
— yelled some one running by. 

"Good, good ! " — yelled father, in 
his delirium of delight — " we'll win 
now." 

" Be not so sure ; they're fright- 
ened terribly over there. Hear those 
guns. Captain Bradley and Hill- 
house are there." 

"I care not for all the Bradleys 
and Hillhouses in Christendom." 

Looking toward the green I saw 
another company forming on the 
green. It was the college men ; and 
I saw my Amos hurrying around 
getting the men into their right 
places. After all was ready drums 
were beat, and, with Amos in the 
lead, they started up the road to- 
wards Fort Hale to reinforce Cap- 
tain Moulthrop and his brave little 
band of defenders. Inwardly I ear- 
nestly prayed God to protect him in 
the coming fray ; as I stood by the 
north window and watched them as 
they hurried away. How long I 
stood there I know not, but my at- 
tention was drawn to a rough looking 
countryman riding an old horse, 
who had just turned into the door- 
yard. I went to the sitting room, 
and there stood my brother Will, 
who had been a pilot for Gen. Tryon. 

" Where have they landed ? " asked 
father, when greetings were over. 

'' General Garth landed in West 
Haven, sir, and I had a right sharp 
fight with Bradley and his men, but 
they could do nothing but retreat in 
front of our 1,000 brave fellows. 
We were landed before the rebels 



fired a single shot. Our adjutant, 
Mr. Campbell fell at the first volley. 
Gen. Tryon will land at Fort Hale, 
or somewhere in Morris Cove, and 
when Fort Hale and Beacon Hill are 
captured he will march into town, 
meet Gen. Garth, then proceed to 
loot the town ; after it is laid in 
ashes we set sail for Norwalk ; that 
is the next place on our program." 

" Do you mean that Gen. Tryon is 
going to burn the town ? No, no, ye 
are not speaking the truth." My 
father was very pale as he spoke. 

'' Those are his plans — I swear 'tis 
true "—answered my brother. 

"My God! I had not thought he 
would do that — I will lose all — oh, 
fool that I am ! How many men 
has he ?" 

"Tryon has fifteen hundred and 
Garth ten — Lord! hear those guns! 
The whole town is up in arms. Get 
me something to eat, Lucy." 

I ran into the kitchen and got him 
some corn bread and a big bowl of 
milk, and warmed the porridge we 
had had for breakfast ; and whilst I 
was getting it I noticed the firing 
was heavier and sounded nearer than 
ever. Tryon must have carried Fort 
Hale and was coming into the town. 

How worried I was about Amos ; 
and my imagination pictured him 
dead or a prisoner in the hands of 
the relentless Gen. Tryon. I was 
nearly wild with anxiety, and so far 
forgot the porridge that it was some- 
what burned. When I returned to 
the sitting room ten minutes later I 
found my brother Tom, who was, 
like Will, disguised as a farmer. 
Father and the boys were talking in 



28o 



A. TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



low tones, and when I entered the 
room they stopped talking-, and Tom 
arose and kissed me and followed 
Will and Father to the kitchen ; 
whilst I, worn with worry, dropped 
in a great chair by the north win- 
dow — my angel mother's favorite 
seat — and commenced to weep softly. 
I couldn't keep back the tears, try as 
I might. 

Suddenly, over the top of North 
Tuttle's great house on Elm street, I 
saw a great column of black smoke, 
and knew that Tryon had com- 
menced his work of destruction, and 
I wondered how long 'twould be 
before our house was served like- 
wise. With a little cry I rose and 
rushed into the sitting room, start- 
ling father who was standing look 
ing into the fireplace, and told him 
what I had seen. With a terrible 
curse he turned on me and yelled, 
*' Burn — burn the accursed dogs 
out ; " and broke into a wild, mock- 
ing laugh. 

" Sir, you should be ashamed — " 
"Silence, you hussy," yelled he, 
and then he commenced to storm 
about the room, kicking things about 
and swearing like one possessed. I 
hastened to my room — for I feared 
that my father was losing his mind — 
and, closing my door and locking it, 
I knelt beside my bed and sent a 
tearful prayer to our Lord to watch 
over and protect us this fearful day. 
About ten o'clock Gen. Garth and 
his Hessians entered the town and 
took possession in the name of his 
Majesty, King George. All that day 
they went from house to house ; 
plundering, and ravaging young 



women in a most shameful manner. 
The town was a perfect Bedlam. 
Several of the old houses were 
burned to the ground, and cattle 
were wantonly killed. Old men, 
feeble women, and little children 
suffered all kinds of cruelty from 
these Hessian fiends. 

My father had previously prepared 
a fine dinner for Gen. Tryon and his 
commanding officers, and sent Tom 
to bid him sup with us. About sun- 
set they came, Gen. Tryon, Gen. 
Garth, Sir George Collyer, Col. 
Plumner, and some few officers ; 
also came Mr. Camp and his family, 
Capt. Rice, Mr. Mansfield and Mr. 
Botsford, all of whom were ardent 
Royalists. Gen. Tryon was very 
polite and courteous ; his remarks 
were well chosen and his conversa- 
tion witty, and during dinner caused 
much merriment. It was hard to 
believe so cultured a gentleman was 
at heart so wicked as to lead such 
cowardly murderers as those hire- 
ling Hessians. I cannot forget how 
nice they looked in their uniforms, 
and how gentlemanly they were, es- 
pecially a young captain, Mr. Pitt, 
whom I sat beside during dinner. 
He told me many tales of the fine 
ladies in New York and promised to 
introduce me to them when we ar- 
rived there. I was much surprised, 
for I had no knowledge that we were 
to go hence. They remained very 
late, and when at last they were 
gone I went to my room and tried 
in vain to sleep, but 'twas impossi- 
ble, for the noise was terrible, such 
as New Haven had never before 
heard. 



A TRAITOR'S DA UGHTER 



281 



All nig-ht I lay tossing about, 
thinking of Amos and wondering 
where he was. Now and then I 
would arise and look from my win- 
dow in hopes of seeing him, only to 
see some drunken soldier carousing 
on the green, or the half-drunk sen- 
tries whom Gen Tryon had placed 
around us to insure our protection. 
When morning was come and I saw 
the red sun slowly rising over the 
eastern horizon, I thanked God that 
the terrible night was done ; and 
wondered what the day would bring 
forth. Would we be taken on board 
the Camilla and go to New York ? 
Then I should never see Amos 
again. The thought was too terri- 
ble. I shudder, even as I write 
these lines, to think of such a thing. 

Hastily making my toilet I went 
down stairs and found father sitting 
in his great chair as usual ; when I 
spoke to him he did not answer ; and 
it seemed as I looked at him he had 
aged during the night. Doubtless 
he, like I, had not slept. I went to 
the kitchen and found our slave had 
fled ; so I made the porridge and 
took a bowl to father, but he would 
not eat. Returning to the kitchen, 
I thought I heard the sound of dis- 
tant firing over toward West Rock. 
I listened ; yes, I was right, for it 
sounded nearer. I hastened in and 
told father, but he answered not ; 
evidently he heard it, to. I went to 
the window and looked out. A 
moment later a soldier on horseback 
galloped by, and soon Gen. Garth's 
Hessians came marching on, pur- 
sued by a crowd of farmers who 
were firing at them. I was horror 



stricken. The British were retreat- 
ing. 

"Father, they are beaten — look, 
look ! " Every moment a soldier 
would throw up his hands, and drop- 
ping his gun would stagger and fall. 
'Twas a sight that made me, who 
had never witnessed bloodshed, faint. 
Father rose and came to my side. 
It was more than my nature could 
endure, and, turning away, I tried to 
reach a chair. How black every- 
thing was ; I was cold ; the sweat 
gathered upon my brow ; my head 
whirled ; I sank to the floor. How 
long I lay there I know not, but 
when I came to I was on the sofa. 
Father was still at the window, 
swearing as I never before heard 
him ; outside I could faintly see the 
soldiers. I tried to rise, but could 
not collect my strength, so I lay 
back. I heard the moans of some 
one, and was startled to see Jim 
Trowbridge thrust his head into the 
window. A great hole was in his 
jaw, drenching his clothes with 
blood. Father, with a terrible oath, 
dealt him a stunning blow and flung 
him out. 

" Lie there, you rebel dog, and be 
damned to ye ! " yelled my father. 

I tried to rise again to go to poor 
Jim, but the room whirled and again 
I fainted. I came to my senses feel- 
ing like a person with some heavy 
weight upon his head. I looked 
around. My brother Tom and Capt. 
Pitt were standing over me. Will 
and father and two or three soldiers 
were also in the room. 

"'Tis the only way, father," said 
Will. 



282 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



'^ Yes, I know, but I cannot leave 
my property to be taken by those 
rebels " — argued my father. 

'' Which is better : to stay here and 
be hung as a spy, or to go ? Now be 
sensible, sir, and take Lucy and go 
on board the Camilla as Gen. Tryon 
desires." 

My heart thumped as I heard my 
brother's speech. I was strong at 
once, well — ready to try and save 
myself from going on board that 
ship. Rising, I went to my father, 
and asked him if we were going 
away. For a moment he said noth- 
ing ; tears came to his eyes. As I 
saw him I hesitated in my resolve. 

" Yes, little daughter, run and 
gather a few things together and 
come here." 

I ran to my room, but not to make 
preparations for the voyage, for I 
had made up my mind not to go. 
So, stowing myself in a dark corner 
of the clothes press, I pulled a skirt 
in front of me and waited. I could 
not have been there long — though 
to me it seemed a very long time — 
when I heard my brother's voice 
calling me. I huddled further back 
into the darkness, and listened. 
Again he called, then I heard him 
come up the stairs. He called again, 
then I heard the door open, and I 
heard him speak to father, who 
seemed to be waiting below. I 
fairly held my breath, lest it should 
betray me. I heard the door shut 
and the latch rattle, and knew he 
was not in the room. After a while 
he went down stairs, and I breathed 
easier, but did not venture from my 
hiding-place for fear they should 
hear. 



All the , time the firing seemed 
more distant. 

"Come, come" — yelled a deep 
voice — " there's no time to hunt for 
women ; let 'em alone ; come on." 
I listened for an answer, but heard 
none. Poor father ! he was going 
away — perhaps forever. I was half 
tempted to go with him, but as I 
thought of Amos I was resolved to 
stay, for I knew he would marry me, 
as he loved me sincerely. 

" After some time, when all was 
quiet below, I noiselessly came forth 
from my hiding-place, and listened. 
Yes, all was quiet. I went to the 
window and looked out ; there was 
father, my brothers, and his Majes- 
ty's officers crossing the fields, going 
toward Long Wharf where I could 
see hundreds of soldiers, and the 
ships beyond in the harbor. I could 
see the boats going to and fro with 
soldiers — and remember how pretty 
the ships looked as they hoisted 
sail and moved slowly out of the 
harbor— carrying my heart-broken 
father. Praying God's blessing on 
him, I turned from the window, and 
changed my dress, arranged my 
dress and started to go down stairs. 
Half way down I thought I heard 
voices. I stood still and listened. 

Could it be the rebels were looting 
the house ? Again I heard it — a 
woman's voice. I made up my mind 
to see who it was, and stole down 
through the sitting room into the 
pantry and looked through the crack 
in the door. Imagine my surprise 
when I saw Mr. Morris stretched 
out on the floor, with dear Mrs. Mor- 



A TRAITOR'S DAUGHTER 



283 



ris bending over him, and my Amos 
at the south window looking on as 
she bandaged his leg. With a glad 
little cry 1 flung open the door and 
rushed into his arms, to feel his kiss 
upon my lips and be held close to 
his heart. 

Mrs. Morris was dumbfounded, 
and arose and came nearer ; finally, 
finding her voice, she called upon 
Amos to release me. 

"Let go that woman, Amos ; are 
you not ashamed ? " 

"No," answered Amos, "she is my 
promised wife." 

This seemed to startle her, for she 



drew back, and Mr. Morris rose to 
his elbow. 

" Ye would take a Tory woman to 
wife ? " yelled Mrs. Morris. 

"Aye, mother, I would." 

"A Chandler — a traitor's daughter, 
ye—" 

"Stop," cried I— "Chandler no 
longer. I am as dead to my family. 
Thy God shall be my God ; thy peo- 
ple my people. I will love thee as 
mother and you as father, Amos as 
my husband. I will — " 

Here the manuscript ends. Where 
the rest is, will probably never be 
known. 



LitTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



ENTERTAINING SERIES OF FOUR BRIEF SKETCHES ON AN AUTUM- 
NAL TOUR THROUGH THE QUAINT TOWNS OF CONNECTICUT, 
INTRODUCING MANY INTERESTING HISTORICAL ANECDOTES 



BY CHARLES E BENTON 



a 



T 



HERE is a great deal of 
geography in Connecti- 
cut." 

This was our conclusion after a 
two weeks' sojourn among its hills 
and along its valleys. It was the 
home of our ancestors, and the mi- 
crobe of the modern mania for 
ancestor study had reached us and 
made a firm lodgment in our hearts. 
True we tried to render mutual 
comfort by reflecting that it was not 
a returning form of the paganism 
known as Ancestor worship, but was 
rather '' a quickened sense of historic 
perspective" (I think that was the 
way we expressed it\ a love of 
knowledge for the sake of knowl- 
edge. Yet philosophy is notoriously 
inadequate in such cases, and as 
with some other forms of insanity, 
the best relief was to be found in 
humoring the disease. So with this 
excuse, and an abiding love of Octo- 
ber scenery, we harnessed Pansy 
and Cherry to the buggy, and de- 
positing therein sundry valises and 
lunches, with ulsters for weather 
that never came, we started from 
Amenia, New York. 

Our drive was down the imcom- 
parably beautiful valley of the 
Webutuck to where it performs the 
"mountain act," by which it proves 
its relationship to the Connecticut 
rivers. This feat is peculiar to the 



rivers of the Nutmeg state. It con- 
sists in letting its own valley go 
peacefully down to the Sound, while 
the river itself turns perversely 
away from its pleasant life dream, 
and, cutting its way eastward 
through a mountain, goes to the sea 
by some other route. So our gentle 
Webutuck, flowing through a valley 
that was once a part of Connecticut, 
must needs do the same. Had it 
remained in its own valley it would 
soon have reached the headwaters 
of the Croton and gone thence to 
Mana-ha-ta. As we were driftwood 
for the time being, we just drifted 
with the stream into its mountain 
gorges and emerged on the Housa- 
tonic. This stream we followed un- 
til it also does the mountain act, but 
here we drew the line. Why should 
we always drift with the stream, and 
be false to the valley ? So where 
the Housatonic in its turn makes its 
mad plunge eastward, we bade it 
farewell, and continued in the valley 
which it had abandoned, though we 
soon found that in its southerly way 
we were following upward the course 
of a lazy creek. 

It would be interesting to learn 
more of these slow tiltings of the 
earth surfaces by which a stream 
was sent flowing north where the 
Housatonic once flowed southward. 
The mountain range, too, through 



LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



285 



which the river has its water worn 
channel, must have risen so very 
slowly that the water wore its own 
deep gorge while it was rising, else 
it would have turned the river south 
again. 

The course of nature we might 
disregard, but some things it is not 
always best to disregard. As all 
roads lead to some Rome, this one 
led straight to Connecticut's Rome, 
which is the Danbury fair and cattle 
show. We had started on a tour 
into the sacred past, and decided to 
pass around this Yankee kirmis 
which savored too strong of the 
'' thingness of here," to use a Con- 
cordism. Yet a lady friend, who is 
a native of that thrifty locality, stood 
aghast at the thought of profanely 
avoiding this Nutmeg shrine. 

*' Why," she exclaimed, in awe- 
struck terror, ''you must see the 
Danbury fair!" We apologetically 
explained that we didn't even go to 
see the Dewey parade. 

" O, but that's different, you must 
see the Danbury fair." So with the 
pitying sympathy of the gentle lady 
who seemed to feel sorry for two 
lunatics who could drive through 
Fairfield County without stopping 
to see their greatest show on earth, 
we went humbly on our way by " the 
glen road," and in due time arrived 
in Norwalk. 

What interested us here was not 
the twin cities, which, Siamese-like, 
can not separate, and yet will not be 
one, but it was an item in history. 
A certain John Reed, who had been 
one of Cromwell's officers, and who, 
when Charles II was placed upon the 



throne, finding that the English 
climate had become exceedingly 
malarious for men of his class, had 
come to Providence, Rhode Island, 
where he had married a widow. Then 
he had come to Norwalk, and pur- 
ing a large tract of land, had erected 
his house and hung his sword over 
the fireplace ; a dear old Cromwell- 
ian sword of illustrious service, 
preserved among his descendants 
for many generations. And here 
the patriarch lived out his days, 
nearly to the century mark, account- 
ing the victories of peace greater 
than those of war, and was finally 
buried on his own field. Some of 
his thoughtful descendants have 
marked the grave in recent years 
with a granite tablet. His descend- 
ants number many, many thousands 
of useful and honorable citizens, but 
not one of the name remains on the 
homestead. 

The coastal scenery of Connecti- 
cut is peculiar, with an utter absence 
of the valley system which flourishes 
so in the interior, the glacier-scraped 
tongues of ledge reaching into the 
Sound, and clasping estuaries of 
tide water, with intervening lands. 
These plains and uplands, rich with 
decaying forests, the pioneers found 
exceeding fertile, and stories are on 
record of fields which averaged one 
hundred bushels of shelled corn per 
acre. But that day is long past and 
the country is now returning to 
forest as fast as nature's methods 
will take it, save where the real 
estate agent is booming the vacant 
lot industry to persuade the over- 
flowing metropolitan population. 



286 LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



Our drive' eastward was through 
ancient boroughs where colonial re- 
spectability is jostled by modern 
industry, and colonial houses are, in 
their turn, jostled by upstart cottages 
of crazy design and cost. The vil- 
lages themselves, surrounded by 
primitive forests, are connected by a 
trolley which clangs along the old 
post-road where formerly the post- 
man's horn announced the coming 
of the stage. Even the post-road 
has lost its reliability, and we were 
forever being led into some cul-de- 
sac of a shore resort, only to find our 
way back to the legitimate and re- 
liable route of our forebears by extra 
miles of travel. 

At Milford we met one of those 
surprises which furnish the net 
profit in such a journey. It was a 
beautiful memorial bridge, with its 
tower and arches of stone, and along 
the masonry on each side are thick 
tablets of rough granite on which 
are inscribed the names of the first 
settlers, who came here and planted 
the institutions of the new nation 
in 1639. Here on this stone pedes- 
tal of immortality, so to speak, we 
found the names of three of our 
ancestors : Robert Plumb, Mary 
Baldwin, his wife, and Sarah, widow 
of Sylvester Baldwin. This Sylves- 
ter Baldwin died on the passage, 
and hia widow — think of it, ye trav- 
elers in a carriage who deem it a 
hardship to stop over night at a two 
dollar hotel — led her brood of nine 
children into the wilderness to join 
in establishing a colony. Robert 
Plumb, himself a pioneer, was son 
of John Plumb, who so distinguished 



himself two years before at the 
great battle with the Pequots at 
Mystic, that Connecticut, for once a 
grateful republic, gave him a grant 
of land. Save for obscure records 
rescued and preserved by patient 
geneologists, we should have never 
known what heroic blood is cours- 
ing through our veins. 

" How does one live on such an 
excursion ? " I imagine I hear some 
of my practical readers asking. As 
I have already hinted, the land' 
which is so thickly sprinkled with 
cities and boroughs, outside of these 
centers is returning to its primeval 
condition. About noon we would 
be on the lookout for some ancient 
field entrance, now perhaps partly 
hidden by bushes. Following such 
a driveway would lead us away from 
the road to some favored nOok ; per- 
haps a group of wide-spreading 
maples, or possibly through a grove 
to some hidden field on its borders. 
Always at mid-day we would secure 
some such sylvan retreat, and, feed- 
ing our horses on the turf, would 
spread the leaf-strewn table and eat 
our lunch, a lacainpagne^ — well, why 
not domesticate the phrase by a 
liberal translation, and say we ate 
according to the plan of the good 
old festive picnic. 



CHAPTER II. 

" The shades of night were falling fast," 

As the little horses groped their way 
through the dimly lighted streets of 
old Guilford :^it is a wonder that the 
colonists did not call it "New,'' as 



LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



2«7 



they did so many other places. 
Fortunately we were permitted to 
use the ** old " without producing the 
nondescript, by using it as a prefix 
to ''New." The day's drive was 
rather too long for people who 
are driving for pleasure only, but we 
desired to begin the new week at 
Guilford. 

Guilford has its memories, and one 
of these is expressed in the name of 
the only hotel, " The New Halleck," 
built where the residence of the 
famous poet stood, for Halleck was 
a Guilford man. Another of its 
memories is of the judges, Goffe and 
Whalley, who sent Charles I to his 
doom. There is forever a tide in the 
affairs of men, and their tide turned, 
so that they were at last hunted from 
from town to town among the colon- 
ies, playing a game of hide-and-go- 
seek with the King's officers. Here 
they will show you the cellar, or 
basement, where the judges were 
concealed for a time by patriots — no, 
by rebels, and men disloyal to their 
government, but who were — bless 
their memory — loyal to the higher 
right as they saw it. 

Sunday morning, with its kindly 
air, saw us following the footsteps 
of our ancestors along the path 
across " The Green," to the tall 
spired church at the further side. 
" The Green," as it is familiarly 
called, is itself a monument to an- 
cient custom, for wherever you go 
among these early colonial towns of 
New England you will find one or 
more of these public commons, about 
which the settlement clustered, a 
transplanting of the "village green," 



so familiar in English literature. It 
is in fact the rudimentary remains of 
the ancient Saxon law, which recog- 
nized the rights of the public, as an 
entity, to a portion of the earth's 
surface ; a right which could not be 
encroached upon by individuals or 
corporations. There are hopeful 
signs in the body politic of a return 
to this wholesome principle. 

This particular common was used 
by the public as a building site for 
two churches and a town hall, and 
also a cemetery. For this last pur- 
pose it was used for nearly two 
hundred years, and no one knows 
how many thousand remains are 
sleeping there. The stones, some 
unwrought and some " elaborately 
carved, were long since removed, and 
the surface of the ground made 
smooth. Some of them have been 
placed under the eaves of the church 
(of all places in the world), where 
the inscriptions, and even the stones 
themselves, are being fast destroyed. 
A young lady remarked that she 
always thought of them when the 
minister prayed for those who were 
" under the drippings of the sanc- 
tuary." The buildings are also taken 
away and the expanse is a village 
park of some twelve acres. Dozens 
of our ancestors are there, and it 
was pleasant to think of their lives 
of labor and integrity in laying the 
foundations of state ; and of their 
remains resting so peacefully under 
the lawn. Some one has suggested 
that their hearts have turned to 
flowers. 

Guilford was from the first a farm- 
er's town and settled by a colony of 



288 LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



farmers. There is a tradition of 
how they found themselves so ex- 
clusively agricultural, that they 
were obliged to import a blacksmith 
from a neighboring colony, giving 
him, as an inducement for him to 
move, a grant of land. The neces- 
sary home manufactures were thus 
established, for the average farmer 
of that day could make about ever}'- 
thing that needed to be made of 
wood, and their wives could make 
the clothing. But who can realize 
that they lived there a century and 
a half without wagons, and that 
horses were not used in teams as 
draft animals until the ninteenth 
century ? 

Yet I remember a man, who told 
me that his father built the first four 
wheeled vehicle ever seen in Guil- 
ford ; a heavy lumber wagon that no 
one dreamed of using with horses. 
That wagon had a history. In 1794, 
very soon after it was built, the 
family moved to Dutchess County, 
New York, sending the family and 
most of the utensils and stores by 
sloop around to Poughkeepsie. When 
they had sailed out of the harbor, 
the few remaining things were loaded 
upon this new-fangled novelty, and 
drawn by a yoke of oxen, it made 
the journey of eighty miles across 
the country. So successful was this 
experiment in transportation that, 
with its goods unloaded at the new 
home, it traveled thirty miles to 
Poughkeepsie, and returned with the 
remainder of the household and 
household goods. 

The whole town is fragrant with 
historical associations, if in nothing 



more than in its houses. It has not 
been a progressive town. Progres- 
sive towns have long since torn down 
their old houses, and blasted apart 
those wonderful chimmeys which 
included, besides several spacious 
fireplaces, ye ancient brick oven. 
Guilford, I doubt not, can furnish 
better material for the study of 
colonial architecture, than any other 
town in New England. With the 
certainty of a geologist reading from 
the strata of the rock, we can here 
learn much of its early history which 
is omitted from the books. It reads 
something like this. 

The first houses — with one notable 
exception, of which more anon — 
were for the most part temporary 
structures, but after the colony had 
become well established, say about a 
generation after their arrival, there 
followed a century of great and sub- 
stantial prosperity. This was the 
age of the large, heavy timbered, 
heavy chimneyed and expensive 
houses. More than a hundred of 
these houses remain in the town to- 
day, with their deep beams and 
curious carvings, and almost without 
exception they are marked by the 
second story projecting a few inches 
beyond the first and in many in- 
stances a similar overhang of the 
attic. 

With the revival of antiquarian 
interests to protect them from the 
Philistines, there is no reason why 
these houses may not go down the 
vale of time garnering the centuries 
long after their balloon-framed neigh- 
bors have been displaced. But of the 
notable exception, this is the story: — 



LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



289 



While the Boston Bay colony was 
still an infant, a settlement was made 
at the mouth of the Connecticut river, 
and as it was under the management 
of scions of the British aristocracy, it 
was named for two English gentle- 
men, Lord Say and Seal and Lord 
Brook, and became known as Say- 
brook. In 1638 a few people went 
nearly forty miles westward along 
the shore, and came to a river flow- 
ing into a pleasant harbor. The 
Indians called the river Quinnipiack, 
so the white men gave that name to 
the place. But the following year a 
ship sailed into the harbor, and the 
captain said " What a fair haven ! " 
So they called one side of the harbor 
Fair Haveri, and the other side they 
called New Haven. 

That year some new colonists, under 
the leadership of their minister, Mr. 
Whitfield, who was a wealthy man 
and used his wealth unsparingly to 
assist his flock, came there looking 
for lands on which to settle. They 
were friends of both the Saybrook 
and New Haven colonists, and with 
the help of their friends they selected 
the rich plains about half way 
between the two. There was a young 
man, a Mr. Higginson, who though 
but twenty-four years old, had been 
chaplain four years at Saybrook, and 
he tendered his services as inter- 
preter with the Indians, for the 
newcomers were not yet beyond the 
thought of dealing fairly by the 
natives. When they learned that 
the sachem of the tribe was a woman, 
these wise men shrewdly added a 
number of mirrors to the purchase 
price of coats, hatchets etc., and the 



red queen gladly deeded away the 
lands of her people. In complimen- 
tary mood they named the place 
after her, and called it Me^iiinkatuck, 
but later, when they had been there 
long enough to get homesick, they 
changed it to Guilford, in memory of 
something better than a queen who 
thought more of mirrors than she 
did of a kingdom. 

Only two years before that coast 
had been ravaged by an Indian war, 
and a sachem's skull was even then 
resting in the crotch of an oak tree, 
o'n a headland near at hand, which is 
known to this day as Sachem's Head. 
Therefore the newcomers decided to 
build at least one house, which 
should, if necessar}^ be a refuge and 
defense, and Mr. Whitfield hired all 
the Indians for the unskilled labor 
and the work went merrily on. 

The result was a large two-storied 
parsonage, with walls nearly three 
feet thick laid up in mortar. The 
roof was of an ingenious construc- 
tion of timber work, with secret 
recesses for the concealment of valu- 
bles if necessary. In the second 
story there was a remarkable embra- 
sure, not in the side as it is usually 
made, but in the south corner. It 
was just wide enough for a rifle, and 
covered the broad expanse toward 
the harbor. 

And there the old house stands to 
this day, as solid and immovable in 
its lines as it was two hundred and 
sixty years ago. Recently the D. A. 
R. placed a tablet on its side, stating 
that it is the oldest stone house in 
Connecticut, and dedicated it. Why 
did they not remember Lincoln's 



290 



LITTLE JOURNEYS TO ANCESTRAL FIRESIDES 



words ? Why not have re-dedicated 
themselves to the nation ? 

There is a sequel to this story of 
the stone house. The young chap- 
lain who had acted as interpreter 
met Mr. Whitfield's family, and 
immediately secured the position of 
teacher in the new settlement. Then 
the town voted that the duties of the 
teacher should consist in teaching the 
children and assisting the minister. 
Whereupon — in order to properly 
perform his last duty without doubt 
— he engaged board in the minister's 
family at the stone house. The next 
year he was married to the minister's 
daughter, and from that auspicious 
union has decended the shining 
literary light of Boston, Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson. 

We thought of these various scenes 
in which our ancestors figured so 
largely, as we walked about the 
empty rooms of the old house, now 
preserved by the state to be kept as 
a state museum. 

What would we not give — history 
is so meagre — to have had a modern 
reporter on the scene to have left us 
his graphic account ? This first wed- 
ding, in the most influential and only 
wealthy family, must have been a 



fete day for the town. Lord and 
Lady Fenwick of Saybrook and Mr. 
Leete, afterward Governor of Con- 
necticut, were doubtless there, for 
they were fast friends of Mr. Whit- 
field. 

Did they stand in a circle about 
the great room, with the officers of 
the church and town, and drink the 
young couple's health in some old 
port which was brought from Eng- 
land? If they did, it was according 
to the customs of the time. What 
was the wedding feast ? The forest 
was alive with deer, and the waters 
with wild fowl, and the brick ovens 
may have brought forth smoking 
haunches of venison and dozens of 
roast duck and geese. The imagi- 
nation runs riot, but what remains 
to the actual vision is the castle-like 
structure of stone with its thick 
walls, which happily were never 
called upon to withstand the attacks 
of an enemy, but which — unhap- 
pily^suffered from a *' moderniz- 
ing" attack by a wealthy owner 
some years ago. 

Mr. Whitfield returned to England 
in a few years, but his assistant suc- 
ceeded to his place and ministered 
to the people in his stead. 



(To BE Concluded) 




THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 

BEING THE THIRD SERIES OF THE BIOGRAPHIES 
OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF THE STATE 

BY 

FREDERIC CALVIN NORTON 




Mr. Norton's brief biographies have attracted wide attention, and fol- 
lowing their completion in The Connbcticut Magazine will be published 
in book form. This is to be done at the special request of many of the 
libraries and public institutions throughout the State who desire this his- 
torical compilation in permanent form. In the preparation of the work 
for this Magazine Mr. Norton has studied all the available sources of infor- 
mation and in his researches has practically exhausted the historical 
field. So complete is his presentation that it will be used as a volume of 
reference in many of the public schools. Mr. Norton is a close student, and 
accuracy is his strongest characteristic. He delves into the past with close 
application and penetration. His home is in Bristol and his birthplace 
was Guilford. The illustrations in these biographies are by Randall, taken 
directly from the original paintings at the State Capitol, by permission of 
Governor McLean and George S. Godard, state librarian. — Editor. 



OLIVER 

1817-1827 

THE first governor of this 
state under the present con- 
stitution was OUver Wol- 
cott, the third member of 
that famous family to oc- 
cupy the office. The poHtical power 
of the Wolcotts was exercised from 
the early days of the colony far into 
the century just closed. They were 
men of great mental power, excellent 
executive ability, and it could truth- 
fully be said of them as it was of the 
famous Mather family in Massachu- 
setts, that the prominent traits which 
were pronounced in the father were 
stronger in the son, and yet stronger 
in the grandson. 

Oliver Wolcott was born in Litch- 
field on January 11, 1760, and was a 
son of Governor Oliver Wolcott and 
Lorraine Collins of Guilford, a sister 
of General Augustus Collins, a dis- 



WOLCOTT 

Ten Years 
tinguished officer in the Revolution. 
He entered Yale College in 1774, but 
two years later he volunteered in the 
militia and left his studies. Wolcott 
was in the force that went to Danbury 
to repel the invasion of General 
Tryon, and he took part in a skirmish 
at Wilton. He returned to college 
and after graduation began the study 
of law at the famous school conducted 
by Tapping Reeve and Judge Gould 
at Litchfield. During the summer of 
1779 he was with his father as aide- 
de-camp, who was then commanding 
on the western borders of the siate. 
After accompanying his father to the 
coast he accepted a quartermaster's 
postion. This was a period of great 
privation for his family at Litch- 
field. The elder Wolcott was absent 
in Congress, and on the son's shoul- 
der fell the responsibility of obtaining 



292 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



fuel and provisions for the family. 
He wa^ also obliged to keep open the 
roa^s lor the necessary transporta- 
tion of army stores under his charge. 
On July 29 General Parsons wrote 
to General Wolcott : "In arranging 
our line a number of ensigns are va- 
cant. If your son is willing to ac- 
cept one of these vacancies, I shall 
be happy in having it in my power 
to gratify the inclination of the son 
of so worthy a father. I am deter- 
mined to have these offices filled by 
young gentlemen of spirit and beam- 
ing, to make the army respectable, 
or leave them vacant." He declined 
the office as he was desirous of con- 
tinuing his legal studies. 

In 1781 young Wolcott left his 
home in Litchfield with three dollars 
in his pocket, and went to Hartford, 
where he soon afterward accepted a 
clerkship in the office of the com- 
missioner of the pay table. The salary 
connected with this position was 50 
cents per day, specie value. During 
the year Wolcott received the degree 
of M. A. from Yale Cohege, his 
thesis being ''An Agricultura in Re- 
pubHca Americana sit magis colonda 
quani commercium." His great dili- 
gence in discharging the duties of 
the office led the General Assembly in 
1782, entirely unsolicited, to appoint 
Wolcott one of the commissioners of 
the pay table. As junior member ol 
the commission he was obliged to 
make frequent visits to the Council 
of Safety, and receive directions. 
Through this agency he became inti- 
mately acquainted with not only the 
officials of the state, but the workings 
of the state government. 

In May 1784 Wolcott received the 
appointment as commissioner to ad- 



just the claims for Connecticut 
against the United States. His col- 
leagues in the work were two eminent 
men, Oliver Ellsworth and William 
Samuel Johnson. During the early 
part of 1788 the Board of Pay Table 
was abolished and in its place was 
created the office of Comptroller of 
PubHc Accounts. Wolcott was m.ade 
the first Comptroller and held the 
office until September, 1789, when the 
national treasury was established. 
Honors came to him rapidly in these 
days, for his great ability was being 
generally recognized by the leading 
statesmen. In 1789 he was appointed 
Auditor of the United States Treas- 
ury Department, and Comptroher of 
the Treasury in the spring of 1791. 
He had previously been offered the 
presidency of the United States 
Bank. 

Alexander Hamilton resigned as 
Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 
and in February Wolcott succeeded 
him. He held the office through the 
remainder of Washington's adminis- 
tration and on the accession of Presi- 
dent Adams in 1797 he tendered his 
resignation. The President continued 
him in office until Wolcott finally re- 
signed November 8, 1800, Previous 
to this Wolcott had been subjected to 
slanderous accusations by his po- 
litical opponents, and the Federalist 
officials were openly accused of hav- 
ing burned the Treasury building in 
order to cover up their defalcations. 

Wolcott called for an investigation, 
but a hostile committee appointed by 
Congress failing to obtain the slight- 
est evidence, continued the malicious 
stories with the characteristic venom 
of political antagonists of that day. 

President Adams forthwith ap- 




From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 



294 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUJ 



pointed Wolcott, under the provisions 
of the new judiciary act, judge of the 
Second Circuit of the United States. 
This district embraced the states of 
Connecticut, New York and Ver- 
mont, and the United States Senate 
took every precaution to vindicate 
Wolcott by immediately confirming 
the nomination. 

In 1802 the judiciary act was re- 
pealed and Wolcott then removed to 
New York City, where he became a 
merchant. He was very successful, 
gathered a fortune in a short time, 
and was first president of the Bank of 
North America. 

Soon after the close of the second 
war with Great Britain, Wolcott re- 
tired to his former home in Litch- 
field, where he, in company with a 
brother, founded large woolen fac- 
tories near Torrington. The place 
where the factories were located was 
named Wolcottville and for a long 
time was the principal village of that 
town. Torrington owes its growth 
in a great degree to the success of 
these establishments. 

Friends urged Wolcott in 1816 to 
accept the nomination for governor. 
The anti-Federalist, or Democratic, 
convention convened at New Haven 
in January, 1816, and Oliver Wolcott 
was placed in nomination for gov- 
ernor, with Jared IngersoU for lieu- 
tenant-governor. Opposition news- 
papers now brought into the cam- 
paign all the rancor which was com- 
mon in the early part of the last cen- 
tury. He was freely accused of arson 
to cover his peculations in the Treas- 
ury Department, and everything pos- 
sible was done to assail his private 
character. 

Wolcott was defeated and Ingei soil 



elected. This result had been antici- 
pated by his friends as an 'Unfortu- 
nate culmination of circumstance." 
The same ticket was nominated the 
following year and both Wolcott and 
IngersoU were elected by a two- 
thirds majority of the Assembly. 

In 1817 Wolcott took his seat as 
governor of Connecticut, and became 
at once engaged in considering the 
various issues so long fought over by 
his constituents. His administra- 
tion was destined to be one of re- 
form, and members of the General As- 
sembly that year were elected on that 
basis. The most important question 
to demand the attention of the As- 
sembly was that of calling a state 
convention to frame a new constitu- 
tion. This had been the bone of con- 
tention between the two parties for 
the past twenty years. The conven- 
tion was called and Governor Wolcott 
was chosen president. He presided 
over the sessions of the convention 
with dignity and ability, and the origi- 
nal draft of the constitution is said 
to have been his work. The new con- 
stitution was framed and adopted ; so 
that this was probably the most im- 
portant act of his administration. 
For ten years Governor Wolcott was 
continued in office with no decided 
opposition. His career as governor 
sustained his great reputation for ex- 
ecutive abiHty which he had gained 
as a member of Washington's cabi- 
net. After retiring from the office 
of governor, Wolcott returned to 
New York City, where he lived with 
his children for the remainder of his 
Hfe. 

Governor Wolcott devoted his for- , 
tune to foster agricultural pursuits, 
and developing the great factories he 



I 




From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 



-"^^fkk^-Z^ (y^^t^^^^^i^C^i 



<Jt-^%L 



296 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



had founded. He also paid consider- 
able attention to letters, and he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from the corporations of Brown Uni- 
versity, the College of New Jersey, 
and Yale College. 

He died at his home in New York, 
June 1, 1833, and the death of no 
public man of the period was mourned 
more than Governor Wolcott. From 
the fact that he was the last survivor 
of Washington's cabinet, and a con- 
spicuous figure that represented the 
principles of the founders of the re- 
public, Wolcott's death was looked 
upon as a national loss. ''His char- 
acter," said one who knew Governor 
Wolcott intimately, ''was strongly 
marked, strong, inflexible, and de- 
voted to all that duty, honor and pa- 
triotism enjoined; he was in private 
life of the utmost gentleness, kind- 
ness and simplicity. With strong 
original powers, early developed by 
the stirring events of the Revolution- 
ary days, in which he was born, he had 
acquired a habit of self-reliance which 
better fitted him for the sort of po- 
litical co-operation which results 
from expediency rather than right." 
Of his personal appearance the same 
writer says: "In personal appear- 
ance Oliver Wolcott was of the ordi- 
nary size, but as he advanced in life 
he inclined towards corpulency. His 
head was large and countenance 
strong delineated and expressive. 
He possessed much dignity of man- 
ner; his disposition was sedate but 
cheerful, and with some causticity of 
humor." 

In his old age Governor Wolcott 
was honored as being the last of a 
coterie of public men who composed 
Washington's official family. It has 



been said that the departure of few 
public men ever occasioned so great 
pubhc sorrow as the death of Gov- 
ernor Wolcott. ''All felt alike," says 
a writer, "the irreparable loss, and 
they could not but feel that an impor- 
tant Hnk, in the chain that united the 
present generation with the one of the 
Father of his Country, was broken." 



GIDEON TOMDINSON 

1827-1831 Four Years 
Gideon Tomlinson was born in the 
town of Stratford on the last day of 
the year 1780, and was the grandson 
of an ofhcer who took part in the cap- 
ture of Ticonderoga. His father, 
Jabez H. Tomlinson, was a man of 
importance in the community where 
he had resided all his life. 

After attending the schools of his 
native town Tomlinson was sent to 
Huntington, where Rev. David Ely, 
D. D., prepared him for college. En- 
tering Yale in 1798 he was graduated 
four years later in a class which con- 
tained several men who were after- 
ward college presidents, a future gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, Rev. David 
Dudley Field, and Rev. Jeremiah 
Evarts. Immediately after leaving 
college Tomlinson secured employ- 
ment as a tutor to Alexander (?) 
Upshus of Northampton County, Va., 
who was afterwards Secretary of the 
Navy. While teaching he studied 
law, and when he returned to Con- 
necticut in 1803 he entered the law 
office of Judge Chauncey at New 
Haven. 

TomHnson was admitted to the bar 
in 1807 and removed to that portion 
of Fairfield called Greenfield Hill, 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



297 



made famous by the pastoral labor of 
Dr. Dwight. 

He entered politics and in May, 
1817, was elected by the Toleration 
party as a representative to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The following Octo- 
ber he was chosen clerk of the House 
and became a prominent agitator in 
the all-important discussion over a 
new constitution. 

In May, 1818, Tomlinson was again 
elected and this time chosen speaker 
of the House. The same year he 
was a delegate to the state convention 
called for the purpose of framing a 
new constitution, and during the ses- 
sion his voice was often heard on the 
floor of the old State House at Hart- 
ford. 

With Pierpont Edwards, the lead- 
ing lawyer of the state, Tomlinson 
was appointed to represent Fairfield 
County on the committee of twenty- 
four to frame the constitution. 

After two years' service in the State 
Legislature he was elected to Con- 
gress, and was a member of the 
House from 1819 to 1827. While in 
Congress Tomlinson had a high repu- 
tation and was often called upon to 
preside in the absence of the speaker. 

In 1827, at the age of forty-seven 
years, he was elected governor of 
Connecticut by a good majority. He 
continued in office until 1831, and his 
record as chief executive of the srate 
was an honorable one. In March, 
1831, Governor Tomlinson resigned 
in order to accept the position of 
United States Senator, to which he 
was elected as a successor to Calvin 
Willey of Tolland. 

Serving one term as Senator, Gov- 
ernor Tomlinson maintained at all 
times a high standard of statesman- 



ship, and attracted attention in a body 
which contained at the time some very 
distinguished men. While in the 
Senate Governor Tomlinson was 
elected the first president of the old 
Housatonic Railroad Company, and 
for many years he was one of the trus- 
tees of the Staples Free Academy. 

Returning to Connecticut he passed 
the remainder of his life in a cuiet 
manner practicing his profession. 
His later years were saddened by the 
death of a son of great promise. He 
never entered public life again after 
his retirement from the United States 
Senate. 

Governor Tomlinson died on Octo- 
ber 8, 1854, aged seventy-four years. 



JOHN S. PETERS 

1831-1833 Two Years 
The paternal ancestors of Governor 
Peters were Englishmen of note, and 
the family was distinguished in manv 
ways. One member of the family 
was the famous Hugh Peters, who 
was beheaded, he having been charged 
with complicity in the King's death. 
An uncle of Governor Peters, Rev. 
Dr. Samuel A. Peters, a native of 
Hebron, was the inventor of the 
famous so-called "blue laws" of Con- 
necticut. Being a strong sympatiiizer 
with the Royalist cause during the 
Revolution, Dr. Peters was obliged 
to flee to England, where he published 
his unique "History of Connecticut." 
and. according to John Fiske. "took 
delight in horrifying our British 
cousins with tales of wholesale tar- 
ring and feathering done bv the pa- 
triots of the Revolution." 

In the minds of most historians the 



298 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUl 



doctor's "history" reminds one of the 
late Baron Munchausen. 

John S. Peters was born in Hebron 
on September 2, 1772, being the hfth 
child of BeusHe Peters, a brother of 
the Tory clergyman. The family was 
so poor that when the future gov- 
ernor had reached the age of seven 
years it became necessary for him to 
work for a neighboring farmer. Dur- 
ing the next four years he worked 
on the farm in summer and attended 
the district school during winter. 

When eighteen years of age the 
young man decided to be a school 
teacher, and accordingly had charge 
of a district school in Hebron for 
several years. 

While he was teaching he took up 
the study of medicine, and during the 
summer he was twenty years of age 
he studied with Dr. Benjamin Peters 
of Marbletown, N. Y. Succeeding 
summers were also passed in the 
study of his chosen profession, with 
Dr. Abner Mosely of Glastonbury. 
Late in the year 1796 Peters went to 
Philadelphia to complete his medical 
education. In that city he attended 
the anatomical lectures of Doctors 
Shippen and Wistar, the chemical 
lectures by the famous Dr. James 
Woodhouse, and the medical school 
of Dr. Rush. Returning to Connec- 
ticut in 1797, Dr. Peters looked 
around for a place to settle and com- 
mence practice. 

He went up the Connecticut River 
as far as Canada without finding a 
town in need of a medical practitioner. 
He returned to his home thoroughly 
disheartened, and exclaimed in a mo- 
ment of abject despair that he had 
spent twenty-four years of his life and 
all his money without avail. Settling 



in Hebron for want of a more prom- 
ising place, he was agreeably sur- 
prised by finding his services in de- 
mand within a short space of time. 
His ability was recognized from the 
first, and it was not long before he 
had all the business he could attend 
to. Dr. Peters was a prominent 
member of the Tolland County Med- 
ical Society, and in 1804 was chosen 
a feUow of the State Medical Society. 
He was widely known as a skillful 
practitioner of uncommon ability. 

Early in his professional career Dr. 
Peters remained true to the spirit of 
his ancestors, and took a keen inter- 
est in the political questions of the 
day. The citizens of Hebron showed 
their confidence in him in various 
ways, he seldom being defeated for 
an office. 

For twenty years Dr. Peters was 
town clerk of Hebron ; he was also 
judge of probate for the district for 
many years, and represented the 
town in the House of Representatives 
several sessions. 

After serving in the State Senate 
for a number of years he was elected 
lieutenant-governor and held the 
office from 1827 to 1831. Wlien 
Governor Tomlinson resigned in 1831 
Dr. Peters succeeded him in office. 
His party placed him in nomination 
at the next election and he was elected 
governor by a large majority. He 
occupied the office with satisfaction 
from 1831 to 1835, when he retired 
from public life. 

With the exception of being a 
Presidential elector, Governor Peters 
never held ofifice after retiring as chief 
executive of the state. 

He never practiced his profession 
after becoming governor, and spent 




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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



the remaining years in taking advan- 
tage of the competency he had ac- 
quired. Governor Peters enjoyed al- 
most perfect heahh all his life rntil 
within a short time before his death, 
and he entertained quite extensively 
at his old-fashioned residence in 
Hebron. He died at his home in 
Hebron on March 30, 1858, aged 85 
years. 

A friend of Governor Peters said 
of him: "He was a most agreeable 
companion and a warm and true 
friend. His conversational powers 
were superior, and all who have had 
the pleasure of his acquaintance will 
long remember his lively and keen 
wit, his inexhaustible fund of anec- 
dotes and stories, and his inimitable 
manner of relating them." 



SAMUEL A. FOOTE 

1834-1835 One Year 
The father of Governor Foote was 
the Rev. John Foote, a native of 
North Branford, who afterward re- 
moved to Cheshire and succeeded the 
Rev. John Hall as pastor of the Con- 
gregational church m that town. His 
wife was granddaughter of Governor 
Jonathan Law. After a life of great 
usefulness the Rev. Mr. Foote died 
in Cheshire, August 31, 1831. 

His son, Samuel Augustus Foote, 
the subject of this sketch, was bcrn 
in Cheshire on November 8, 1780. 
As a child he was precocious to such 
a degree that he entered Yale College 
at the age of thirteen years. Consti- 
tutionally delicate in his early years 
the boy showed signs of premature 
decay; but in the face of all this he 
succeeded in completing his college 



course, graduating from Yale in 1797, 
before he had reached the age of 
seventeen. 

He then resided for a few months 
in Washington, Conn., reading law in 
the office of Daniel N. Burnside, Esq. 
Deciding upon law as a profession, 
he entered the Litchfield Law School, 
for a course of study. Li his class 
were Baldwin, Benedict, Day, Griffin, 
Seymour and Sill — all of whom be- 
came famous men. 

He remained at Judge Reeves's 
school probably less than a year, for 
he began to be troubled with severe 
pains in his head, which did not yield 
to treatment. Invariably the young 
man attended lectures wearing a 
bandage about his head. As the 
trouble increased Foote was obliged 
to relinquish his desire to become a 
lawyer, and resolved to follow some 
business which would provide a more 
active occupation. 

After leaving the law school he 
went to New Haven and engaged in 
the shipping trade, having an office 
on Long Wharf, It is said that he 
went to the West Indies three thiies 
in the capacity of a supercargo. 

When the war with Great Britain 
commenced in 1812 Foote, as well as 
many other merchants of his class, 
saw his prosperous business entirely 
wiped out. He took his losses .n as 
good humor as possible, and decided 
to turn his attention to agricultural 
pursuits. 

Going to Cheshire he settled on a 
farm, and became very successful. 
This occupation gave him ample time, 
and opportunity to take an active part 
in the poHtical discussion of the day. 

He entered into politics to such an 
extent that it was not long before he 




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THE GOVERNORS OF C0NNECTICV2 



was known as one of the most 
zealous anti-Federalists of the state. 
A majority of the people of Cheshire 
shared his opinion and sent him to 
the Legislature in 1817 and 1818, as 
their representative. While in the 
House, Foote exerted great power 
and was easily its leading member. 
He was next elected a member of 
Congress and represented his district 
for two years from March, 1819. Re- 
turning to Connecticut he was again 
elected a member of the Legislature, 
and represented Cheshire in the 
House for two years. In 182;:^ he 
was re-elected to Congress and served 
until May, 1825, when he was again 
chosen by the people of Cheshire to 
represent the town in the General 
Assembly. That body elected him 
speaker and during the same session 
he was chosen as United States Sena- 
tor to succeed Henry W. Edwards. 

His term in the Senate commenced 
on March 4, 1827, and the latter por- 
tion of it was made famous by a de- 
bate which took place over one of his 
resolutions. 

It was Senator P'oote who intro- 
duced the resolution in December, 
1829, which provoked the great de- 
bate between Senators Webster ot 
Massachusetts and Hayne of South 
Carolina, lasting the greater portion 
of three days. This resolution was 
for the purpose of "inquiring into the 
expediency of limiting the sales of the 
public lands to those already in the 
market, besides suspending the sur- 
veys of the public lands and aboHshing 
the office of surveyor-general." 

On January 26 and 27, 1830, Daniel 
Webster delivered his famous ''Reply 
to Hayne," which is considered by 
John Fiske to be the "greatest speech 



that has been delivered since the 
oration of Demosthenes against the 
crown." 

Foote was defeated by Nathan 
Smith for a second term in the Sen- 
ate, but was elected a member of the 
National House of Representatives in 
April, 1833. In 1834 he was nomi- 
nated for governor by the Whigs of 
this state, who were opposed to the 
administration of President Jackson. 
He obtained a plurality but not a 
majority; so the choice went to the 
General Assembly. That body elected 
him governor, and he resigned his 
seat in Congress. 

He served as chief magistrate for 
one year, during an uneventful period. 
Yale College conferred upon him, 
while governor, the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. The next year Governoi 
Foote was defeated by Henry W. Ed- 
wards, and after that he was never 
actively engaged in politics. 

His domestic and private affairs en- 
grossed his attention the remaining 
years of his hfe, and he died in 
Cheshire, September 15, 1846. "That 
which specially strikes us," says one 
writer, "as characteristic of Governor 
Foote was his integrity, industry, de- 
cision and perseverance." His son, 
Andrew Hull Foote, was a famous 
naval officer, who, on June 16, J 862, 
received the thanks of Congress for 
gallant services in the Civil War, and 
was made a rear-admiral. 



HENRY W. EDWARDS 

1833-1834 1835-1838 Four Years 
Henry Waggaman Edwards was 
the grandson of Jonathan Edwards, 
one of the most subtle reasoners the 




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THE GOVERNORS OF C0NNECTICU2 



country has produced, and the son of 
Pierrepont Edwards, for many years 
the most distinguished member of 
the Connecticut bar. 

Pierrepont Edwards had the most 
lucrative law practice in the state, 
was a member of the Continental 
Congress, and a man of great power. 
He died in Bridgeport, April 5, 1826. 
His son, H. W. Edwards, was born 
in New Haven in 1779, the year that 
General Tryon pillaged the town and 
spread desolation among its inhabi- 
tants. 

He prepared for college at New 
Haven and entered the College of 
New Jersey, at Princeton, where he 
was graduated in the class of 1797. 

Having decided to adopt his father's 
profession, Edwards entered the 
famous Litchfield Law School (now 
the Yale Law School), and after the 
completion of the course returned to 
New Haven, where he commenced to 
practice. Being eminently successful 
from the start, and gaining the entire 
confidence of the people, Edwards 
rose rapidly in public favor. In 1819 
he was elected as a Democratic mem- 
ber of Congress and represented the 
district in the House of Representa- 
tives until March 3, 1823. At that 
time Governor Tomlinson appointed 
him a L^nited States Senator to suc- 
ceed the Hon. Elijah Boardman. 

This term lasted but a few months, 
when he was elected for a full term. 
He served in the Senate from Decem- 
ber 1, 1823, to March 4, 1827, when 
he was elected a member of the State 
Senate, and was a member of that 
body from 1827 to 1829. In 1830 
Edwards was elected a member- of 
the House of Representatives fiom 
New Haven, and became speaker. 



His rise in the esteem of his party 
was rapid and in 1833 he was elected 
governor of the state, holding the 
ofiice one year. The following year 
he was nominated, but defeated by 
Samuel A. Foote of Cheshire. 

Governor Edwards was re-elected, 
however, in 1835, and served for the 
next three terms, retiring in 1838, 
with an honorable record. 

Governor Edwards's administration 
was known as the "railroad era," as 
those years saw the building of the 
Hartford and New Haven railroad, 
the Hartford and Springfield, the 
Housatonic, and the Providence and 
Stonington. 

While governor, Mr. Edwards sug- 
gested that a geological survey of the 
state be made. This was done in ac- 
cordance with his desire. 

Yale College conferred the degree 
of LL. D. upon Governor Edwards in 
1833. He had the distinction of being 
the first governor of Connecticut born 
in New Haven. Governor Edwards 
died at New Haven on July 22, 1847. 
A son, Pierrepont Edwards, was a 
prominent lawyer, and a judge of the 
New York Supreme Court for seven 
years. 



WILLIAM W. ELLSWORTH 

1838-1842 Four Years 
The Ellsworth family of Windsor 
was one of the most distinguished in 
Connecticut. 

Oliver Ellsworth, LL. D., was a 
famous lawyer and statesman, of 
whom John Adams said "he was the 
finest pillar of Washington's whole 
administration." He was a member 
of the Continental Congress, a dele- 




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3o6 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



gate to the Fedeial Convention of 
1787, and in 1796 was appointed chief 
justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. He died at Windsor, Novem- 
ber 26, 1807. His son, William Vv^ol- 
cott Ellsworth, the twin brother of 
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, was born 
at Windsor, November 10, 1791, and 
entered Yale College in 1806, where 
he was graduated with honors in 1810. 
Among his classmates at Yale was 
Professor S. F. B. Morse, the in- 
ventor of telegraphy. 

Immediately after graduation he 
entered the Litchfield Law School, 
where he pursued his legal studies. 
Removing to Hartford, Ellsworth en- 
tered the office of Judge Williams, 
his brother-in-law, at that time the 
most prominent lawyer at the Hart- 
ford bar. He was a close student, 
and aimed from the first to thor- 
oughiy master the profession. 

In 1813 he was admitted to the 
Hartford bar, and during the same 
year became united in marriage to 
Emily, the eldest daughter of Noah 
Webster. It was a period when a 
young lawyer found it hard to build 
up a practice; yet in 1817, four years 
after being admitted to the bar, when 
Judge Williams was elected to Con- 
gress, Ellsworth was made his part- 
ner. The law practice of Judge 
Williams was one of the largest in 
the state, yet he left it under the man- 
agement of his young partner, then 
twenty-six years of age. 

He carried on the business of the 
firm with great success, and his fame 
as a legal authority spread rapidly. 
In 1827 Mr. Ellsworth was appointed 
professor at Trinity College, and he 
held the position until his death in 
1868. 



Being the choice of the Whigs in 
1829, Mr. Ellsworth was elected a 
member of Congress by a good ma- 
jority, and continued in that position 
until 1833, when he resigned at the 
close of the Twenty-third Congress. 

As a member of the judiciary com- 
mittee, while in Congress, he was one 
of the most active in preparing meas- 
ures to carry into effect Jackson's 
proclamation against the nullification 
or South Carolina. Mr. Ellsworth 
was also on a committee appointed to 
investigate the aflairs of the United 
States Bank at Philadelphia. 

Returning to Hartford he resumed 
his law practice, and soon regamed 
his extensive business of former days. 
After considerable urging Mr. Ells- 
worth accepted the nomination for 
governor of Connecticut and Vv^as 
elected in 1838. He continued in this 
office four years, and during that 
period he twice refused the offers of 
an election to the United States Sen- 
ate. 

Retiring from office in 1842, Gov- 
ernor Ellsworth continued active 
practice at the bar until 1847, when 
he was chosen by the General Assem- 
bly a judge of the Superior Court, 
and also one of the judges of the 
Supreme court of Errors. He con- 
tinued on the bench until compelled 
to resign in 1861 on account of hav- 
ing reached the age of seventy years. 

Retiring in 1861, Governor Ells- 
worth enjoyed the next seven years in 
taking a much deserved rest, although 
he kept up a lively interest in public 
affairs to the last. He was one of the 
incorporators of the American Asylum 
for the Deaf and Dumb, and presi- 
dent of the board of directors of the 
Hartford Retreat for the Insane. 




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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



Governor Ellsworth always main- 
tained a great interest in church work, 
and was a deacon in a Hartford 
church for forty-seven years. The 
last years of his life were spent in 
Hartford, where he passed awa}^ on 
January 15, 1868. At his funeral the 
Rev. George A. Gould delivered an 
oration, and among other things said : 
"Whether an advocate at the bar, or 
sitting on the bench of justice, or oc- 
cupying the gubernatorial chair of the 
state, or serving his countrymen in 
the highest council of the nation, he 
never forgot that, first of all, he was 
a Christian." Another writer has 
said : ''Wihiam Wolcott Ellsworth 
was a Puritan of the very best stock, 
and his honesty in everything was 
above reproach. In him were heredi- 
tary qualities of great mental and 
moral worth. Much like his father, 
the chief justice, he was remarkable 
for his simplicity of tastes and habits. 
He was dignified in manner ; in per- 
son tall and graceful. In all things 
he was an admirable representative 
of New England, a man of old-time 
integrity, sincerity and solidity of 
character." ' 

Rufus Choate, the great orator and 
lawyer, speaking before a committee 
of the Massachusetts General Assem- 
bly, referred to Governor Ellsworth 
''as a man of hereditary capacity, 
purity, learning and love of law." He 
added: 'Tf the land of Shermans, 
Griswolds, Daggetts and Williams, 
rich as she is in learning and virtue, 
has a sounder lawyer, a more upright 
magistrate, or an honester man in her 
public service, I know not his name." 

A writer in describing his personal 
characteristics said of him : "He had 
a fine personal presence, and as grace- 



ful bearing as any man of his time. 
He was an excellent public speaker, 
having a pleasing voice, and his con- 
versation was earnest and sincere. All 
his intercourse was marked by kind- 
ness and integrity of nature. The 
crown of his enduring character was 
his Christian worth and conversa- 
tion." 



CHAUNCEY V. CLEVELAND 

1842-1844 Two Years 
Governor Cleveland, according to 
one writer, "was the most popular 
man in the county (Windham), if not 
in the state, a popularity owing in 
large measure to a genuine good na- 
ture, which found pleasure in kindly 
greetings and the interest he took in 
the welfare of those whom he knew." 
Chauncey Fitch Cleveland was torn 
in Canterbury, February 16, 1799, and 
was the son of Silas Cleveland, for 
many years a prominent citizen of 
that town. He was sent to the district 
schools of the town, where he ob- 
tained all the education he ever re- 
ceived. Choosing the law as his pro- 
fession he commenced its study, and 
was admitted to the Windham county 
bar in 1819, at the age of twenty years. 
As a young lawyer, he was unsnually 
successful. He had gained suf^cient 
prominence in 1833 to be appointed 
state's attorney for his county, and 
this office he held for five years. 

During the years 1826, 1827, 1829, 
1832, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1847 and 1848 
he was a representative in the General 
Assembly from the town of Hampton. 
Three of those years — 1832, '35 and 
'36 — Cleveland was honored by being 
chosen speaker of the House, a posi- 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



309 



tion he upheld with dignity and 
abiUty. 

For a number of years Mr. Cleve- 
land had been the acknowledged 
leader of the Democracy of the state, 
and in 1842 the party managers de- 
cided to place him in nomination for 
governor. 

He was elected by a good majority 
and his term of office was so success- 
ful that he was renominated and 
elected for the second time. Retir- 
ing from the gubernatorial chair in 
1844, Governor Cleveland returned 
to his legal practice, but did not re- 
linquish his interest in poHtics. In 
1849 he was elected to represent his 
district in Congress, which he did for 
the next four years with ability and 
distinction. 

Governor Cleveland was a man of 
strong character. This was abun- 
dantly demonstrated in 1860, when, 
after being a strong Democrat for 
sixty years, and realizing there was 
danger of the government being dis- 
rupted, he openly declared himself an 
unflinching supporter of the Union. 
Deliberately severing party ties. Gov- 
ernor Cleveland did everything in his 
power to support the government, 
worked for Lincoln's election, and 
was a presidential elector* on the Re- 
publican ticket. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Peace Congress in 1861 
and took a prominent part in the pro- 
ceedings of that famous body. 

Governor Cleveland never entered 
public life to any extent afterwards, 
but practiced his profession in the 
town of Hampton. Throughout the 
remaining years of his Hfe he was the 
recipient of many honors. He died in 
Hampton on June 6, 1887. 

The ''Judicial and Civil History of 



Connecticut" has this to say of Gov- 
ernor Cleveland : "It was mainly as 
a public man that he was known be- 
yond his own county, and his tastes 
and ambitions lay far more in the 
direction of political than of pro- 
fessional life. He was a man of com- 
manding appearance, yet of gentle 
and courteous manners." 

A son, John J., gave promise of 
unusual ability when very young. He 
was graduated at Washington (now 
Trinity) CoUege, studied law, was a 
clerk of the Federal Courts of the 
state, attained prominence at the bar, 
but died at the age of twenty-eight 
years. 

A nephew of Governor Cleveland, 
the Hon. Edward Spicer Cleveland, 
son of the Hon. Mason Cleveland, 
was the unsuccessful Democratic 
candidate for the governor of Con- 
necticut in 1886. He has been a 
State Senator several times, and is 
one of the first citizens of the state. 



ROGER SHERMAN BALDWIN 

1844-1846 Two Years 

Roger Sherman Baldwin, one of the 
most talented men Connecticut has 
ever produced, was born in New 
Haven on January 4, 1793. His 
father, Simeon Baldwin, was third in 
line of descent from John Baldwin, 
one of those Puritans whose names 
are associated with Davenport, Whit- 
field and Prudden, the founders of 
New Haven, Milford and Guilford. 
His mother was the daughter of 
Roger Sherman, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1787, and a United States Senator. 



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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



On both sides he was descended from 
the very best New England stock. 

Ill his youth the future governor 
was distinguished for his accurate 
scholarship, he having read large por- 
tions of Virgil before reaching the 
age of ten. 

He trntered.Yale College in 1807, 
before he was fourteen years of age, 
and paid particular attention to 
rhetoric and elocution. Graduating 
with high honors in 1811, he was 
chosen to deliver an oration, and he 
selected for his subject ''The Genius 
of a Free Government." 

He commenced the study of law in 
the office of Seth B. Staples, Esq., 
but after a year spent in this man- 
ner he entered the Litchfield Law 
School. In that famous institution, 
where there was at the time several 
young men of superior ability, Mr. 
Baldwin held a high place, and one ot 
his fellow students, writing to the 
governor in after years, said : "I 
think of you still as the head of the 
Litchfield Law School." Judge Gould, 
one of those who conducted the in- 
stitution, wrote that "No student 
from' our office ever passed a better 
examination." Mr. Baldwin was ad- 
mitted to the bar in New Haven in 
1814, and at that time ''he had de- 
veloped a mastery of the principles 
of the law that was considered very 
remarkable in so young a man." His 
great learning, superior knowledge 
of the law, and elegant diction soon 
gained for him the prominence he de- 
served. Rising rapidly in the pro- 
fession, he attained rare distinction at 
the bar, and enjoyed a large practice. 
He was chosen a member of the Com- 
mon Council of New Haven in 1826, 
and in 1829 an alderman. In ]837 



he was elected a member of the State 
Senate, where he became an ex- 
ponent of the Whig party, then 
ascending into power. It is said by 
one writer that his great regard for 
the party extended no further than 
his regard for its principles. 

Mr. Baldwin always had a great re- 
gard for the welfare of the colored 
population, and one of the earliest 
incidents of his life was his rescuing 
a slave belonging to Henry Clay. 

One of the most famous cases in 
which Mr. Baldwin took part was in 
1839, when he defended the "Amistad 
Captives." The Spanish vessel 
"Amistad" was brought into New 
Haven harbor in 1839 by a revenue 
cutter, having been found drifting 
along the coast of Long Island, in 
the possession of a number ot 
Africans. A Spaniard on shipboard 
said that he with a companion had 
undertaken to transport a cargo of 
slaves, recently imported from Africa, 
?rom one Cuban harbor to another, 
[n the dead of night, he said, the 
slaves rose in mutiny, slaughtered his 
comrade, and spared his Hfe in order 
that he might navigate the boat. The 
slaves were taken ashore and cared 
for, but the Spanish minister imme- 
diately made a demand upon our gov- 
ernment for restoration of the ship 
and cargo. 

President Van Buren hastened to 
comply with the request, and the case 
was brought to trial at once. Mr. 
Baldwin became strongly interested 
in the case and became counsel for 
the negroes. He carried it through 
the district and circuit courts of Con- 
necticut, against great odds, up to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 
In that court Mr. Baldwin had asso- 




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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



ciated with him the venerable ex- 
President John Ouincy Adams. 

The former's plea for the captives 
before that body was so profound that 
it led Chancellor Kent to rate Mr. 
Baldwin ''with the leading jurists of 
the day." He had the great satis- 
faction of securing a verdict for the 
negroes, and they were returned to 
their native land. 

In 1844 Mr. Baldwin was elected 
governor of Connecticut, and again 
in 1845, serving as chief magistrate 
with great distinction. 

Governor Baldwin was appointed 
Qnited States Senator in 1847 to fiU 
the unexpired term made vacant by 
the death of Jabez W. Huntington of 
Norwich. After taking his seat in 
that body Mr. Baldwin became gen- 
erally recognized as one of its lead- 
ing members. At the time there 
were in the Senate some of the ablest 
men who ever sat within its walls. 
Among them were Webster, Seward, 
Clay, Benton and Calhoun. He 
ranged himself beside Seward and 
Chase in the arguments over the an- 
nexation of Texas. It is said that 
Governor Baldwin's speech against 
the Fugitive Slave Law was generally 
conceded to be the ablest argument 
in opposition to the measure de- 
livered in the Senate. 

In the annals of the Senate, Mr. 
Baldwin's reply to Senator Mason of 
Virginia, who had cast some as- 
persions on the policy of Connecticut, 
'is memorable not less for its ad- 
mirable spirit than for its use of his 
extensive historical knowledge, as a 
superior specimen of parliamentary 
retort." 

The Democratic party was in powei 
in 1851, when his term expired, and 



he was not re-elected to the Senate. 
Returning to his law practice in New 
Haven, his services were in great de- 
mand, especially in the United States 
courts. 

Governor Baldwin was strongly 
urged to accept a position on the 
bench and a seat in Congress, but he 
refused both, choosing rather to prac- 
tice the profession in which he had 
become so prominent. Governor 
Baldwin was a supporter of Presiaent 
Lincoln, and one of the five members 
of the Peace Congress, appointed by 
Governor Buckingham in 1861. This 
was about the last public service Mr. 
Baldwin performed, for early in 1863 
he began to suffer with a nervous 
disorder which caused his death on 
February 19 of that year. 

At his funeral an eloquent address 
was delivered by his pastor, Rev. 
Samuel W. S. Button, D. D., which 
has been pubHshed. A writer in the 
"Judicial and Civil History of Con- 
necticut" pays this lofty tribute to 
Governor Baldwin : "Probably no 
lawyer ever attained in Connecticut 
a higher rank at the bar than that 
which was generally conceded to 
Governor Baldwin by his professional 
brethren. He possessed every one 
of the characteristics and faculties of 
a great lawyer. In any forum Gov- 
ernor Baldwin would have been re- 
garded, not merely as a skillful prac- 
titioner, but as a man entitled to rank 
among the great lawyers of his day. 
He possessed a comprehensive and 
thorough acquaintance with the 
science of his profession. He under- 
stood it in its great doctrines and in 
its details. In guarding the interest 
of his clients his watchfulness was in- 
cessant. No circumstance which 




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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



might affect those interests favorably 
or unfavorably, escaped his notice or 
failed, to receive his full attention. 
His discourse, whether addressed to 
the court or jury, was marked by uni- 
form purity and transparency of 
style. His English was perfect. He 
was always able to say without em- 
barrassment or hesitation precisely 
what he wished to say, guarding with 
proper qualifications, exceptions and 
limitations, when necessary, every 
sentence and phrase, so that his idea, 
when expressed, stood forth sharply 
defined, exactly in the form in which 
he wished it to appear." 

In an address delivered by the Hon. 
Henry B. Harrison of New Haven, 
he referred to Governor Baldwm in 
the following language : "It has been 
well said that Governor Baldwin was 
a great lawyer. He was an upright, 
a just, a conscientious, an honorable 
man. Governor Baldwin was a true 
son of Connecticut. His memory 
deserves all honor from Connecticut, 
and from every one of her children." 

Governor Baldwin's son, Simeon 
Eben Baldwin, born in 1840, is one 
of the most distinguished lawyers of 
Connecticut, if not of the United 
States. He has been a prominent 
railroad attorney, president of the 
American Bar Association, and Har- 
vard has made him a Doctor of Laws. 
He is now serving his second term 
as an associate judge of the Supreme 
Court of Errors, and is a historical 
writeir of extensive knowledge and 
great power. 



ISAAC TOUCEY 

1846-1847 One Year 

Isaac Toucey was born in Newtown 
on November 5, 1796, and was a 
descendant of Rev. Thomas Toucey, 
the first Congregational minister of 
the town. He received a good edu- 
cation, but never attended college, as 
he commenced studying law with the 
Hon. Asa Chapman of Newtown, who 
was afterward judge of the Supreme 
Court of Errors. 

In 1818, at the age of twenty-two 
years, Toucey was admitted to the 
bar in Hartford, and began practice 
in that city. Possessing an unusual 
knowledge of the law for so young a 
man and being untiring for his clients' 
interests, Toucey soon gained prom- 
inence and secured a large and lucra- 
tive practice. Four years after being 
admitted to the bar he was chosen 
state's attorney for Hartford county, 
which oflice he held for the next thir- 
teen years. 

In 1835 Mr. Toucey became the 
choice of his party for representative 
in Congress, and was elected to that 
position during the year. Toucey 
remained in Congress four years, re- 
tiring in 1839, with an honorable 
record of service. He was elected 
governor of Connecticut in 1846, and 
remained in office one year. At this 
time Governor Toucey was con- 
sidered to be one of the ablest lawyers 
in Connecticut and his fame reached 
far outside of the state. 

President Polk appointed Gov- 
ernor Toucey attorney-general of the 
United States, and he served as such 
from June 21, 1848, to March 3, 1849. 
During a portion of this period Mr. 
Toucey was acting secretary of state. 
After retiring from the office of at- 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



315 



torney-general Mr. Toucey returned 
to Connecticut and was elected a 
member of the State Senate in 1850. 
In 1851 he was elected a member of 
the United States Senate, and held 
the ofhce during the full term of six 
years. 

When James Buchanan was . inau- 
gurated President on March 4, 1857, 
Isaac Toucey was named as secretary 
of the navy to succeed the Hon. James 
C. Dobbins of North Carolina. Com- 
mencing his duties as the head of the 
navy department March 6, 1857, Mr. 
Toucey served throughout the ad- 
ministration, retiring from office 
March 3, 1861. 

"Appleton's Cyclopedia of Ameri- 
can Biography" says of Governor 
Toucey: ''He was charged with 
favoring the course of the seceding 
states while secretary of the navy by 
deliberately sending some of the best 
vessels of the navy to distant seas to 
prevent their being used against the 
Confederation. This was denied, but 
he was generally thought to sympa- 
thize with' the South and to be op- 
posed to the prosecution of the war." 

Governor Toucey returned to this 
state and resumed the practice of his 
profession, to which he was inte isely 
devoted. Several offices were offered 
to him at this period; among these 
was a place on the bench of theUviited 
States Supreme Court. 

Living at Hartford the remaining 
years of his hfe, he was the recipient 
of many honors at the hands of his 
fellow townsmen. He died on July 
30, 1869, aged 73 years. 

Of the professional ability the 
"J^^clicial and Civil History of Con- 
necticut" says : "He justly ranked 
among the ablest lawyers in the state. 



He was a very accurate lawyer, 
learned and exact in pleading, and 
clear and orderly in the presentation 
of his case." 

The same article continues, in re- 
ferring to his personal characteristics : 
''He was tall in person, and though 
of slender figure he had fine features 
and a commanding presence. He 
spoke slowly, but with great precision. 
His diction was strong and clear, but 
without a particle of ornament. His 
private character was without a stain. 
He was a consistent and devout mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church. In his 
convictions he was firm, and held to 
them with a strength and tenacity of 
win that were never surpassed. His 
self-possession never forsook him, 
and on all occasions he exhibited the 
bearing of a high-toned gentleman." 



CLARK BISSELL 

1847-1849 Two Years 
Clark Bissell was descended from 
John Bissell of England, who emi- 
grated to Plymouth in 1626 and after- 
wards settled in Windsor. There is 
a tradition that the family were Huge- 
nots who fled from France about the 
time of the massacres of St. Bartholo- 
mew in 1572, and estabhshed their 
residence in Somersetshire, England. 
Born in Lebanon, September 7. 
1782, Clark Bissell, was the son of a 
very poor man who found it hard to 
make both ends meet. As a boy Bis- 
sell had no more advantages for 
learning than was furnished by the 
district schools of one hundred years 
ago. He worked hard for the farm- 
ers in the neighborhood, and what 
little money he earned was used to 



3i6 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



help support the family. During the 
intervals when he could spare the 
time, the boy was devoted to study. 
His young companions would always 
find him pouring over the pages of 
his Latin or Greek grammar, when 
he had an opportunity. Later a 
clergyman of the town offered to pre- 
pare him for college. He entered 
Yale College in 1802, and it is said 
that the day he left Lebanon for Kew 
Haven Bissell had only the blessings 
of his parents and a homespun suit 
of clothes, dyed with butternut, and 
made from the fleece by his mother's 
hands, to take with him. He sup- 
ported himself while in college by 
teaching in the schools of New Haven. 
It is doubtful if a poorer young man 
ever pursued the course at Yale. He 
had for classmates such men as T. H. 
Gallaudet, Jabez W. Huntington, 
John C. Calhoun and Dr. William 
Tully. 

Bissell was graduated in 1806 and 
in the autumn of that year he taught 
in a private family in Maryland. Re- 
turning to Connecticut, Bissell taught 
school for a year at Saugatuck (now 
Westport), at the same time study- 
ing law with the Hon. S. B. Sher- 
wood. When he had succeeded in 
paying up the debt of $400 he incurred 
during his college course, he went to 
New Haven and entered the law 
office of the Hon. Roger M. Sher- 
man. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1809 
and at once removed to Norwalk, 
where he commenced to practice law. 
During his early years in Norwalk 
Bissell boarded in the family of Dr. 
Jonathan Knight, father of Professor 
Knight of Yale College. Concern- 



ing his advent into a conservative old 
town. Dr. Knight wrote to a friend : 
''Mr. Bissell, who was lately Hcensed 
as an attorney, came to town yester- 
day, and lives with me. He has the 
character of a reputable young man. 
R. M. Sherman, Esq., with whom he 
has studied, has given him letteis of 
recommendation to the civil authori- 
ties of the town." By unwearied in- 
dustry and close appHcation to his 
cUents' interests Bissell soon built up 
a good practice, and in 1829 was 
elected a member of the General As- 
sembly. During the session of 1829 
he was chosen a judge of the Superioi 
Court and the Supreme Courc of 
Errors. His fame as an able lawyer 
was widespread, and his career on the 
bench very successful. 

In the early days of the last century 
the salaries paid judges of the higher 
courts were totally inadequate to sup- 
port a growing family. Under these 
conditions Bissell resigned his posi- 
tion on the bench in 1839, and took 
up general practice again. 

In 1842 and 1843 he was a member 
of the State Senate. At this period 
Mr. Bissell was looked upon as one 
of the ablest men in the state, and in 
1847 he was elected governor of Con- 
necticut. He was re-elected the fol- 
lowing year, and altogether served as 
chief magistrate for two years. Dur- 
ing the latter part of his second term 
as governor, on December 29, the 
first railroad train passed from New 
York to New Haven. 

While governor of the state, Mr. 
Bissell was appointed, with the future 
governor, Henry T. Dutton, as Kent 
professor of law in the Yale Law 
School. This position he held f^om 




From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 



0:::)^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^;^i*c.^:<______^ 



3i8 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



1847 to 1855, when ill health and the 
infirmities of old age compelled his 
resignation. 

In 1850 he again represented the 
town of Norwalk in the Legislature, 
and this was the last public ofhce he 
held. The remaining years of his life 
were passed with his family at Xor- 
walk, where he died on September 15, 
1857. A daughter was the wife of 
United States Senator O. S. Ferry. 

A biographer says of Governor Bis- 
sell : ''As chief magistrate of the 
commonwealth his sound judgment, 
his purity of purpose, his unaffected 
demeanor, won the confidence and re- 
spect of all parties. As a lawyer he 
deserved the high reputation which 
by common consent was assigned 
him. Ready of speech, earnest and 
impressive in manner, clear in ar- 
rangement, and possessed withal of a 
caustic humor — sometimes playful, 
but when directed against fraud or 
falsehood often withering — he had 
but few equals in forensic discussion. 
He would not knowingly prosecute an 
unjust cause." 

It has been said that Governor Bis- 
sell's lectures before the senior class 
in the Yale Law School were con- 
sidered to be of the highest order in 
that species of intellectual effort. 
Of his personal traits, a writer says : 
"In his social intercourse his cour- 
teous, unobtrusive manners, his fund 
of anecdote, his genial humor, made 
him always a very agreeable com- 
panion." 



JOSEPH TRUMBULL 

1849-1850 One Year 

Joseph Trumbull was a nephew of 
the first Jonathan Trumbull, and was 
born in Lebanon, December 7, 1782. 
His father was David Trumbull, a 
prominent resident of the town. He 
entered Yale College in 1797 and was 
graduated in the class of 1801. Im- 
mediately after graduation Trumbull 
commenced the study of law with 
William T. WilHams of Lebanon, and 
was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1803. 

The next year Trumbull removed 
to his native state and settled in Hart- 
ford, where he spent the remainder 
of his life. He grew rapidly in the 
public estimation and in 1832 was 
elected a member of the General As- 
sembly from the town of Hartford. 
He was re-elected in 1848 and 1851. 

Trumbull was selected to fill an un- 
expired term in Congress, and he 
served in that body during the ses- 
sions of 1834 and 1835. He was also 
a representative in Congress .from 
March, 1839, to March, 1843, and his 
record was an honorable one. For 
years Mr. Trumbull had been the 
recognized leader of the Whigs, so 
that he was elected governor in 1849. 
His administration of one year was 
uneventful, yet Governor Trumbull by 
all his acts sustained the high standard 
of his famous family. 

Besides attending to the duties of 
his profession, Governor Trumbull 
gave much attention to various busi- 
ness, enterprises. In June, 1828, he 
was elected president of the Hartford 
Bank, and remained in that position 
until November, 1839. He was also 
one of the earhest and most zealous 
supporters of the Hartford and Provi- 
dence railroad. Governor Trumbull 




From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 



tfS!*^. ^"^^^^^-T^J-^^^C*.^^ 



320 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



was the senior director of the Retreat 
for the Insane, and also an original 
incorporator of the American School 
for the Deaf and Dumb and the Hart- 
ford Orphan Asylum. His name was 
intimately associated with the growth 
of Hartford. He died at Hartford on 
August 4, 1861. 

A biographical writer says of Gov- 
ernor Trumbull : ''During his life he 
manifested a deep interest in the wel- 
fare of the community where he re- 
sided, being an active and leading 
member of its various charitable and 
other "nstitutions." 

His career was summed up in a 
newspaper published at the time of his 
death, as follows : ''Connecticut had 
no better man, one of higher intelli- 
gence, strong and comprehensive 
views, and capacity as a statesman. 
With ihe best interest of Hartford his 
name was identified; and in private 
life his generosity, his social virtues 
and pure character made his good re- 
pute among his neighbors equal to his 
fame abroad. For so great a man, 
and so good, eulogy is not necessary. 
With the prosperity of Hartford his 
name Is intimately associated." 



THOMAS HART SEYMOUR 

1850-1853 Three Years, One Month 
Thomas Hart Seymour was de- 
scended from a celebrated Enghsh 
family who settled in that country as 
early as the thirteenth century. He 
was born in Hartford in 1808 and 
when very young displayed those 
traits which made him a leader of men 
afterwards. His early education was 
obtained in the public schools of 
Hartford, and as he showed a predi- 



lection for a military life he was sent 
to Captain Alden Partridge's institute 
in Middletown. He pursued the 
course at this military school and was 
graduated in 1829. Returning to 
Hartford, Seymour was chosen as the 
commanding officer of the Light 
Guard of the city. He then studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 
1833, but before he gained much of a 
practice his love for politics changed 
his course in life. Becoming editor 
of "The Jefifersonian," a leading 
Democratic organ, he threw himself 
into the political discussion of the 
day. Mr. Seymour possessed a very 
attractive manner and a pleasing ad- 
dress, so that he was one of the most 
popular men of his time. He was 
elected judge of probate of the dis- 
trict and soon occupied a position 
in the front ranks of the Hartford 
Democracy, as their acknowledged 
leader. 

In 1843 Seymour was elected a 
member of Congress, and when his 
term had expired he refused a re- 
nomination. He was commissioned 
in, March, 1846, major of the Ninth 
or New England regiment of voltm- 
teers which took part in the Mexican 
war. Going to the front with his 
regiment, he served with such dis- 
tinction that on October 13, 1847, 
Major Seymour attained high military 
honors. The capture of Meiino 
opened the way to Chapultepec, the 
Gibraltar of Mexico, which was the 
key to the City of Mexico. As it was 
built on a rock 150 feet high, impreg- 
nable on the north and well-nigh so 
on the eastern and most of the south- 
ern face, only the western and a por- 
tion of the southern sides could be 
scaled. The commanders decided, 




From reproduction for the Connecticut Magazine by Randall. 



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322 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



after a council of war, that it must be 
taken. 

Two picked American detachments, 
one -from the west and one from the 
south, pushed up the rugged steeps 
in face of an awful fire. The walls at 
the base of the castle fortress had to 
be mounted by means of ladders. 
One of these detachments was com- 
manded by Colonel Ransom, but as 
that officer fell early in the assault, 
Major Seymour led the troops, scaled 
the heights, and with his command 
was the first to enter the fortress. 
The enemy were driven back into the 
city, and Seymour was placed in com- 
mand of the regiment. He afterwards 
took part in the capture of the City 
of Mexico, and was present when it 
was fully in the hands of General 
Scott. When the war was over Sey- 
mour returned to Hartford and re- 
ceived the nomination for governor 
in 181:9, but although there were 
Democratic gains over the preceding 
year he was not elected. The follow- 
ing year, however, he was elected 
governor of Connecticut by a large 
majority. Governor Seymour was 
re-elected in the years 1851, 1852 and 
1853, serving with distinction. He 
also served as a presidential elector in 
1852. 

In April, 1853, President Pierce ap- 
pointed Governor Seymour United 
States minister to Russia, and he im- 
mediately resigned his position as 
governor. 

He represented this country at the 
Russian court for four years, and 
during his residence there Governor 
Seymour formed a warm and lasting 
friendship for both the Czar Nicho- 
laus and his son. 

From them he received many costly 
tributes of their regard for him. After 
retiring from the position in 1857, 
Governor Seymour spent a year in 



traveling on the continent, returning 
to the United States in 1858. 

Governor Seymour was bred as a 
Democrat and always upheld the prin- 
ciples of the party with true Jeffer- 
sonian tenacity. During the dark 
days of 1860 and 1861 he clung to the 
policy of the Democratic party. 
When the Southern states withdrew 
from the Union, and the Civil W^ar 
was precipitated, Governor Seymour's 
sympathies were with the South. He 
was opposed to the prosecution of 
the war until its close, and became 
leader of the Connecticut Peace De- 
mocracy. 

On account of his pronounced op- 
position to the Union cause, the 
Senate of this state, in 1862, voted 
"that the portrait of Governor Sey- 
mour," with that of Isaac Toucey, 
should be removed from the chamber 
till the comptroUer should be satis- 
fied of his loyalty to the Federal gov- 
ernment. These portraits were taken 
to a place of safe keeping, and it is 
said .that only one man in the city of 
Hartford knew where they were se- 
creted. 

Among the Democrats of Connec- 
ticut Governor Seymour retained his 
old-time popularity, and in 1863 he 
was again nominated for governor. 
Those were not the days for Demo- 
cratic successes in Connecticut, and 
the contest which followed has prob- 
ably not been equalled in this state. 

After a most exciting canvass Mr. 
Seymour was defeated by William A. 
Buckingham of Norwich. At the Dem- 
ocratic national convention, which 
met in Chicago on August 29, 1864, 
Governor Seymour received thirty- 
eight votes on the first ballot for 
President of the United States. He 
passed the remaining years of his life 
at Hartford, where he died on Sep- 
tember 3, 1868. 



CONNECTICUT'S POSITION IN THE MANUFACTURING 

WORLD 

FIRST IN ELEVEN OF THE MANUFACTURES KNOWN AS 
"LEADING INDUSTRIES " — CONNECTICUT' HAS 176,694 WAGE 
EARNERS PRODUCING GOODS VALUED ANNUALLY AT $353,824,106 

BY 

WILLIAM A. COUNTRYMAN 

(Statistician, Census Bureau, Washington, D. C.) 

Connecticut is one of the most compact little hives of industry in the world, and Mr. Countryman 
writes entertainingly on our position in manufactures, bringing out briefly many new phases hitherto 
unknown by the majority of readers. The CONNECTICUT Magazine will present a series of able arti- 
cles by distinguished authorities on Connecticut's manufactures, manufactories and manufacturers. 
The ingenuity of our inventors and their latest inventions, with fascinating and instructive stories of the 
process of production, will be told by master mechanics. There is no authority better able to begin this 
jeries than Mr. Countryman, a former editor of the Hartford Post^ who is now one of the most valued 
itatisticians in the department of manufactures at the Census Bureau in Washington. 

Mr. Countryman was for many years a prominent citizen in Hartford, and a member of the city 
council — Editor. 



I have been much pleased as a na- 
tive and citizen of Connecticut, 
now residing in Washington, D. 
Z.^ to observe the evidence on every 
tiand of the importance of our state 
IS a manufacturing center. At my 
Doarding-house I find the plated ware 
:o be of Connecticut manufacture, 
rhe clock that tells me the time from 
:he mantelpiece ; the watch my friend 
carries ; the hat he wears ; his pocket 
j:nife, are all from Connecticut. At 
:he office I write with a Connecticut 
pen, and when I need an official 
mvelope I find that the original 
package from which I take it bears a 
^Connecticut mark. If I make an 
jrror and wish to erase it, I do so 
^ith a steel eraser made in Connecti- 
cut, and my letter finished I deposit 
n a corner letter box, stamped "New 
Britain, Conn." This letter I am 



sure, when it reaches its destination, 
is delivered from a post-office box 
locked with a Yale key. My desk 
has a Connecticut lock* and key, 
although made perhaps in Michigan. 
In looking about the city I am at- 
tracted to a shop-window glittering 
with swords, and read on an ugly 
looking machette this inscription : 
" Hartford, Conn., U. S. A." A Win- 
chester or a Marlin rifle, or a Colt's 
revolver, all made in Connecticut, I 
find in another window, and in still 
another a supply of fixed ammuni- 
tion from New Haven and Bridge- 
port. Axes, hammers, augers, all 
kinds of builders' hardware, are in a 
shop close by — all made in Connecti- 
cut. Foulards, cottons, woolens, 
worsteds, rubber goods of all kinds, 
are near by — they are standard 
makes from Connecticut. The eas 



324 



CONNECTICUT'S RANK IN MANUFACTURING 



and electric fixtures that show them 
off are of our manufacture, I doubt 
not. Do I want a button ? Made in 
Connecticut. **Hand me a pin." 
The box tells me it is from '' Water- 
bury, Conn., U. S. A." That auto- 
mobile rushing by came from Con- 
necticut. That bicycle, those tires, 
these novel call and door bells — all 
from Connecticut. Typewriters on 
every side from our little state. And 
if I lounge through residential 
streets summer evenings, I hear 
from many open doors and windows 
the sound of music. This may not be 
from a Connecticut piano, although 
in most cases the ivory keys would 
be found to have been made in our 
state, but in many instances ema- 
nates from a Connecticut made 
graphophone or phonograph. And 
what of the sewing machine ? 
Everybody knows that the earliest 
ones were made in Connecticut, and 
that the latest improved are made 
there now in great numbers. And 
last let me say that where my trous- 
ers are put away at night they go 
into a hanger of the best kind — made 
in Connecticut. 

This is really a brief catalogue of 
the glories of Connecticut as seen in 
its manufactures. How can anyone 
feel otherwise than proud of De 
Tocqueville's " little yellar spot on 
the map ? " 

No son of Connecticut need be 
ashamed of his little state in any- 
thing. In educational advantages it 
is high, in life and fire insurance it is 
second and third, notwithstanding 
the size of the states in opposition ; 
and in manufactures it is eleventh, 
with capital of $314,696,736, wage- 
earners numbering 176,694, and pro- 
ducts valued at $352,824,106. Yet it 



is 29th in population, and only two 
states are territorially smaller - 
Rhode Island and Delaware. Con- 
necticut's increase in population dur- 
ing the last decade was 21.7 per cent, 
but its increase in wage-earners was: 
25.7 per cent, or 4 per cent more. 
The absolute increase of 1104,487,742 
in the value of its products was 
greater than for any other decade in 
the history of the state. 

While it is necessary to show the 
rank of states as arbitrary political 
divisions, the comparison does not 
seem to be a fair one. Certainly it 
is only reasonable to suppose that an 
American state, having a population 
of 7,000,000, will rank higher in man- 
ufactures than one having only 900,- 
000. The hand trades alone of great 
New York are within ^68,015,499 of 
the total of all Connecticut's manu- 
factures. The percentage of such 
trades in New York is 11.3, while in 
Connecticut it is only 8.9, which isi 
proof in itself of the greater propor- 
tionate rank of the smaller state inf 
pure manufactures. 

In view of these facts the proper 
method of ranking a state is to showi 
the value of its products per capita, 
and this has been done in the census 
of 1900. In this ranking Connecti- 
cut stands second with $388, little 
Rhode Island being first with $430, 
while great New York is fifth with 
$300. In 1890 this per capita for 
Connecticut was only t^iZZ- The 
difference is what has been accom- 
plished by better methods, more and 
improved machinery, and greater 
facility in workmanship during the 
ten years. The reduction in values 
accompanying these improvements 
does not permit the whole increase 
to be shown. Quantity might be a 



CONNECTICUT'S RANK IN MANUFACTURING 



325 



better measure of increased effi- 
ciency, but it is impossible to show 
this. 

But all this does not effectually set 
forth Connecticut's superiority. We 
lead in eleven of the ninety-nine 
manufactures classed as *' leading in- 
dustries " by the census office. 
These are ammunition, brass and 
copper rolled ; brass castings and 
brass finishing, brassware, clocks, 
corsets, cutlery and edge tools, fur 
hats, hardware, needles and pins, 
and plated and britannia ware. 
These cover 11 per cent of the num- 
ber shown, which is peculiarly grati- 
fying when it is recalled that the 
state has only a trifle more than 
I per cent of the population of the 
United States, including Alaska and 
Hawaii, And in addition, out of 
these ninety-nine industries we were 
second in sewing machines and at- 
tachments, third in rubber and elas- 
tic goods and in silk and silk goods, 
and fourth in hosiery and knit goods 
and in woolen goods. 

Let us dwell a moment on the im- 
portance of the eleven industries in 
which we lead. Owing to the wide 
distribution of some industries first 
place might be secured by the pos- 
session of a small per centage only 
of the total for the United States, 
But Connecticut prefers to manufac- 
ture on the grand scale. The three 
ranking industries — kings among 
kings — selected from these conquer- 
ing eleven, are : Brass and copper, 
rolled, with 79.1 per cent of the out- 
put of the United States in this line; 
plated and britannia ware with 75,6 
per cent, and ammunition with 75,4 
per cent. We make 64.3 per cent of 
all the clocks, 54.1 per cent of the 
brassware, 45,5 per cent of the hard- 



ware, 31,2 per cent of the brass cast- 
ings and finishing, 46 per cent of the 
corsets, 36 per cent of the cutlery 
and edge tools, and 27,1 per cent of 
the fur hats. 

This record in *' leading indus- 
tries" is certainly a remarkable one, 
but it is profitable to inquire as to 
other industries, not mentioned in 
the table, in which Connecticut also 
leads. These embrace bells, with 
69,4 per cent of the entire product 
of the country; machine screws with 
35,8 per cent ; saddlery hardware 
with 24,7 per cent, and lamps and 
reflectors with 28,2 per cent. We 
would be first in firearms if it were 
not for the necessary method of class- 
ification by which establishments are 
assigned to one manufacture or an- 
other according to their predominant 
kind of product in value. In Con- 
necticut ammunition includes a great 
many firearms. 

Still this does not fully define our 
position in the manufacturing world. 
Outside of the " leading industries " 
we are second in five — house furnish- 
ing goods (in which are comfort- 
ables), typewriters and supplies, rub- 
ber boots and shoes, buttons (we 
were first until New York took the 
lead at this census in the "ocean 
pearl " industry), and in envelopes. 
We are third in window shades, 
leather belting and hose, and in fire- 
arms; fourth in pianos (would be first, 
I dare say, in piano materials if there 
were such a classification), iron and 
steel nails (in which are our famous 
horse shoe nails), gas and lamp fix- 
tures, stamped ware, and bicycles 
and tricycles; fifth in starch and in 
fancy and paper boxes, and sixth in 
worsted goods and in dyeing and 
finishing textiles. Let me say we 



326 



CONNECTICUT'S RANK IN MANUFACTURING 



are eighth in cotton goods. We have 
large competitors here — Massachu- 
setts, South Carolina, North Caro- 
lina, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, 
New Hampshire and Georgia, — and 
ought not to be too greatly dissatis- 
fied with an annual production of 
over $15,000,000. In foundry and 
machine shop products we are ninth. 
In this classification is a wilderness 
of possible sub-classifications, which 
if shown would, I feel sure, put Con- 
necticut at the head in many lines of 
manufacture which have earned for 
us the titles, '' Land of Yankee 
Notions," and " Lancashire of the 
Union." 

Connecticut has, speaking broadly, 
no natural resources. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that bigger states 
with infinite resources of iron ore, 
coal and other mineral deposits, and 
with great water power, should dis- 
tance us in absolute value of pro- 
ducts. If their resources were only 
ours ! Indiana is now eighth in 
rank ; in 1890 it was eleventh, the 
position we now occupy. The change 
is due almost altogether to natural 
gas used as a fuel in manufactures. 
Connecticut's prominence is not due 
to natural resources. 

To natural advantages ? Well — 
the Connecticut river is navigable 
as far as Hartford, and does help 
some ; so does the Naugatuck at 
Derby ; so the Thames — our broad, 
rugged estuary, up to Norwich, — but 
after all, the freight carried coastwise 
by these waterways is, I presume to 
say, overbalanced by the freight car- 
ried by rail. These natural advan- 
tages are surpassed by Massachu- 
setts, by New!: York and Pennsylva- 
nia, to say nothing of the other coast 
states'which do not reach us in per 



capita production. Not in this then 
does the whole of the reason rest. 

Fortunately Connecticut is near 
the great center of population. New 
York City. In this fact is an expla- 
nation in part of the greatness of 
its manufactures. The metropolis 
stretches out on all sides for manu- 
factured goods ; goes into New Jer- 
sey ; comes into Connecticut ; at- 
tracts Rhode Island and even Massa- 
chusetts. Although we have home 
capital in plenty, New York's capital 
enters the state ; we provide also for 
its surplus labor. The railways are 
numerous and excellent ; freight is 
readily shipped. Still this is not all. 
Our leading manufactures have exist- 
ed for years; they "persist," whether 
of Yankee notions, of cottons, or of 
woolens or worsteds ; of hardware, 
firearms, silk or cutlery ; of brass- 
ware or hats. But even in this " per- 
sistency " I do not find the complete 
reason for our supremacy. 

If asked to assign one cause for 
Connecticut's high place in manu- 
factures, I should unhesitatingly say: 
the ingenuity of its inhabitants. 
More industries are secured by pat- 
ents, it is said, in Connecticut, than 
in any other state. For years we 
have led in number of patents issued 
per capita — barring the District of 
Columbia, which has led occasion- 
ally, but is simply a Mecca of invent- 
ors. Our Senator Piatt, a few years 
ago, voiced the truth when, in speak- 
ing of the patent system of the 
United States, he said : 

" We have had fifty years of pro- 
gress, fifty years of inventions ap- 
plied to the everyday wants of life, 
fifty years of patent encouragement, 
and fifty years of a development in 
wealth, resources, grandeur, culture, 



CONNECTICUT'S RANK IN MANUFACTURING 



327 



power which is little short of mirac- 
ulous. Population, production, busi- 
ness, wealth, comfort, culture, power, 
grandeur, these have all kept step 
with the expansion of the inventive 
genius of the country ; and this pro- 
gress has been made possible only by 
the inventions of its citizens. . . . 
It is only when the brain evolves 
and the cunning hand fashions labor- 
saving machines that a nation begins 
to throb with new energy and life 
and expands with a new growth." 

Before Japan established its patent 
system a commissioner was sent here 
to examine ours. '' The Japanese," 
he said to a patent office examiner, 
*' have been trying to become a great 
nation, like other nations of the 
earth, and we have looked about us 
to see what nations are the greatest, 
so that we could be like them ; and 
we said, * There is the United States, 
not much more than a hundred years 
old, and America was not discovered 
by Columbus yet four hundred years 
ago;' and we said, 'What is it that 
makes the United States such a great 
nation ? ' And we investigated and 
we found it was patents, and we will 
have patents." The examiner, in 
reporting this interview, added : 



" Not in all history is there an in- 
stance of such unbiased testimony to 
the value and worth of the patent 
system as practiced in the United 
States." 

Joined to this ingenuity in Con- 
necticut have been business sagacity 
and capacity for hard work — the 
''get-ahead-tiveness " of the Yankee. 
I had prepared figures showing that 
Connecticut is in the main keeping 
to manufactures which call for a 
great expenditure of labor propor- 
tioned to materials, and that doing 
this we are in no danger of losing 
our supremacy in certain industries, 
but this is hardly the place to enter 
upon a technical discussion of statis- 
tical interest only. My last word is 
this : Connecticut's position in the 
manufacturing world is primarily 
due, all things considered, to the in- 
genuity of its inhabitants ; after that 
to industry and frugality. These 
characteristics abiding, while some 
greater populations in states having 
many natural resources and large 
areas of land, will show greater 
value of products, my state — our 
state — must in certain manufactures 
remain for years to come the pros- 
perous servant of mankind. 




A POET'S RETURN TO THE HOME OF HER CHILDHOOD 

By anna J. GRANNIS 

Author of "Skipped Stitches," "Sandwort," and "Speedwell." 



IVe been a long journey and back to-day — 

'Twixt rise and set of a single sun^ 
I have traveled two score of years away^ 

And have returned with ihe journey done* 

As I stood in the long deserted hall 
A throng of memories met me there ; 

They gazed at me from the vacant wall, 
They called to me from the creaking stair. 



To the sun -lit vale of my early youth 
I bent my steps in the dewy morn, 

And by noon I came to the place in truth, 
And entered the house where I was born. 



They knelt with me at the cold hearth-side 
Where the gay flames danced in other days ; 

They mingled their voices with mine and cried, 
Holding pale hands to the vanished blaze. 



In the open chamber which once was mine, 
The sun still shone on the same old beams. 

But, oh heart of mine, how it used to shine. 
On the splendid castles of our dreams ! 



My glimpse of the world through a window given, 

Was rainbow hued in that far-off time. 
Then my own ** Blue Hills *^ reached up to Heaven, 

And I was eager and longed to climb. 

From the crimson dawn to the sweet day^s close. 
Still, God through Nature is calling me, 

As all through the ages He calls to those 
"Who have ears to hear, and eyes to see. 



And when my spirit, as one who sings. 
Trills in response, I believe and know^ 

That a breath Divine is upon the strings 
By Nature fashioned to vibrate so. 



Oh, what have I been that I hoped to be? 

What have I done that I thought to do ? 
Return, oh ye days of my youth to me. 

Those early pledges I would make true i 



No — the voices heard as a little child 

Nor toil, nor the world^s rude tones have stilled 
Lifers conflicting claims will be reconciled. 

Its highest purpose will be fulfilled. 



And believing this, shall I cry ^* alack I ^* 

For the unsung melodies of youth ? 
Shall I bid the years of my toil turn back, 

The years so rich in their love and truth ? 

Even though the Fountain of Song be sealed, 
Though I grope my upward way blind-fold, 

Already to me there have been revealed 
Things such as poets have sung and told. 



AN ERICSSON PROPELLER ON THE FARMINGTON 

CANAL 

BENJAMIN D. BEECHER A CONNECTICUT INVENTOR 
ANTEDATES ERICSSON BY SEVERAL YEARS— ACCOM- 
PANIED ON THE TRIAL TRIP BY ADMIRAL FOOTE 



BY 



FREDERICK J. KINGSBURY 



The genius of an early Connecticut mechanic is well shown in the following article by Mr. Kings- 
bury. He says : " In speaking of this interesting mechanical fact before the New Haven County His- 
torical Society, my attention was called by Mr. Emory E. Rowland to a model of a boat in the histori- 
cal collection at the society hous?, which corresponded with this description. Hon. Henry T. Blake, in 
continuing the inquiry, tells me that he has learned from Captain Charles H. Townsend that Mr. Leflfiing- 
well, a former curator of the society, informed him that it came from the Street house, the home of 
Admiral Foots. He stated that the model was an invention in which Admiral Foote was interested, but 
which failed to prove successful. It is without doubt the original model of the boat on which Invent- 
or Beecher was at work in Boston harbor." Mr. Kingsbury is president of the Citizens' National Bank in 
Waterbury, and a former member of the General Assembly.— Editor. 



T "T 7^ HEN the Ericsson pro- 
\ /\ i peller first began to 
V V attract attention, which 

was not very far from J 840, there was 
nothing novel to me in the idea, for 
I distinctly remembered having seen 
some years earlier a propeller of the 
same sort attached to a boat on the 
Farmington canal. The boat was 
lying at the mouth of a little bay or 
creek, which opened into the basin 
at a place in Cheshire, then called 
Beachport, in hono'r of a promoter 
of the canal, Burrage Beach, Esq., 
of Cheshire, the point on the canal 
railroad where the Cheshire station 
is now situated. 

This boat lay on the east side of 
the basin, a few rods north of the 



road leading to Cheshire Center. I 
was a small boy at the time, prob- 
ably not more than ten or eleven 
years old ; but 1 remember perfectly 
the appearance of the boat, which 
did not bear evidence of use, it hav- 
ing apparently been run into the 
creek for storage and to be out of 
the way. 

It was probably fifty years after 
this that I was thinking one day 
about this boat and wondering who 
made it and what was its history, 
and I determined to make an effort 
to discover, if possible. I wrote to 
Mr. Benjamin Jarvis, an intelligent 
and observing old gentleman then 
living in Cheshire, but he knew noth- 
ing of it. I then wrote to Mr. Henry 



330 ERICSSON PROPELLEF ON FARMINGTON CANAL 




BENJAMIN D. BEECHER'S PROPELLER 
From an old Wood Cut 



Farnam of New Haven, who was 
one of the engineers on the Farm- 
ington canal when it was first bnilt, 
and was familiar with its early his- 
tory. He replied that he had no 
recollection of any boat having been 
run on the canal by steam, and he 
felt sure if there had been he should 
have known it. However, my recol- 
lection of the propeller was too clear 
to be discouraged by such negative 
evidence, and I pursued my inquiry. 
I was at last rewarded by finding 
Mr. David R. Williams, of Prospect, 
who well remembered the boat and 
told me the whole story. It was in- 
vented and built by Benjamin But- 
ton Beecher, an ingenious mechanic, 
whose special business was working 
in wood but who could turn his hand 
to anything in a mechanical line. 
The boat was built at or near a saw- 
mill, on a small stream, called on the 
map Mountain Brook, which runs 
from the old plank road, near the 
Prospect line, eastward to Mixville. 
The boat, when completed, was load- 
ed on runners and drawn by oxen 
over the snow three or four miles to 



Beachport. Mr. Williams thought 
Beecher purchased a second-hand 
steam engine for the boat. Mr. 
Beecher's son says he invented and 
built a special engine for it, of which 
he has the drawings, but that he may 
have used a second-hand engine at 
first. The propeller was in the bow 
of the boat, so that — as Mr. Beecher 
expressed it, emphasized by a twist 
of the arm — she should "bore her 
way into the water," the action of an 
auger or a gimlet-point being evi- 
dently in his mind. 

Mr. Williams told me that he was 
on the boat as an invited passenger 
when she took her first trip on the 
canal, going from Beachport to 
Hitchcock's Basin, about four miles 
northward, and returning. The 
voyage was a success. At least they 
went and returned without accident. 
I think it was from Mr. Williams 
that I learned that Mr. James Porter 
of Waterbury, whom I knew well, 
had married a daughter of Mr. 
Beecher, and on applying to him I 
learned other details, and finally 
entered into communication with Mr. 



{ 



ERICSSON PROPELLER ON FARMINGTON CANAL 331 




SKETCH OF MACHINERY FOR B. D. BEECHER S PROPELLER 



Henry M. Beecher of Plantsville, a 
son of Benjamin D. Beecher, who 
gave me various other particulars of 
his father's life and inventions. 

Benjamin Button . Beecher was 
born at Cheshire, Connecticut, No- 
vember 2, 1791, and was educated at 
the Academy there, the late Admiral 
Foote having- been his school-fellow 
and life long friend. He learned the 
trade of a carpenter, and at the age 
of twenty-two, during the war with 
England, he invented the first fan- 
ning-mill for cleaning grain known 
to the world. This invention he pat- 
ented May 13, 1816. In 1828 he was 
living in Woodbury, Connecticut, 
where several of his children were 
born. In 1830 or 1831, he removed 
to New York City. While living in 
Woodbury he received a patent Octo- 
ber 20, 1830, for a grain-threshing 
machine. In New York he bought 
a steam tug-boat, which he com- 
manded himself, and did a successful 
business and made improvements on 
the boat and engine. In 1832, when 
the cholera broke out in New York, 



he left with his family by packet for 
New Haven, and by canal to Ches- 
hire. His son says that so great 
were the fear and the haste of their 
flight that they abandoned every- 
thing but the clothes that they wore, 
and that at some point they were 
quarantined for a considerable period 
in a barn. He then took up his 
abode in Cheshire, on the Mountain 
Brook road, near where the boat was 
built, and erected a shop with a 
water-power engine attached. When 
his dam broke away, being in a hurry 
to complete his boat, he invented 
and built a horse-power engine, 
which he patented in December, 
1833. In one of his trips on the 
canal. Admiral Foote — then lieuten- 
ant — accompanied him. Mr. H. M. 
Beecher, then age.1 five, was with 
them, and remembers the trip. The 
propeller was placed at the bow of 
the boat rather than at the stern, 
with the idea that less injury would 
be done to the banks of the canal by 
the wash, which for a long time was 
a serious obstacle to the use of steam 



332 ERICSSON PROPELLER ON FARMINGTON CANAL 



for canal navigation. In 1840 
Beecher built a boat which was 
placed on the Erie canal. It was 
built and set up in Prospect, Con- 
necticut, then taken in parts and 
shipped to Troy, New York. This 
was probably done through arrange- 
ment with some interested capital- 
ists, but details cannot be learned 
relating to the result of the experi- 
ment. About 1846, or 1847, Lieu- 



sions to this propeller, but very little 
in the way of detail. 

Congress, or the Naval Depart- 
ment, appropriated three hundred 
dollars toward these experiments. 
The experiments came to an end by 
Foote being ordered to other service. 

Mr. Beecher died in Southington,. 
January 17, 1868, and was buried in 
Prospect, where he had lived at one 
time. 




BENJAMIN D. BEECHER 



tenant Foote was in command of the 
navy-yard at Charlestown, Mass., 
and in the summer of 1847 he sent 
for Beecher to conduct some experi- 
ments with the screw propeller. He 
apparently had had his attention 
turned to the subject by seeing 
Beecher's boat, and thought that 
something could be made of it. His 
correspondence in Professor Hop- 
pin's memoir contains several allu- 



I have entitled this article " An 
Ericsson Propeller," because this 
name for this style of propeller has 
been generally adopted and is well 
understood. It will be seen, how- 
ever, that Beecher antedates Erics- 
son by a number of years. His son 
thinks he had the idea in his mind as 
early as 1831. The application of 
the screw to the moving of a boat 
was undoubtedly original with 



ERICSSON PROPELLER ON FARMINGTON CANAL 333 



Beecher, as it probably also was with 
Ericsson. Beecher had not the 
means to perfect his work and to get 
it practically applied. The accom- 
panying cut of the boat, as well as 
cuts of the engine, corn-shellers, 
planing machines, etc., were furn- 
ished me by his son. My recollec- 
tion of the propeller is that it resem- 
bled much more closely the ordinary 
Ericsson propeller than would appear 
from the cut. I saw it, however, at 
a distance of several rods, eight or 
ten at least I should say, and the 
angle at which I viewed it may have 
simply shown the flanges. 

Beecher was probably one of those 
men of active intellect, to whom it 
was a pleasure to invent, and to solve 
mechanical problems, and to whom a 



success in this direction meant more 
as an end to be gained than any 
pecuniary results. Therefore, when 
he had succeeded in solving a prob- 
lem it probably lost its interest for 
him, and he did not pursue it to the 
practical and financially successful 
end. His son says that the Cheshire 
boat lay in the canal until it fell in 
pieces. It was certainly a narrow 
escape from a great success, and its 
story is an interesting episode in the 
history of a canal that is now gen- 
erally regarded as a moderate fail- 
ure ; but, possibly, when viewed in 
all its relations, may deserve a some- 
what better reputation. It was sure- 
ly one of the stepping-stones of pro- 
gress, although it did prove rather 
unstable. 




MODEL OF PROPELLER DESIGNED BV BEECHER FOR ADMIRAL FOOTE 

Now in possession of the New Haven Colony Historical Society 



A BRAVE KNIGHT OF THE SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURY 

COLONIAL WOMAN WHO WROTE POETRY— SPECULATED 
IN INDIAN LANDS— KEPT A TAVERN— MANAGED SHOP 
OF MERCHANDISE AND CULTIVATED A FARM 

BY 
LUCY B. SAYLES 



OF the early married Hie of 
Sarah Knight we know noth- 
ing. Her maiden name was 
Sarah Kemble, a daughter of 
that breaker of the P'lfth 
Commandment who audaciously 
kissed his wife in public after return- 
ing from a long voyage and was put 
in the stocks for his outrageous con- 
duct. She married in 1676 the son 
of a London trader by the name of 
Knight, who died abroad and left her 
with one daughter, Elizabeth. Mrs. 
Knight was a woman of considerable 
distinction in her day. A many-sided 
character, she possessed to an unusual 
degree great energy and good educa- 
tion. "She wrote poetry and diaries, 
speculated in Indian lands and at dif- 
ferent times kept a tavern, managed 
a shop of merchandise and cultivated 
a farm." Surely a New England 
head, if it were on old England shoul- 
ders ! 

Norwich first claims her as a citi- 
zen in 1698, when she appears with 
goods to sell, and is styled 'Svidow 
and shop keeper." She seemed of a 
somewhat roving disposition and re- 
mained but a short time in Norwich 
(perhaps three or four years). At the 
time of her celebrated journey from 
Boston to New York she lived in 
Boston. The journal she kept daring 
her travels was published only a few 
years ago under Theodore Dwight's 
supervision. It must have been a 
tremendous undertaking for one lone 
woman to set out on a perilous jour- 



ney like this, one hundred and ninety 
years ago ! Riding thro' the Nar- 
ragansett woods meant dangers, not 
only from hostile Indian tribes, but 
four-footed beasts as well. Even 
men would not start out on a journey 
of a few miles without asking for 
prayers before they went. "The 
post-riders put some six days to this 
same journey between Boston and 
New York." This diary of Mrs. 
Knight is of special importance to us 
New Englanders, because it gives a 
most vivid picture of bygone days 
and customs, told with such a de- 
licious sense of humor that we turn 
to her little wayside sketches again 
and again. Her route was probably 
by the "shore Hne," passing thro' 
Providence, New London, Guilford, 
or New Haven. 

In the first edition of Mrs. Knight's 
journal are two manuscript accounts 
of her (written by a granddaughter of 
Rev. Cotton Mather) which are very 
interesting, because they prove to the 
would-be doubter what a plucky 
woman she was. Let me give a few 
excerpts from the first account "as it 
was written," without punctuation 
and due regard for capitals : 

"In 1704 she made a journey to 
New York to claim some property 
belonging to her husband. She re- 
turned on horseback, March, 1705. 
Soon after her return she opened a 
school for children. Dr. Franklin 
and Dr. Samuel Mather secured their 
first rudiments of education from her. 



335 




336 



BRAVE KNIGHT OF SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



' Her parents both died, and as she 
was the only child they left, she con- 
tinued to keep school in the mansion 
house till 1714. The force of Mme. 
K's diamond ring was displayed on 
several panes of glass in the old 
house, and one pane of glass was pre- 
served as a curiosity for years, till 
1775. It was lost when Charlestown 
was burnt by the British, June 17. 
The lines on the pane of glass were 
committed to memory by the present 
writer : 

' ' Thro' many toils and many frights 
I have returned poor Sarah Knights. 
Over great rocks and many stones 
God has preserv'd from fractured bones." 

The other manuscript reads very 
much Hke the above. It tehs of the 
famous pane of glass being preserved 
by an antiquicrity (this word has a 
delicious old-timey sound) as a 
curiosity, until the British set fire to 
the town. She obtained the title of 
Madame by being a famous school- 
mistress in her day. She taught Dr. 
Franklin to write. She was higlily 
respected by Dr. Cotton Mather as a 
woman of good wit and pleasant 
humor. The following extracts from 
her journal give us a good bit of local 
color, and this is an abbreviated ac- 
count of her first lodging place : 

She was greeted most discour- 
teously by her landlady, 'Vlio lores 
out. Law for me, what in the world 
brings you here at this time-a-night ? 
I never see a woman on the Rode so 
Dreadful late in all my Varsall Life. 
Who are you? Where are you go- 
ing? I'm scared out of my witts," 
with much more of the same kind. I 
told her she treated me very Rudely, 
and I did not think it my duty to an- 
swer her unwomanly Question. Miss 
stared awhile, drew a chair, bid me 
sitt And then run upstairs and putt on 
two or three rings, and returning sett 
herself just before me showing the 
way to Reding that I might see her 
Ornaments. But her granams' new 
rung sow, had it appeared, would 
have affected me as much. I pray'd 



Miss to Shew me where I must Lodg. 
She conducted me to a parlour in a 
little back Lento, which was almost 
filled with the bed stead, which was 
so high that I was forced to climb on 
a chair to gitt up to ye wretched bed 
that lay on it, on which, having 
stretched my tired Limbs, and lay'd 
my head on a Sad-colour'd pillow, I 
began to think on the transactions of 
the past day." 

This picture does not give one the 
idea of true home comfort. We feel 
we would have liked to have "strecht" 
those tired bones of hers on a snowy 
linen and soft pillows. Those tall 
four-posters, that have descended, or 
ascended, to us from our ancestors, 
no one could mount without a chair. 
The word lento, or lean-to, was the 
back portion of a house, having raft- 
ers or supports leaning on another 
building. In another description of 
a night's lodging, ''her room was 
shared, as was the country custom, by 
those who journey with her." The 
following entry shows that the cook- 
ing was not always agreeable to 
Madame's palate, which we fancy 
somewhat fastidious. The mutton, 
not being palatable, she says : ''We 
left it and paid six pence apiece 
for our dinner, which was only 
smell." Again she describes some- 
what tougher viands : "Having call'd 
for something to eat, the woman bro't 
in a Twisted thing like a cable, but 
something whiter, laying it on the 
board, tugg'd for like to bring it into 
a capacity to spread — which having 
with great pains accomplished, she 
served a dish of Pork and Cabbage, 
I suppose the remains of dinner. The 
sause was of a deep purple which I 
tho't was boiled in her dye kettle : 
the bread was Indian. I, being 
hungry, gott a little down, but my 
stomach was soon cloyed 'and what 
cabbage I swallow'd served me for 
a cudd the whole day after." 

Indian meal seems to have been 
especially obnoxious to Madame 
Knight. She says in another place : 
"We would have eat a morsel] our- 



BRAVE KNIGHT OF SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



337 



selves but the Pumpkin and Indian- 
mixt Bread had such an aspect, and 
the Bare-legg'd Punch so awkerd or 
rather AwfuU a sound, that we left 
both." 

The following bright and amusing 
description of her experience m a 
canoe is inimitable : 

"Having cross'd Prov. Ferry, we 
came to a river which they generally 
ride through, but I dare not venture, 
so the post got a lad and canoe to 
carry me to t'other side. The canoe 
was very small and shallow, so that 
v^hen we were in she seemed redv to 
take in water, which greatly territ'y'd 



could get no sleep because of the 
clamor of some of the Town-Topers, 
who were entered into a stormy de- 
bate concerning ye significance of the 
name ot their country (viz.) Narra- 
gansett. I set my candle on a chest 
by the bedside, and setting up fell to 
my old way of composing my Resent- 
ments in the following manner : 
I ask thy aid, O Potent Rum 
To charm these twangHng Topers Dum ; 
Thou hast their giddy brains possest, 
The man confounded with the Beast ; 
And I, poor I, can get no rest, 
Intoxicate them with thy fumes, 
O still their tongues till morning comes. 




SILVER CUP PRESENTED BY SARAH KNIGHT TO CHURCH IN NORWICH 
IN 1717 AND STILL PRESERVED 



me and caused me to be very circum- 
spect, sitting with my hands fast on 
each side, my eyes stedy,not daring so 
much as to lodge my tongue a hair's- 
breath more on one side of my mouth 
than t'other, nor so much as think on 
Lott's wife, for a very tho't would 
have oversett our wherry." 

In the following night scene, her 
poetic tendency is apparent and her 
rhymes upon rum, to say the least, 
realistic : 

'T went to bed which, tho' pretty 
hard, yet neet and handsome, but I 



The dispute soon ended with t'otlier 
dram and so good-night." 

Mme. Knight's feelings at being re- 
fused lodgings at the house of Mr. 
De Ville break forth in the following- 
bit of sarcasm and uncomplimentary 
description : 

"About four in the morning we sot 
out for kingston. The road was poorly 
furnished with accommodations for 
travelers, but the post encouraged me 
by saying we should be well accom- 
modated at Air. De \'illes a few miles 
further. I (|uestionod whether we 



338 



BRAVE KNIGHT OF SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



ought to go to the Devil to be helpt 
out of our affliction. However Uke 
the rest of Deluded souls that post to 
ye Infernal Denn, wee made all pos- 
sible speed to this Devil's Habitation, 
where alliting, in full assurance of 
good accommodation, wee were go- 
ing in. But meeting his two daugh- 
ters, as I supposed twins, they so 
nearly resembled each other both in 
features and habit and looked as 
Ugly as the Devil himself and quite 
as old. We desir'd entertainment 
but could hardly get a word out of 
um, till with our Importunity they 
call'd the old Sophister, who was as 
sparing of his words as his daughters 
had bin, and no or none was the re- 
ply s he made us to our demands. 
Hee differed only in this from the old 
fellow in t'other Country. Hee let 
us depart." 

In contrast to this is her deligli': in 
the kind reception given her in New 
London, where she was most civilly 
entertained by Governor Winthrop. 
Mme. Knight is very condescendmg 
in her criticism of New York. She 
finds it "a pleasant, well compacted 
place. The buildings, brick gener- 
ally, very stately and high, though not 
altogether like ours in Boston." Very 
naturally she compares everything 
with Boston, a comparison we, of 
the present day, are used to hearing 
from our friends of the "Hub." 
March third finds her safe home in the 
arms of her family. She closes her 
journal with "thanks to the Great 
Benefactor for thus graciously carry- 
ing forth and returning in safety his 
unworthy handmaid." 

We have all of us, I know, tried to 
picture Mme. Knight in her traveling 
costumes, which probably consisted 
in those days of a gown of blue cam- 
let (a mixed stuff of wool and silk 
made from the hair of the camel) ; 
the accessories were a coat, with an 
overturning collar, waist coat, drugget 



petticoat, hat and feathers. Perhaps> 
as it was winter, we will allow her a 
hood which came well down on the 
shoulders, partaking of the character 
of hood and cloak in one. It fitted 
the head very closely, the aperture 
for the face encircling the chin and 
forehead in a very snug way. Dorce 
says during the early part of the 
eighteenth century vizard masks, or 
those that covered the entire face, 
were worn by ladies in riding out. 
These were held in the teeth by 
means of a round bead, or vv'ere 
fastened to the side by a string. I 
think we may thus safely and honestly 
bestow one of these upon our in- 
trepid traveler. Her "horse furniture" 
consisted of her side-saddle, saddle- 
bag which held her clothes and her 
journal, also, as she mentions in one 
entry, "chocolate," and a few tooth- 
some dainties. 

In 1717 she moved to Norwich and 
gave a silver cup for the communion 
service of the jSTorwich Town Church. 
It is in a good state of preservation 
now, and is quite a unique feature of 
the Httle church. The town in grati- 
tude gave her liberty to "sitt in the 
pue where she was used to sitt in ye 
meeting-house." After this period 
Mrs. Knight seems to have divided 
her time equally between Norwich 
and New London. This is very 
natural, as she had a dwelling-house 
in Norwich, and her farms were in 
New London. On one of these, the 
Livingstone, she kept an inn, which 
we will hope was quite out of the 
"ordinary." Truth compels me to 
mention that in 1718 she and six other 
people were indicted for selling strong 
drink to the Indians. They were 
fined twenty shillings and costs. At 
this same place she died, and was 
taken to New London for interment, 
where her "poor, tired bones" have 
rested for nearly two centuries. 



ART 




CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 

REPRODUCTIONS FROM CKI.EBKATED PAINTINGS AND THE ART COLLECTIONS CK THE STATE 

WITH ARTICLES BY THE LEADING CRITICS 



GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 

HIS PICTURES A REVEIvATlON FUIvIv OF POWER AND 
PERSUASIVENESS OF THE BEAUTY OF THE SIMPIvE 
AND NEARBY ASPECTS OF THE OUTDOOR WORIvD 

BY 
JOHN COLEMAN ADAMS, D. D. 




Dr. Adams is a writer of charming- literary style, particularly in descrip- 
tion of nature. Besides various magazine articles he is the author of "Nature 
Studies in Berkshire," and "William Hamilton Gibson, Artist-Naturalist- 
Author," recently published in handsome volumes by the G.P.Putnam's Sons. 
These two books are meeting with large sales and are highly recommended 
to the readers of The Connecticut Magazine. Dr. Adams became pastor of 
the Universalist Church of the Redeemer in Hartford about a year ago. He 
is a trustee of Tufts College and has been one of the non-resident lecturers 
to the Divinity School. He was born in 1849 in Maiden, Massachusetts; 
graduated from Tufts College in 1870 and from the Tufts Divinity School in 
1872. Dr. Adams is one of the best known clergymen in the Universalist 
denomination. His first pastorate was in Newtonville, Massachusetts, later 
at Ivynn, Massachusetts, then at St. Paul's Universalist Church in Chicago, 
and in 1888 he became pastor of All Souls Church in Brooklyn, New York, 
where he remained for thirteen years before coming to Hartford. 



THE prolific growth of men 
distinguished in all pro- 
fessions and walks of life — 
out of the soil of Litchheld 
County, Connecticut — has 
truly been remarkable. The .Rev. 
Henry Clay Trumbull, an especially 
keen observer of men and character, 
has gathered together a formid- 
able list of the sons of this historic 
county which probably is not sur- 
passed in point of celebrities by any 
other county in New England. 

The list, however, omits the name 
of one man whose whole life was 
identified with Litchfield, whose 
heart was there, whose work was 
nearly all done in closest touch with 
the locality, whose beautiful home 
was reared on one of its grandest hills 
and whose remains repose in the soil 
he so dearly loved. There is but one 
slight circumstance to prevent the in- 
clusion of William Hamilton Gibson 



in the index illustrous of Dr. Trum- 
bull ; it is the fact that he was born 
five miles to the southward just over 
the line in Fairfield county, in the 
little town of Newtown. Neverthe- 
less, he is a son of the soil by adop- 
tion. 

Few of the men of Connecticut 
have served the American public in a 
higher way or given it a better min- 
istry in the finer things of life than 
this remarkable man. The people of 
this country do not yet realize how 
powerful an impulse he gave to the 
sentiment, in his day hardly stirring, 
which is developing into a strong and 
intelHgent love of nature, of outdoor 
life, of flowers and bird and beast, of 
the beauty of hillside, the wood, and 
the meadow. 

If one could take a mental "snap- 
shot" of American life today he would 
be surprised at the extent to which 
our countrymen have come out-of- 



GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 341 




WILLIAM HAMILTON GIBSON. 
AGE 41. 



Per»iissioii ir. F. Pittna»i's Sons. 



loors to live and to enjoy themselves. 
Every house that can afford it has its 
piazza, broad, inviting, convenient, 
not as an architectural detail, but as 
a domestic luxury; and from May to 
October it is one of the living-rooms 
of the home. The camps on the 
shore and in the woods; the fleets of 
yachts in every bay and inlet ; the 
trails up the mountains and the wakes 



of the canoes in lake and river; the 
tennis court, the balliield, the golf 
links ; the books on the library tables, 
and the common fashions in nature- 
stud}^ — all bear witness to a great and 
a growing passion in American life, 
for the outdoor world and all its ex- 
haustless pleasures and pursuits. 
But it was not always so. Manv 
middle-aged people can remember the 



342 GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NA TURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 




GIBSON IN HIS STUDIO. 



Perj/u'ssion G. P, Putna7n''s Sons. 



days when these things simply did 
not exist, when there was no such 
passion, and no such fashion. The 
tremendous awakening in this re- 
spect has come about through the 
ministry of a few strong, sincere, lov- 
ing students of nature. And among 
them none has had a more potent in- 
fluence than William Hamilton Gib- 
son. His pictures laid before the 
eyes of the American people for a 
period of twenty years were a revela- 
tion, full of power and persuasiveness, 
of the beauty of the simple and nearby 
aspects of the outdoor world. His 
writings, bubbling with enthusiasm, 
imparted by contagion the love that 
was in his own heart. His methods 
of giving scientific knoweldge set a 
fashion which is just beginning to 
bear fruit in the popularizing of the 
study of flowers and birds and in- 



sects. For his great work in this 
field Connecticut has every reason to 
be proud of her son. 

The career and the character of this 
remarkable man constitute another 
claim on the interest of the American 
public. The manner in which he won 
his way to success and recognition as 
artist and as author was an example 
of American energy and courage 
which ought to be familiar to every 
youth in our schools ; while his per- 
sonal character can be set before them 
as a type of the best and most laud- 
able that the land has produced. For 
a man without professional training 
to earn distinction in three fields, be- 
fore he was forty-five years of age, 
was a feat worthy of attention. But 
that was his record. He was a 
naturalist without any scientific edu- 
cation, who by dint of sheer industry 



GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 343 




GJBSOX AT 17 YEARS OF AGK. 

Pcrfnisst'on G. P. P titiiaiii's Sons. 



ranked with the most informed and 
the most accurate. He was an artist 
who without any help from schools 
or teachers worked his way into the 
foremost rank. He was a writer who 
without any academic degree, by 
painstaking labor, acquired a clear and 
fascinating style, which mated well 
with the novel themes he chose to 
write about. And all this achieved 
before he was forty-six ! 

His education was mainly in that 
rare school of which Connecticut has 
such reason to be proud, the famous 



"Gunnery" at Washington. It was 
a place where he received some of the 
best impulses and influences of his 
career ; and the native love of cut- 
door life which he brought with him 
suffered there no repression or loss : 
rather did the influence and exa/nple 
of Frederick Gunn foster within him 
the passion which was to shape his 
whole life. And years after he had 
left the school his old teacher, in an 
affectionate letter, paid him the Iiigh- 
est possible tribute in acknowledging 
that his \)\\\)\\ luul -uu'passed him. "I 



344 GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 



thou^Iit," wrote Mr. Gunn, "that no 
man except John Burroughs had seen 
or heard so much in the woods as I 
am wont to see and hear ; but lo ! one 
of my own boys has seen with keener 
eyes, has heard with more acute ears, 
and has had the genius and taste to 
tell it all in words and paint it all with 
a magic brush." 

After a few years at the Polytechnic 
Institute in Brooklyn, young Gibson 
was forced to support himself. He 
drifted into the business of life insur- 



ance and became an agent for a lead- 
ing company. But the pursuit was 
not congenial. He was bcrn to study 
nature and to tell her story to the 
world. And presently the moment 
came when he made a sharp turn in 
his plans, and entered upon his real 
career. CalHng one day, to solicit 
business, upon an acquaintance who 
was a draughtsman, Gibson watched 
him at his task, and forgot his errand 
in his interest in what was before him. 
As he afterward used to tell the storv : 







i 



GOD'S MIUACLK. 

By PLniiissiun Cicrtis PiiliWshnig Company and (r. P. Putnam's Sons. 



GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 345 



"After looking on a few minutes I 
decided that I could do such work as 
well as he. I learned where the 
blocks could be bought, and went off 
immediately to invest in a quantity of 
the material. From that moment I 
abandoned everything else and set to 
work at drawing." It took no little 
courage and faith in himself to give 
himself unreservedly to this life-work ; 



Magazine, which marked a new era 
in American illustration. One en- 
graving, in particular, commanded 
universal praise and admiration. It 
was called "The Peerless Plume," and 
was an engraving of a peacock's 
feather so charming in its fine execu- 
tion and subtle suggestion that it 
drew from the most competent art 
critic cf his dav, Mr. Charles Eliot 




THK ROAD TO HIDE-AND-SEEK TOWN. 
First Composition iSjj. Pcrinissioji G. P. Fiitiiaiii's Sons. 



and the courage and faith required a 
backing of industry and appHcation 
such us few men v/ould have given. 
But Gibson had the faith and paid the 
price, toiling with such fierce energy 
that he burned his life out in a short 
score of toilsome years. In less than 
six years from the lime he got fairly 
at his artistic work, in August, 1S78, 
he illustrated an article in Harper's 



Norton, these warm words of com- 
mendation : "Your feather ought to 
be as well known as Rembrandt's 
Shell or Hollar's furs, for you and 
Mr. King, in your joint work, have 
succeeded in suggesting the splendor, 
the play, the concentration of color, 
the bewildering multiplicity of inter- 
locking curves, the elastic spring and 
vitality of every fibre, and have iiivon 



346 GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 




F7'oin a Painting. 



SPRING-TIME. 



Permission G . P. Piitnani' s Sons. 



the immortality of art to one of the 
purely decorative productions of 
nature.'' 

From this time on Gibson's success 
was assured. And soon he found that 
the best way in whicii to open an ave- 
nue for his drawing was to write a 
text for them himself. He could say, 
better than any one else, what he 
would have his pencil illustrate. So 
he began to write. His first article 
was ''Hometown and Snug Hamlet," 
in whicli he gave himself up to de- 
lightful reminiscences of boyhood and 
youth in Newtown and Washington. 
The article struck a new and interest- 
ing note. The pubhc hked it. The 
editor of Harper's Magazine called 
for more of the same sort ; and there 
followed in rapid succession delight- 
ful sketches of winter, spring, autumn, 
and the four were published in 1880 



in a sumptuous book under the title 
of "Pastoral Days." The success of 
his work was unqualified. But he 
was not misled by it. He showed 
that he could bear to succeed bv the 
attitude he took. A friend wrote to 
him, doubting his ability to better his 
work. He repHed : "You ask m a 
previous letter, 'Can you beat "Pas- 
toral Days" ?' Good gracious ! The 
book is so full of shortcomings that I 
wonder at the astonishing apprecia- 
tion of it. There are a few illustra- 
tions in it that I hardly expect to im- 
prove upon, but as to the average ex- 
cellence I can 'see it' and 'go a hun- 
dred better.' Perhaps the result will 
not be as popular; can't tell. But I 
■can do better work." And he kept 
his promise. 

The volumes which followed in 
regular succession grew in interest 



GIBSON, THE ARTIST-NATURALIST OF CONNECTICUT 347 



fcr.Hr, 




From Drazving bj Gibson. 



THK ROXBURY ROAD. 



Permission G. P. Putnam^ s Sons. 



and artistic execution, each surpass- 
ing its predecessor, and offering some 
new feature of research, or some fresh 
method of presentation, and holding 
the popular interest unabated. Thus 
in "Happy Hunting Grounds'' he 
had a surprise and a new delight for 
his readers in the famous ''Back- 
yard Studies," in which he astonished 
everybody, himself included, with the 
story of the variety of wild flowers he 
found growing in his city yard. In 
the next volume, which came after an 
interval of four years (in 1890) he had 
another novel story to tell, the ma- 
terial for which he had secured by 
simply taking his lantern and wander- 
ing among the grasses and the wild 
flowers after dark and noting their 
nocturnal habits and customs. Tiiere 
was always an element of freshness, 
of first-hand thinking, of observation 
with his own eves and after his own 



enthusiastic fashion, which at once 
piqued the interest and delighted the 
curiosity of his audience. He not 
only told the commonplaces of nature 
so that they seemed like novelties, 
but he to